In this contribution, we highlight a correlative approach in which three-dimensional structural/positional data are combined with two dimensional chemical and mineralogical data to understand a complex orogenic gold mineralization system; we use the Kirk Range (southern Malawi) as a case study. Three dimensional structures and semi-quantitative mineral distributions were evaluated using X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) and this was augmented with textural, mineralogical and chemical imaging using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy as well as fire assay. Our results detail the utility of the correlative approach both for quantifying gold concentrations in core samples (which is often nuggety and may thus be misrepresented by quarter- or half-core assays), and for understanding the spatial distribution of gold and associated structures and microstructures in 3D space. This approach overlays complementary datasets from 2D and 3D analytical protocols, thereby allowing a better and more comprehensive understanding on the distribution and structures controlling gold mineralization. Combining 3D XCT analyses with conventional 2D microscopies derive the full value out of a given exploration drilling program and it provides an excellent tool for understanding gold mineralization. Understanding the spatial distribution of gold and associated structures and microstructures in 3D space holds vast potential for exploration practitioners, especially if the correlative approach can be automated and if the resultant spatially-constrained microstructural information can be fed directly into commercially available geological modelling software. The extra layers of information provided by using correlative 2D and 3D microscopies offer an exciting new tool to enhance and optimize mineral exploration workflows, given that modern exploration efforts are targeting increasingly complex and low-grade ore deposits.
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