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Lubricants, Volume 8, Issue 1 (January 2020) – 11 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Lubricants have a large influence on gearbox power losses. Recent investigations on a gear [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Macroscopic Friction Studies of Alkylglucopyranosides as Additives for Water-Based Lubricants
Lubricants 2020, 8(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8010011 - 16 Jan 2020
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Abstract
Water-based lubricants might become an interesting alternative to conventional oil-based lubricants and help to reduce wear as well as improve the energy efficiency of transport processes. Since pure water is generally a rather poor lubricant due to its low viscosity and corrosiveness, it [...] Read more.
Water-based lubricants might become an interesting alternative to conventional oil-based lubricants and help to reduce wear as well as improve the energy efficiency of transport processes. Since pure water is generally a rather poor lubricant due to its low viscosity and corrosiveness, it must be tribologically optimized with suitable additives. Here, we study the friction behavior of alkyl glucopyranosides (AGPs) with varying lengths of the alkyl chain. Sliding experiments show that a significant reduction in the coefficient of friction compared to that of pure water is observed. The extent of friction reduction depends strongly on the concentration and on the shearing conditions. It is assumed that the low coefficients of friction are due to the ability of AGPs to form liquid crystalline phases with an ordered structure in the friction gap. Furthermore, the interaction of the AGPs with the surface forms a wear protection layer (boundary lubrication). The friction properties of the water-based system are compared to those of a conventional, mineral oil-based lubricant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Crystalline and Ionic Liquid Crystalline Lubricants)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Lubricated Friction Behavior of Thermal Spray Steel Coatings in Comparison with Grey Cast Iron
Lubricants 2020, 8(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8010009 - 15 Jan 2020
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Abstract
This work examines friction properties of smooth-honed thermal spray (TS) low carbon steel coatings produced on an Al-9.0% Si alloy using a plasma transferred wire arc (PTWA) method and an AISI 1010 wire used as feedstock in comparison with the ASM type D [...] Read more.
This work examines friction properties of smooth-honed thermal spray (TS) low carbon steel coatings produced on an Al-9.0% Si alloy using a plasma transferred wire arc (PTWA) method and an AISI 1010 wire used as feedstock in comparison with the ASM type D grey cast iron (CI) samples subjected to the same (smooth) honing process. CI samples prepared using a standard honing process were also tested for comparison. Reciprocating sliding tests were performed using a Cameron–Plint tribometer against CrN-coated counterfaces within a speed range of 0.06–1.20 m/s covering the boundary and mixed lubrication conditions. Stribeck curves were constructed to show the coefficient of friction (COF) variations with the ratio (λ) of lubricant film thickness to composite surface roughness of TS and CI samples at the mid-stroke position where sliding speeds and surface roughnesses were measured. Examination of the Stribeck curves showed that the TS coated surfaces provided lower COF values compared to CI surfaces given the same smooth honing treatment, e.g., for λ = 2.7 a COF of 0.029 was observed for TS and 0.035 for CI, whereas conventional honing of CI provided a COF of 0.047 under the same condition. Metallographic evidence was given for the surface features and formation of tribolayers on the contact surfaces. The arithmetic mean heights of the surfaces, Sa measured after the tests remained similar for the smooth-honed TS and CI samples. The low COF values of the TS samples were discussed in terms of the surface pores generated during their manufacturing process, and the high oil retention depth ratio (Svk/Sk) of the TS coated surfaces due to the presence of these pores. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Shaft Surface Structures on the Tribological Behavior of Journal Bearings by Physical and Virtual Simulation
Lubricants 2020, 8(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8010008 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 187
Abstract
Optimizing the surface topography of cast iron crankshafts offers the opportunity to use this material as an alternative to steel in high-performance combustion engines. In the past, this was not possible due to the higher wear on bearing shells and the higher friction [...] Read more.
Optimizing the surface topography of cast iron crankshafts offers the opportunity to use this material as an alternative to steel in high-performance combustion engines. In the past, this was not possible due to the higher wear on bearing shells and the higher friction losses in relation to forged steel shafts. In order to find an optimized shaft micro topography, the friction and wear behavior of steel and cast iron shafts with different surface treatments were compared to each other, using a combined physical (experimental) and a virtual (computational) simulation approach. The experiments were carried out with a rotary tribometer using a journal bearing test configuration with the possibility to test real-life bearing shells and shaft specimens, manufactured from real-life crankshafts. In the experiments, a polished steel shaft with low bearing wear was effective. The optimization of cast iron crankshafts by a novel surface treatment showed a significant reduction of bearing wear in relation to the classical surface finishing procedures of cast iron shafts. A computational simulation approach, considering the real-life micro topography by using the Navier–Stokes equations for the calculation of micro hydrodynamics, supports the assessment of fluid friction. The virtual simulation shows, in accordance to the experimental results, only a minor influence of the investigated shaft topographies on the fluid friction. Further optimization of shaft surfaces for journal bearing systems seems possible only by the usage of patterned micro topographies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid-Film Lubrication II)
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Open AccessArticle
The Performance of SiO2 and TiO2 Nanoparticles as Lubricant Additives in Sunflower Oil
Lubricants 2020, 8(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8010010 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 313
Abstract
In recent years, there has been growing concern regarding the use of petroleum-based lubricants. This concern has generated interest in readily biodegradable fluids such as vegetable oils. The present work evaluated the rheological and tribological characteristics of sunflower oil modified with silicon dioxide [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been growing concern regarding the use of petroleum-based lubricants. This concern has generated interest in readily biodegradable fluids such as vegetable oils. The present work evaluated the rheological and tribological characteristics of sunflower oil modified with silicon dioxide (SiO2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles as lubricant additives at different concentrations. A parallel plate rheometer was used to evaluate the effects of concentration and shear rate on the shear viscosity, and the experimental data was compared with conventional models. The wear protection and friction characteristics of the oil-formulations were evaluated by conducting block-on-ring sliding tests. Surface analysis-based instruments, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and profilometry, were used to characterize the morphology and structure of the worn surfaces. The experimental results showed that the coefficient of friction decreased with the addition of SiO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles by 77.7% and 93.7%, respectively when compared to base sunflower oil. Furthermore, the volume loss was lowered by 74.1% and 70.1%, with the addition of SiO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles, respectively. Based on the experimental results, the authors conclude that modified sunflower oil enhanced with nanoparticles has the potential for use as a good biodegradable lubricant. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Close-to-Application Test Methodology Validated by a Baseline Study for Novel Bearing Developments in Aircraft Turbines
Lubricants 2020, 8(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8010007 - 09 Jan 2020
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Abstract
The main objective of the present paper is the validation of new methods concerning experimental investigations of journal bearings under ordinary and extraordinary operational conditions. Derived results should facilitate the determination of damage mechanisms and a qualitative ranking for a prospective coating development. [...] Read more.
The main objective of the present paper is the validation of new methods concerning experimental investigations of journal bearings under ordinary and extraordinary operational conditions. Derived results should facilitate the determination of damage mechanisms and a qualitative ranking for a prospective coating development. Prior investigated scenarios like start/stop and emergency running behavior were extended by starved and unlubricated experiments for an aircraft application. Focusing on thermal stability and reproducibility, two new subscale test strategies were developed derived from generalized operational conditions of journal bearings. For an improved ex-situ wear measurement of bearing shells, a new device was developed successfully. The results showed that the newly designed test methodologies are suitable to investigate unlubricated coatings leading to conclusive and repetitive results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Tribo-Systems and Future Development Trends)
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Open AccessEditorial
The Promise of 2D Nanolaminated Materials as Protective Solid-State Lubricants
Lubricants 2020, 8(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8010006 - 02 Jan 2020
Viewed by 278
Abstract
Lubricants are an important part of any tribological system [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wear and Corrosion Resistant Coatings)
Open AccessArticle
Bearing Power Losses with Water-Containing Gear Fluids
Lubricants 2020, 8(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8010005 - 02 Jan 2020
Viewed by 371
Abstract
Lubricants have a large influence on gearbox power losses. Recent investigations at a gear efficiency test rig have shown the high potential of water-containing gear fluids in drastically reducing load-dependent gear losses and temperatures. In this study, the bearing power losses with water-containing [...] Read more.
Lubricants have a large influence on gearbox power losses. Recent investigations at a gear efficiency test rig have shown the high potential of water-containing gear fluids in drastically reducing load-dependent gear losses and temperatures. In this study, the bearing power losses with water-containing gear fluids were evaluated at a specific bearing power loss test rig explicitly and compared with mineral and polyalphaolefine oils. For all investigated lubricants, a Stribeck curve behavior of the load-dependent losses is observed. The water-containing gear fluids demonstrate lower no-load bearing losses and higher load-dependent bearing losses at higher rotational speeds. The comparison of measured bearing losses with typical calculation procedures showe partially large differences. The results underline the importance of having detailed knowledge of bearing losses when evaluating gear losses in gearboxes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 60th German Tribology Conference 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Oxidative Damage of a Superalloy in High-Loaded Contacts
Lubricants 2020, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8010004 - 20 Dec 2019
Viewed by 331
Abstract
When used as a turbine material, dry contacts of nickel-based superalloy experience stresses via pressure and temperature. As a result, there is a change in material in the form of oxide layer formation and a depletion of alloying elements (e.g., Al) in the [...] Read more.
When used as a turbine material, dry contacts of nickel-based superalloy experience stresses via pressure and temperature. As a result, there is a change in material in the form of oxide layer formation and a depletion of alloying elements (e.g., Al) in the base material. The resulting layers have different material properties compared to the base material, which affect the mechanical and contact behavior. Adhesion, friction and wear are among the effects that are of interest. In addition, the operating experience has shown that the contact pressure has a yet unclarified impact on the progression rate of the damage process (oxidation). This paper deals with the development of models that contribute to the understanding of the damage scenario and its prediction. We will see that the changed material properies in the oxid layer lead to high-stress peaks at the interface between the layers. This is the expected location were the accelerated damage occures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 60th German Tribology Conference 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigations on Graphene Platelets as Dry Lubricant and as Grease Additive for Sliding Contacts and Rolling Bearing Application
Lubricants 2020, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8010003 - 19 Dec 2019
Viewed by 388
Abstract
In recent years, graphene-based lubrication was in the focus of nano- and microtribological studies. While the sliding properties of graphene based dry lubrication were previously investigated on the nano- and micro-scale, few studies can be found in the literature for the application of [...] Read more.
In recent years, graphene-based lubrication was in the focus of nano- and microtribological studies. While the sliding properties of graphene based dry lubrication were previously investigated on the nano- and micro-scale, few studies can be found in the literature for the application of graphene as an additive to oil and grease in rolling contacts. In order to apply graphene platelets as dry lubricants and as grease additives in machine elements, tests were carried out on a rolling bearing test rig under typical load conditions. For these investigations, multilayer graphene platelets of varied staple thickness were functionalized on angular contact ball bearing surfaces as a dry lubricant, which forms a thin film. In addition, bearings were lubricated with grease containing graphene platelets. In this case, a small ratio of graphene was dispersed with grease. The graphene platelets were divided into three groups of different thickness: 2 nm, 6–8 nm, and 11–15 nm. Additionally, the tests were compared to graphite nanoparticles (spheres with a size of 3–4 nm) as dry lubricant and graphite-containing grease. The experimental studies were carried out under oscillating motion. The respective load in the tribological contact was 1.5 GPa. During the tests, the pivoting angle was measured by utilizing a rotary encoder. In addition, the friction torque was recorded under a frequency of 0.2 Hz. As the balls’ velocity at the reversal point is zero, the lubrication conditions are critical. The dry lubricated bearings were compared to grease lubricated bearings. Additionally, the frictional properties of the respective greases were investigated by applying a sliding tribometer. In this case, a ball rotates against three contact planes, which causes a tribological contact under a contact pressure of 1 GPa. It was shown that applying graphene as a dry lubricant and as a grease additive under rolling contact conditions reduces friction significantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 60th German Tribology Conference 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
A Numerical Procedure Based on Orowan’s Theory for Predicting the Behavior of the Cold Rolling Mill Process in Full Film Lubrication
Lubricants 2020, 8(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8010002 - 18 Dec 2019
Viewed by 344
Abstract
In this paper, a numerical model for predicting the working parameters of the cold rolling mill process in full film lubrication is presented. The model is useful from an industrial point of view, because it can forecast the thickness reduction of the metal [...] Read more.
In this paper, a numerical model for predicting the working parameters of the cold rolling mill process in full film lubrication is presented. The model is useful from an industrial point of view, because it can forecast the thickness reduction of the metal sheet and the pressure trend, so that the rolling mill process parameters can be regulated to obtain a specific output thickness. Experimental tests were performed, and results are compared to the theoretical ones resulting from the model. The novelty of the proposed model is that it combines Orowan’s theory for the plastic deformation analysis with the Reynolds equation in full film lubrication and the continuity conditions. The lubricant flow and viscosity are studied, taking in account their dependence on pressure and temperature. The proposed model describing the full film regime is also compared to another one, previously proposed by the authors, based on the well-known slab analysis and sharing with it the representation of the lubrication regime, the mathematical procedure, and the boundary conditions. The results show that the proposed model provides a better prediction of the working parameters with respect to the model based on the slab analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Friction and Wear Performance of Various Polymer Coatings for Journal Bearings under Stop Start Sliding
Lubricants 2020, 8(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8010001 - 18 Dec 2019
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Increasing environmental legislation and demands for improved fuel economy performance have resulted in the introduction of various measures to optimize the internal combustion engine. Many of these actions significantly change the operating conditions of the engines and bring with them new challenges that [...] Read more.
Increasing environmental legislation and demands for improved fuel economy performance have resulted in the introduction of various measures to optimize the internal combustion engine. Many of these actions significantly change the operating conditions of the engines and bring with them new challenges that original engine manufacturers (OEMs) have to solve. One example is stop start technology, which changes the operation of many core parts of engines such as journal bearings. Hence, the current paper deals with this topic. In particular, different polymer coated bearings have been studied regarding their friction and wear performance under stop start sliding. Detailed material characterization of the materials was carried out using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, tribometric tests were conducted under controlled and similar conditions on a TE92 tribometer using a bearing segment test set up. The results show that the various polymer coated bearings tested provide enhanced friction and wear performance in comparison to other bearing types (e.g., lead-based electroplated) and that friction and wear performance differs also among them. In this regard, a higher amount of solid lubricant fillers and a dense filler structure appears to be beneficial under the given test conditions. Full article
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