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Lubricants, Volume 8, Issue 7 (July 2020) – 10 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Total hip arthroplasty (THA) has become one of the most successful and cost-effective procedures in modern medicine since its introduction, yet hip prostheses may suffer from a limited lifespan, leading to complications and revision surgery. The focus of this research is to identify the wear mechanisms of artificial hip joints and understand the role of the tribo film formed at the contact interface. The surfaces of CoCrMo specimens were examined following micro-abrasion testing in foetal calf serum solution using alumina balls of varying sizes and applied loads, from which mechanistic and wastage maps were generated. View this paper
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Article
Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical and Surface Properties of Sub-Micron Carbon Spheres
Lubricants 2020, 8(7), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8070077 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1384
Abstract
This study investigates the mechanical and surface properties of spherical carbon particles. Sub-micrometer carbon spheres were previously used as oil additives to improve the tribological performance of oils, and as anode material to enhance the storage of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. In the current [...] Read more.
This study investigates the mechanical and surface properties of spherical carbon particles. Sub-micrometer carbon spheres were previously used as oil additives to improve the tribological performance of oils, and as anode material to enhance the storage of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. In the current work, internal structure and chemical analysis of these carbon sphere particles was conducted via focus ion beam scanning electron microscopy, and the results revealed that the carbon sphere particles are pure carbon particles with a solid internal structure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nano-indenter were utilized to explore the mechanical properties (hardness and elastic modulus) of carbon sphere particles. The obtained results showed that the carbon spheres have an elastic modulus in the range of 10 to 42 GPa, while their hardness is in the range of 0.5 to 2.6 GPa. Besides, the AFM scans confirmed that the carbon particles are entirely separated and devoid of agglomeration. These results support the viable use of carbon sphere particles in various engineering applications. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Surface Morphology of Tapered Rolling Bearings in High-Speed Train on Grease Lubrication
Lubricants 2020, 8(7), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8070076 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1283
Abstract
With the extensive coverage of the rail transit system, ensuring the safe operation of rail vehicles is an important prerequisite. Insufficient lubrication will cause friction and wear of axle box bearings, which is directly related to ensured safety of high-speed trains. A non-Newtonian [...] Read more.
With the extensive coverage of the rail transit system, ensuring the safe operation of rail vehicles is an important prerequisite. Insufficient lubrication will cause friction and wear of axle box bearings, which is directly related to ensured safety of high-speed trains. A non-Newtonian elastohydrodynamic lubrication(EHL) between tapered rolling elements and inner ring of axle box bearing in high-speed trains was established by numeric simulation. The input parameters of working conditions, including velocity, acceleration and plastic viscosity, were changed, considering the actual application and their influence trends on film-forming characteristics were analyzed. As a result, a phase of acceleration of starting or a process of braking at a low speed tends to occur mixed lubrication. Therefore, a method of optimizing surface morphology of rolling elements was adopted to improve lubrication. Based on comparison experiments, it was recommended that RMS roughness was greater than 0.03 μm and less than 0.1 μm and kurtosis was three and skewness was negative in a range of −1 to −0.5 and texture direction was parallel to rotation direction. The optimized surface promotes the transition from mixed-lubrication to full film lubrication, which alleviated the problem of surface damage due to insufficient lubrication and prolongated the service life. Full article
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Article
On the Design and Lubrication of Water-Lubricated, Rubber, Cutlass Bearings Operating in the Soft EHL Regime
Lubricants 2020, 8(7), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8070075 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1402
Abstract
All propeller-driven ships employ a drive shaft supported by journal bearings. To avoid water pollution, these bearings are generally lubricated by the surrounding water, removing the need for a rear seal. Such bearings, commonly referred to as Cutlass bearings, usually have an inner [...] Read more.
All propeller-driven ships employ a drive shaft supported by journal bearings. To avoid water pollution, these bearings are generally lubricated by the surrounding water, removing the need for a rear seal. Such bearings, commonly referred to as Cutlass bearings, usually have an inner grooved nitrile rubber lining. The grooves (called flutes) allow debris to be flushed out and the bearing surface to be cooled. The remaining area is divided into a number of load-carrying areas called staves. At present, no rigorous design guide exists for these bearings. This paper presents a methodology to predict the minimum film thickness between the journal and the most heavily-loaded stave, an approach not hitherto reported in the literature. The method includes a new, 3D, finite element (FE) approach for soft elasto-hydrodynamic (EHL) predictive modelling of generated pressures in cutlass bearings. Model predictions compare favourably with experimental data. It is shown that the modulus of elasticity of the rubber has no influence on the minimum film thickness. An equation relating dimensionless film thickness to dimensionless load, clearance ratio and numbers of staves is presented. For a nominally circular bearing, increasing the clearance ratio or increasing the numbers of staves reduces load-carrying capacity. It is shown that distortion due to loading can increase load-carrying capacity. Full article
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Review
Effective Application of Solid Lubricants in Spacecraft Mechanisms
Lubricants 2020, 8(7), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8070074 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2759
Abstract
Solid lubricants, antiwear coatings, and self-lubricating composites are used in applications on spacecraft where oils and greases cannot be used because of the need to avoid lubricant volatility/migration, and where the application requires significant temperature variation, accelerated testing, higher electrical conductivity, or operation [...] Read more.
Solid lubricants, antiwear coatings, and self-lubricating composites are used in applications on spacecraft where oils and greases cannot be used because of the need to avoid lubricant volatility/migration, and where the application requires significant temperature variation, accelerated testing, higher electrical conductivity, or operation in boundary conditions. The purpose of this review is to provide spacecraft designers with tools that can aid in the effective use of solid-based tribological materials, both to increase their usage, and to reduce anomalies. The various tribological material formulations are described, including how their materials, physical, and chemical properties affect their performance. Included are typical solid lubricants like PTFE and bonded or sputter-deposited MoS2, as well as low shear metal coatings, hard coatings, and composite materials (including bulk composites and nanocomposite coatings). Guidance is given on how to develop mechanisms that meet performance requirements, but also how to optimize robustness, so that success is achieved even under unforeseen circumstances. Examples of successful applications are given, as well as how to avoid potential pitfalls, and what the future of solid tribological materials may hold. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology of Space Mechanisms)
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Article
Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Nonlinear Vibrational Response due to Pressure-Dependent Interface Stiffness
Lubricants 2020, 8(7), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8070073 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1258
Abstract
Modelling interface interaction with wave propagation in a medium is a fundamental requirement for several types of application, such as structural diagnostic and quality control. In order to study the influence of a pressure-dependent interface stiffness on the nonlinear response of contact interfaces, [...] Read more.
Modelling interface interaction with wave propagation in a medium is a fundamental requirement for several types of application, such as structural diagnostic and quality control. In order to study the influence of a pressure-dependent interface stiffness on the nonlinear response of contact interfaces, two nonlinear contact laws are investigated. The study consists of a complementary numerical and experimental analysis of nonlinear vibrational responses due to the contact interface. The laws investigated here are based on an interface stiffness model, where the stiffness property is described as a nonlinear function of the nominal contact pressure. The results obtained by the proposed laws are compared with experimental results. The nonlinearity introduced by the interface is highlighted by analysing the second harmonic contribution and the vibrational time response. The analysis emphasizes the dependence of the system response, i.e., fundamental and second harmonic amplitudes and frequencies, on the contact parameters and in particular on contact stiffness. The study shows that the stiffness–pressure trend at lower pressures has a major effect on the nonlinear response of systems with contact interfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interfacial Dissipative Phenomena in Tribomechanical Systems)
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Article
A Mixed Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication Model for Wear Calculation in Artificial Hip Joints
Lubricants 2020, 8(7), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8070072 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1708
Abstract
The aim of this paper was to propose a novel in silico mixed elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication model with the purpose of wear prediction in Total Hip Replacements (THRs). The model considers the progressive wear contribution in the calculation of the meatus filled by the [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper was to propose a novel in silico mixed elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication model with the purpose of wear prediction in Total Hip Replacements (THRs). The model considers the progressive wear contribution in the calculation of the meatus filled by the non-Newtonian synovial fluid. The results were referred to the gait cycle kinematics, calculated by using musculoskeletal multibody software, while the loading was assumed by literature in vivo measurements. The simulations allow evaluating the fluid and the contact pressure fields and the acetabular cup wear over the time. The results were obtained considering a Ultra High Molecular Weight PolyEthylene, UHMWPE, cup and were compared with results from the literature, showing a good agreement in terms of total volume wear of the cup. Full article
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Article
Mapping the Micro-Abrasion Mechanisms of CoCrMo: Some Thoughts on Varying Ceramic Counterface Diameter on Transition Boundaries In Vitro
Lubricants 2020, 8(7), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8070071 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1241
Abstract
The micro-abrasion wear mechanisms for CoCrMo against variable size alumina balls, representing typical artificial femoral head sizes, were investigated over a range of applied loads in foetal calf serum solution. SEM analysis of resulting wear scars displayed two-body and mixed-mode abrasion modes of [...] Read more.
The micro-abrasion wear mechanisms for CoCrMo against variable size alumina balls, representing typical artificial femoral head sizes, were investigated over a range of applied loads in foetal calf serum solution. SEM analysis of resulting wear scars displayed two-body and mixed-mode abrasion modes of wear. The wear factor, κ, was found to range between 0.86 and 22.87 (10−6 mm3/Nm). Micro-abrasion mechanism and wastage maps were constructed for the parameter range tested. A dominant two- to three-body abrasion regime was observed with an increasing load and ball diameter. The 28-mm ball diameter displayed the lowest wastage, with an increasing load. Proteins may act to reduce the severity of contact between abrasive particles and bearing surfaces. Wear volumes did not necessarily increase linearly with applied load and ball diameter; therefore, there is a need to develop more accurate models for wear prediction during micro-abrasion conditions. Wear mapping for hip replacements could provide a useful aid for pre-clinical hip wear evaluations and long-term performance. Full article
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Review
Tribochemistry and Lubrication of Alkaline Glass Lubricants in Hot Steel Manufacturing
Lubricants 2020, 8(7), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8070070 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1457
Abstract
Nowadays, the increasing demand to reduce energy consumption and improve process reliability requires an alternative lubricant with an effective tribological performance and environmentally friendly properties to replace traditional lubricants in hot steel manufacturing. The current work reviews recent comprehensive experimental and theoretical investigations [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the increasing demand to reduce energy consumption and improve process reliability requires an alternative lubricant with an effective tribological performance and environmentally friendly properties to replace traditional lubricants in hot steel manufacturing. The current work reviews recent comprehensive experimental and theoretical investigations in a new generation of alkaline-based glass lubricants, with phosphate, borate, and silicate being intensively researched. This class of lubricants showed an outstanding friction reduction, anti-wear, and anti-oxidation performance on coupled steel pairs over a wide range of temperatures (from 650 °C to 1000 °C). Each type had different tribochemical reactions within itself and with oxidized steel surfaces, which were largely determined by their chemical nature. In addition, the critical role of each structural component was also determined and corroborated by computational simulation. The theoretical studies at quantum and atomic levels reinforced our experimental findings by providing insights into the reaction mechanism using the static and dynamic simulations of the adsorption of lubricant molecules onto iron oxide surfaces. Additionally, the new reactive molecular dynamics (MD) model developed for alkali phosphate will need to be extended further to consider the realistic operating conditions of these lubricants at the atomic scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction Reduction at Interfaces)
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Article
Mapping Tribo-Corrosion Behaviour of TI-6AL-4V Eli in Laboratory Simulated Hip Joint Environments
Lubricants 2020, 8(7), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8070069 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1261
Abstract
Wear and corrosion in artificial hip replacements are known to result in metal ion release and wear debris induced osteolysis. This may lead to pain and sensitivity for patients. This infers that pre-clinical testing is critical in determining the long-term performance, safety, and [...] Read more.
Wear and corrosion in artificial hip replacements are known to result in metal ion release and wear debris induced osteolysis. This may lead to pain and sensitivity for patients. This infers that pre-clinical testing is critical in determining the long-term performance, safety, and reliability of the implant materials. For this purpose, micro-abrasion-corrosion tests were carried out on a biocompatible material, Ti-6Al-4V ELI, using a T-66, Plint micro-abrasion test rig in conjunction with Gill Ac corrosion testing apparatus for the range of applied loads and electrical potentials in the hip joint simulated environment. A Ringer’s solution, with and without an abrasive particle (silicon carbide), was used to enable the interactions between abrasion and corrosion. In this paper, the effects of applied load and electrochemical potential on the tribo-corrosion behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V in a bio-simulated environment are presented. The wastage, micro-abrasion-corrosion mechanisms, and synergy behaviour were identified and mapped. A significant difference in corrosion current densities was observed in the presence of abrasive particles, suggesting the removal of the protective oxide layer. The results also indicate that Ti-6Al-4V had significant abrasive wear loss when coupled with a ceramic counterpart. According to the mechanism, micro-abrasion plays a predominant role in the abrasion-corrosion behaviour of this material and the material losses by mechanical processes are substantially larger than losses, due to electrochemical processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology of Biomaterials)
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Article
Friction Behavior of Pre-Damaged Wet-Running Multi-Plate Clutches in an Endurance Test
Lubricants 2020, 8(7), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8070068 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1316
Abstract
Wet-running multi-plate clutches should be prevented from failing due to the often safety-relevant functions they fulfill in the drive train. In addition to long-term damage, spontaneous damage is of particular relevance for failures. This paper focuses on the influence of spontaneous damage on [...] Read more.
Wet-running multi-plate clutches should be prevented from failing due to the often safety-relevant functions they fulfill in the drive train. In addition to long-term damage, spontaneous damage is of particular relevance for failures. This paper focuses on the influence of spontaneous damage on frictional behavior in the later life cycle. The aim of the experimental investigations is to initially cause spontaneous damage in wet-running multi-plate clutches with sintered friction linings. For this purpose, three clutches are first pre-damaged in stage tests with different intensities, so that the first spontaneous damage (local discoloration, sinter transfer) occurs. In the second step, an endurance test is carried out with the pre-damaged clutch packs and a non-pre-damaged reference clutch. The friction behavior of the clutches during the endurance test is compared and evaluated. It shows that local discoloration and sinter transfer are no longer visible after the endurance tests. At the beginning of the endurance test, the values of coefficient of friction are higher over the entire speed range of the heavily pre-damaged clutches than with the slightly pre-damaged clutch and the non-pre-damaged reference clutch. At the end of the endurance test, it can be observed that the greater the pre-damage to the clutches is, the greater the coefficient of friction increases with decreasing sliding speed. Full article
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