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Antibodies, Volume 11, Issue 2 (June 2022) – 21 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A rapid and effective method to identify disease-specific antibodies from clinical patients is important for understanding autoimmune diseases and for the development of effective disease therapies. In neuromyelitis optica (NMO), the identification of antibodies targeting the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) membrane protein traditionally involves the labor-intensive and time-consuming process of single B-cell sorting, followed by antibody cloning, expression, purification, and analysis for anti-AQP4 activity. To accelerate patient-specific antibody discovery, we compared two unique approaches for screening anti-AQP4 antibodies from yeast antibody surface display libraries. View this paper
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14 pages, 1845 KiB  
Article
A Simple Method for the Prediction of Human Concentration–Time Profiles and Pharmacokinetics of Antibody–Drug Conjugates (ADC) from Rats or Monkeys
by Iftekhar Mahmood
Antibodies 2022, 11(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11020042 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4338
Abstract
Knowledge of human concentration–time profiles from animal data can be useful during early drug development. The objective of this study is to predict human concentration–time profiles of antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) and subsequently predict pharmacokinetic parameters in humans from rats or monkeys. Eight methods [...] Read more.
Knowledge of human concentration–time profiles from animal data can be useful during early drug development. The objective of this study is to predict human concentration–time profiles of antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) and subsequently predict pharmacokinetic parameters in humans from rats or monkeys. Eight methods with different exponents of volume of distribution (0.8–1) as well as exponents of clearance (0.85), along with the exponents of volume of distribution for 5 ADCs, were used to predict human concentration–time profiles. The PK parameters were also scaled to humans from monkeys or rats using fixed exponents and compared with the PK parameters predicted from predicted human concentration–time profiles. The results of the study indicated that the exponent 0.9 and the combination of exponents of 0.9 and 0.8 (two exponents, 0.8 and 0.9, were used) were the best method to predict human concentration–time profiles and, subsequently, human PK parameters. The predicted PK parameters from fixed exponents were comparable with the predicted PK parameters estimated from human concentration–time profiles. The proposed methods are applicable to rats or monkeys with the same degree of accuracy. Overall, the proposed methods are robust, accurate, and cost- and time-effective. Full article
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13 pages, 2815 KiB  
Article
Development of a Novel Anti-EpCAM Monoclonal Antibody for Various Applications
by Guanjie Li, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Teizo Asano, Tomohiro Tanaka, Hiroyoshi Suzuki, Mika K. Kaneko and Yukinari Kato
Antibodies 2022, 11(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11020041 - 8 Jun 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4049
Abstract
The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a cell surface glycoprotein, which is widely expressed on normal and cancer cells. EpCAM is involved in cell adhesion, proliferation, survival, stemness, and tumorigenesis. Therefore, EpCAM is thought to be a promising target for cancer diagnosis [...] Read more.
The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a cell surface glycoprotein, which is widely expressed on normal and cancer cells. EpCAM is involved in cell adhesion, proliferation, survival, stemness, and tumorigenesis. Therefore, EpCAM is thought to be a promising target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we established anti-EpCAM monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) using the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening (CBIS) method. We characterized them using flow cytometry, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. One of the established recombinant anti-EpCAM mAbs, recEpMab-37 (mouse IgG1, kappa), reacted with EpCAM-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells (CHO/EpCAM) or a colorectal carcinoma cell line (Caco-2). In contrast, recEpMab-37 did not react with EpCAM-knocked out Caco-2 cells. The KD of recEpMab-37 for CHO/EpCAM and Caco-2 was 2.0 × 10−8 M and 3.2 × 10−8 M, respectively. We observed that EpCAM amino acids between 144 to 164 are involved in recEpMab-37 binding. In Western blot analysis, recEpMab-37 detected the EpCAM of CHO/EpCAM and Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, recEpMab-37 could stain formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded colorectal carcinoma tissues by immunohistochemistry. Taken together, recEpMab-37, established by the CBIS method, is useful for detecting EpCAM in various applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monoclonal Antibody-Directed Therapy Series II)
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17 pages, 5519 KiB  
Article
Discovering Novel Small Molecule Compound for Prevention of Monoclonal Antibody Self-Association
by Lok Hin Lui, Christopher F. van der Walle, Steve Brocchini and Ajoy Velayudhan
Antibodies 2022, 11(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11020040 - 8 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3494
Abstract
Designing an antibody with the desired affinity to the antigen is challenging, often achieved by lengthening the hydrophobic CDRs, which can lead to aggregation and cause major hindrance to the development of successful biopharmaceutical products. Aggregation can cause immunogenicity, viscosity and stability issues [...] Read more.
Designing an antibody with the desired affinity to the antigen is challenging, often achieved by lengthening the hydrophobic CDRs, which can lead to aggregation and cause major hindrance to the development of successful biopharmaceutical products. Aggregation can cause immunogenicity, viscosity and stability issues affecting both the safety and quality of the product. As the hydrophobic residues on the CDR are required for direct binding to antigens, it is not always possible to substitute these residues for aggregation-reduction purposes. Therefore, discovery of specific excipients to prevent aggregation is highly desirable for formulation development. Here, we used a combination of in silico screening methods to identify aggregation-prone regions on an aggregation-prone therapeutic antibody. The most aggregation-prone region on the antibody was selected to conduct virtual screening of compounds that can bind to such regions and act as an aggregation breaker. The most promising excipient candidate was further studied alongside plain buffer formulations and formulations with trehalose using coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulations with MARTINI force field. Mean interaction value between two antibody molecules in each formulation was calculated based on 1024 replicates of 512 ns of such CGMD simulations. Corresponding formulations with an excipient:antibody ratio of 1:5 were compared experimentally by measuring the diffusion interaction parameter kD and accelerated stability studies. Although the compound with the highest affinity score did not show any additional protective effects compared with trehalose, this study proved using a combination of in silico tools can aid excipient design and formulation development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monoclonal Antibody-Directed Therapy Series II)
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17 pages, 3261 KiB  
Article
Strategies to Screen Anti-AQP4 Antibodies from Yeast Surface Display Libraries
by Aric Huang, Wei Jin, Ahmed S. Fahad, Brooklyn K. Mussman, Grazia Paola Nicchia, Bharat Madan, Matheus Oliveira de Souza, J. Daniel Griffin, Jeffrey L. Bennett, Antonio Frigeri, Cory J. Berkland and Brandon J. DeKosky
Antibodies 2022, 11(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11020039 - 5 Jun 2022
Viewed by 5182
Abstract
A rapid and effective method to identify disease-specific antibodies from clinical patients is important for understanding autoimmune diseases and for the development of effective disease therapies. In neuromyelitis optica (NMO), the identification of antibodies targeting the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) membrane protein traditionally involves the [...] Read more.
A rapid and effective method to identify disease-specific antibodies from clinical patients is important for understanding autoimmune diseases and for the development of effective disease therapies. In neuromyelitis optica (NMO), the identification of antibodies targeting the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) membrane protein traditionally involves the labor-intensive and time-consuming process of single B-cell sorting, followed by antibody cloning, expression, purification, and analysis for anti-AQP4 activity. To accelerate patient-specific antibody discovery, we compared two unique approaches for screening anti-AQP4 antibodies from yeast antibody surface display libraries. Our first approach, cell-based biopanning, has strong advantages for its cell-based display of native membrane-bound AQP4 antigens and is inexpensive and simple to perform. Our second approach, FACS screening using solubilized AQP4 antigens, permits real-time population analysis and precision sorting for specific antibody binding parameters. We found that both cell-based biopanning and FACS screening were effective for the enrichment of AQP4-binding clones. These screening techniques will enable library-scale functional interrogation of large natively paired antibody libraries for comprehensive analysis of anti-AQP4 antibodies in clinical samples and for robust therapeutic discovery campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antibody Discovery and Engineering)
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10 pages, 1008 KiB  
Article
Kinetics of the Neutralizing and Spike SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies following the Sinovac Inactivated Virus Vaccine Compared to the Pfizer mRNA Vaccine in Singapore
by Chin Shern Lau, May Lin Helen Oh, Soon Kieng Phua, Ya Li Liang, Yanfeng Li, Jianxin Huo, Yuhan Huang, Biyan Zhang, Shengli Xu and Tar Choon Aw
Antibodies 2022, 11(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11020038 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2967
Abstract
Introduction: We compared the early total spike antibody (S-Ab) and neutralizing antibody (N-Ab) responses to two vaccines. Methods: We studied 96 Pfizer and 34 Sinovac vaccinees over a 14-month period from January 2021 to February 2022. All vaccinees received three doses of one [...] Read more.
Introduction: We compared the early total spike antibody (S-Ab) and neutralizing antibody (N-Ab) responses to two vaccines. Methods: We studied 96 Pfizer and 34 Sinovac vaccinees over a 14-month period from January 2021 to February 2022. All vaccinees received three doses of one type of vaccine. Antibody levels (Roche Elecsys total S-Ab and the Snibe N-Ab) were tested 10 days after the first dose, 20 days after the second dose, and 20 days after the booster dose. Results: At all time points, the mRNA vaccine generated higher S-Ab and N-Ab responses than the inactivated virus vaccine (S-Ab: first dose 2.48 vs. 0.4 BAU/mL, second dose 2174 vs. 98 BAU/mL, third dose 15,004 vs. 525 BAU/mL; N-Ab: first dose 0.05 vs. 0.02 µg/mL, second dose 3.48 vs. 0.38 µg/mL, third dose 19.8 vs. 0.89 µg/mL). mRNA vaccine recipients had a 6.2/22.2/28.6-fold higher S-Ab and 2.5/9.2/22.2-fold higher N-Ab response than inactivated virus vaccine recipients after the first/second/third inoculations, respectively. Mann–Whitney U analysis confirmed the significant difference in S-Ab and N-Ab titers between vaccination groups at each time point. Conclusions: The mRNA vaccines generated a more robust S-Ab and N-Ab response than the inactivated virus vaccine at all time points after the first, second, and third vaccinations. Full article
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10 pages, 1560 KiB  
Communication
Antibody Light Chains: Key to Increased Monoclonal Antibody Yields in Expi293 Cells?
by Siqi Gong, Seijal Gautam, Joshua D. Coneglio, Hanna B. Scinto and Ruth M. Ruprecht
Antibodies 2022, 11(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11020037 - 18 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4437
Abstract
When constructing isogenic recombinant IgM–IgG pairs, we discovered that μ heavy chains strongly prefer partnering with λ light chains for optimal IgM expression in transiently cotransfected Expi293 cells. When μ chains were paired with κ light chains, IgM yields were low but increased [...] Read more.
When constructing isogenic recombinant IgM–IgG pairs, we discovered that μ heavy chains strongly prefer partnering with λ light chains for optimal IgM expression in transiently cotransfected Expi293 cells. When μ chains were paired with κ light chains, IgM yields were low but increased by logs—up to 20,000 X—by using λ chains instead. Switching light chains did not alter epitope specificity. For dimeric IgA2, optimal expression involved pairing with λ chains, whereas light-chain preference varied for other immunoglobulin classes. In summary, recombinant IgM production can be drastically increased by using λ chains, an important finding in the use of IgM for mucosal immunoprophylaxis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monoclonal Antibody-Directed Therapy Series II)
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17 pages, 8390 KiB  
Review
A New Method to Characterize Conformation-Specific Antibody by a Combination of Agarose Native Gel Electrophoresis and Contact Blotting
by Teruo Akuta, Toshiaki Maruyama, Chiaki Sakuma, Masataka Nakagawa, Yui Tomioka, Kevin Entzminger, Jonathan K. Fleming, Ryo Sato, Takashi Shibata, Yasunori Kurosawa, C. J. Okumura and Tsutomu Arakawa
Antibodies 2022, 11(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11020036 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 7596
Abstract
In this study, we review the agarose native gel electrophoresis that separates proteins and macromolecular complexes in their native state and transfer of the separated proteins from the agarose gel to membranes by contact blotting which retains the native state of these structures. [...] Read more.
In this study, we review the agarose native gel electrophoresis that separates proteins and macromolecular complexes in their native state and transfer of the separated proteins from the agarose gel to membranes by contact blotting which retains the native state of these structures. Green fluorescent protein showed functional state both on agarose gel and blotted membrane. Based on the combined procedures, we discovered conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies against PLXDC2 and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monoclonal Antibody-Directed Therapy Series II)
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12 pages, 631 KiB  
Review
Long-Term Immunity and Antibody Response: Challenges for Developing Efficient COVID-19 Vaccines
by Mohammad Reza Sepand, Banafsheh Bigdelou, Jim Q. Ho, Mohammad Sharaf, Alexis J. Lannigan, Ian M. Sullivan, Alecsander P. da Silva, Leland O. Barrett, Scott McGoldrick, Yuvraj Lnu, Shannon E. Lynch, Jared M. Boisclair, Dakarai D. Barnard-Pratt and Steven Zanganeh
Antibodies 2022, 11(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11020035 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5859
Abstract
Questions and concerns regarding the efficacy and immunogenicity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have plagued scientists since the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine was introduced in late 2020. As a result, decisions about vaccine boosters based on breakthrough infection rates and the decline of [...] Read more.
Questions and concerns regarding the efficacy and immunogenicity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have plagued scientists since the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine was introduced in late 2020. As a result, decisions about vaccine boosters based on breakthrough infection rates and the decline of antibody titers have commanded worldwide attention and research. COVID-19 patients have displayed continued severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-spike-protein-specific antibodies and neutralizing antibodies in longitudinal studies; in addition, cytokine activation has been detected at early steps following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Epitopes that are highly reactive and can mediate long-term antibody responses have been identified at the spike and ORF1ab proteins. The N-terminal domain of the S1 and S2 subunits is the location of important SARS-CoV-2 spike protein epitopes. High sequence identity between earlier and newer variants of SARS-CoV-2 and different degrees of sequence homology among endemic human coronaviruses have been observed. Understanding the extent and duration of protective immunity is consequential for determining the course of the COVID-19 pandemic. Further knowledge of memory responses to different variants of SARS-CoV-2 is needed to improve the design of the vaccine. Full article
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19 pages, 3042 KiB  
Article
Mammalian Display Platform for the Maturation of Bispecific TCR-Based Molecules
by Janine Dilchert, Martin Hofmann, Felix Unverdorben, Roland Kontermann and Sebastian Bunk
Antibodies 2022, 11(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11020034 - 10 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5075
Abstract
Bispecific T cell receptor (TCR)-based molecules capable of redirecting and activating T cells towards tumor cells represent a novel and promising class of biotherapeutics for the treatment of cancer. Usage of TCRs allows for targeting of intracellularly expressed and highly selective cancer antigens, [...] Read more.
Bispecific T cell receptor (TCR)-based molecules capable of redirecting and activating T cells towards tumor cells represent a novel and promising class of biotherapeutics for the treatment of cancer. Usage of TCRs allows for targeting of intracellularly expressed and highly selective cancer antigens, but also requires a complex maturation process to increase the naturally low affinity and stability of TCRs. Even though TCR domains can be matured via phage and yeast display, these techniques share the disadvantages of non-human glycosylation patterns and the need for a later reformatting into the final bispecific format. Here, we describe the development and application of a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) display for affinity engineering of TCRs in the context of the final bispecific TCR format. The recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RCME)-based system allows for stable, single-copy integration of bispecific TCR molecules with high efficiency into a defined genetic locus of CHO cells. We used the system to isolate affinity-increased variants of bispecific T cell engaging receptor (TCER) molecules from a library encoding different CDR variants of a model TCR targeting preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME). When expressed as a soluble protein, the selected TCER molecules exhibited strong reactivity against PRAME-positive tumor cells associated with a pronounced cytokine release from activated T cells. The obtained data support the usage of the CHO display-based maturation system for TCR affinity maturation in the context of the final bispecific TCER format. Full article
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7 pages, 872 KiB  
Case Report
MPO–ANCA-Positive Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis with Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis and Saddle-Nose Deformity: A Case Report
by Dimitra Petrou, Minas Karagiannis, Petros Nikolopoulos, George Liapis and Sophia Lionaki
Antibodies 2022, 11(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11020033 - 9 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5304
Abstract
Early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate immunosuppressive treatment remain the cornerstone of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis at the cost of significant toxicity. In this report, we present a case of a 69-year-old female who presented with advanced renal insufficiency and evidence of [...] Read more.
Early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate immunosuppressive treatment remain the cornerstone of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis at the cost of significant toxicity. In this report, we present a case of a 69-year-old female who presented with advanced renal insufficiency and evidence of pulmonary hemorrhage and was MPO–ANCA-positive with a clinical phenotype of granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Organ involvement included rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (GN), along with extrarenal manifestations (skin, upper and lower respiratory system involvement, and onset of saddle-nose deformity). Kidney biopsy established the diagnosis of pauci-immune crescentic, sclerotic GN. She received therapy with glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide, mainly due to life-threatening extra-renal manifestations, such as pulmonary hemorrhage. She avoided vasculitis-related death but she developed severe therapy-related toxicity, resulting in the discontinuation of immunosuppressive therapy. Continuous re-evaluation of patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis in terms of response to immunosuppressive therapy and treatment-related toxicity is crucial for their management. Full article
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14 pages, 1190 KiB  
Review
Immune Cell Metabolic Fitness for Life
by Kevin S. Bittman
Antibodies 2022, 11(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11020032 - 30 Apr 2022
Viewed by 3939
Abstract
Adoptive cell therapy holds great promise for treating a myriad of diseases, especially cancer. Within the last decade, immunotherapy has provided a significant leap in the successful treatment of leukemia. The research conducted throughout this period to understand the interrelationships between cancer cells [...] Read more.
Adoptive cell therapy holds great promise for treating a myriad of diseases, especially cancer. Within the last decade, immunotherapy has provided a significant leap in the successful treatment of leukemia. The research conducted throughout this period to understand the interrelationships between cancer cells and infiltrating immune cells winds up having one very common feature, bioenergetics. Cancer cells and immune cells both need ATP to perform their individual functions and cancer cells have adopted means to limit immune cell activity via changes in immune cell bioenergetics that redirect immune cell behavior to encourage tumor growth. Current leading strategies for cancer treatment super-charge an individual’s own immune cells against cancer. Successful Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells (CAR T) target pathways that ultimately influence bioenergetics. In the last decade, scientists identified that mitochondria play a crucial role in T cell physiology. When modifying T cells to create chimeras, a unique mitochondrial fitness emerges that establishes stemness and persistence. This review highlights many of the key findings leading to this generation’s CAR T treatments and the work currently being done to advance immunotherapy, to empower not just T cells but other immune cells as well against a variety of cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CAR-T Cell Metabolism)
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10 pages, 536 KiB  
Review
Advances in Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-Cell Therapies for the Treatment of Primary Brain Tumors
by Christopher W. Mount and Luis Nicolas Gonzalez Castro
Antibodies 2022, 11(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11020031 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4030
Abstract
Immunotherapy has revolutionized the care of cancer patients. A diverse set of strategies to overcome cancer immunosuppression and enhance the tumor-directed immune response are in clinical use, but have not achieved transformative benefits for brain tumor patients. Adoptive cell therapies, which employ a [...] Read more.
Immunotherapy has revolutionized the care of cancer patients. A diverse set of strategies to overcome cancer immunosuppression and enhance the tumor-directed immune response are in clinical use, but have not achieved transformative benefits for brain tumor patients. Adoptive cell therapies, which employ a patient’s own immune cells to generate directed anti-tumor activity, are emerging technologies that hold promise to improve the treatment of primary brain tumors in children and adults. Here, we review recent advances in chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies for the treatment of aggressive primary brain tumors, including glioblastoma and diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27M-mutant. We highlight current approaches, discuss encouraging investigational data, and describe key challenges in the development and implementation of these types of therapies in the neuro-oncology setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CAR-T Cell Metabolism)
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4 pages, 186 KiB  
Case Report
Persistent Hyper IgA as a Marker of Immune Deficiency: A Case Report
by Russell J. Hopp and Hana B. Niebur
Antibodies 2022, 11(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11020030 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 8812
Abstract
An elevated IgA level obtained in a 10-year-old male a year after an episode of pneumococcal sepsis led to the discovery of a broad-based IgG-specific antibody deficiency syndrome. The specifics of the case and pertinent literature are presented, including a discussion of the [...] Read more.
An elevated IgA level obtained in a 10-year-old male a year after an episode of pneumococcal sepsis led to the discovery of a broad-based IgG-specific antibody deficiency syndrome. The specifics of the case and pertinent literature are presented, including a discussion of the hyper-IgD syndrome. An elevated IgA, greater than two standard deviations above the expected age range should prompt a complete workup for selective antibody deficiency syndrome and adds an additional associated marker of an indolent hyper-IgD syndrome in a different clinical circumstance, although the lack of antibody response to vaccines is atypical of the hyper-IgD syndrome. Full article
3 pages, 161 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue “Antibody Engineering for Cancer Immunotherapy”
by Silvia Crescioli, Ann L. White and Sophia N. Karagiannis
Antibodies 2022, 11(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11020029 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2910
Abstract
Since the approval of Rituximab in the late 1990s, the first chimeric monoclonal antibody for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, antibody engineering for cancer immunotherapy has become a rapidly growing field, with almost 50 antibody therapeutics approved in the USA and EU and [...] Read more.
Since the approval of Rituximab in the late 1990s, the first chimeric monoclonal antibody for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, antibody engineering for cancer immunotherapy has become a rapidly growing field, with almost 50 antibody therapeutics approved in the USA and EU and hundreds undergoing testing in clinical trials [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibody Engineering for Cancer Immunotherapy)
16 pages, 2698 KiB  
Article
A Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Framework for Quantifying Antibody Distribution Gradients from Tumors to Tumor-Draining Lymph Nodes
by Eric Salgado and Yanguang Cao
Antibodies 2022, 11(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11020028 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3331
Abstract
Immune checkpoint blockades prescribed in the neoadjuvant setting are now under active investigation for many types of tumors, and many have shown early success. The primary tumor (PT) and tumor-draining lymph node (TDLN) immune factors, along with adequate therapeutic antibody distributions to the [...] Read more.
Immune checkpoint blockades prescribed in the neoadjuvant setting are now under active investigation for many types of tumors, and many have shown early success. The primary tumor (PT) and tumor-draining lymph node (TDLN) immune factors, along with adequate therapeutic antibody distributions to the PT and TDLN, are critical for optimal immune activation and anti-tumor efficacy in neoadjuvant immunotherapy. However, it remains largely unknown how much of the antibody can be distributed into the PT-TDLN axis at different clinical scenarios. The goal of the current work is to build a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model framework capable of characterizing antibody distribution gradients in the PT-TDLN axis across various clinical and pathophysiological scenarios. The model was calibrated using clinical data from immuno-PET antibody-imaging studies quantifying antibody pharmacokinetics (PK) in the blood, PTs, and TDLNs. The effects of metastatic lesion location, tumor-induced compression, and inflammation, as well as surgery, on antibody concentration gradients in the PT-TDLN axis were characterized. The PBPK model serves as a valuable tool to predict antibody exposures in various types of tumors, metastases, and the associated lymph node, supporting effective immunotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Anti-Tumor Immune Responses)
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22 pages, 4701 KiB  
Article
MALDI-TOF-MS-Based Identification of Monoclonal Murine Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies within One Hour
by Georg Tscheuschner, Melanie N. Kaiser, Jan Lisec, Denis Beslic, Thilo Muth, Maren Krüger, Hans Werner Mages, Brigitte G. Dorner, Julia Knospe, Jörg A. Schenk, Frank Sellrie and Michael G. Weller
Antibodies 2022, 11(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11020027 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4907
Abstract
During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, many virus-binding monoclonal antibodies have been developed for clinical and diagnostic purposes. This underlines the importance of antibodies as universal bioanalytical reagents. However, little attention is given to the reproducibility crisis that scientific studies are still facing to date. [...] Read more.
During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, many virus-binding monoclonal antibodies have been developed for clinical and diagnostic purposes. This underlines the importance of antibodies as universal bioanalytical reagents. However, little attention is given to the reproducibility crisis that scientific studies are still facing to date. In a recent study, not even half of all research antibodies mentioned in publications could be identified at all. This should spark more efforts in the search for practical solutions for the traceability of antibodies. For this purpose, we used 35 monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 to demonstrate how sequence-independent antibody identification can be achieved by simple means applied to the protein. First, we examined the intact and light chain masses of the antibodies relative to the reference material NIST-mAb 8671. Already half of the antibodies could be identified based solely on these two parameters. In addition, we developed two complementary peptide mass fingerprinting methods with MALDI-TOF-MS that can be performed in 60 min and had a combined sequence coverage of over 80%. One method is based on the partial acidic hydrolysis of the protein by 5 mM of sulfuric acid at 99 °C. Furthermore, we established a fast way for a tryptic digest without an alkylation step. We were able to show that the distinction of clones is possible simply by a brief visual comparison of the mass spectra. In this work, two clones originating from the same immunization gave the same fingerprints. Later, a hybridoma sequencing confirmed the sequence identity of these sister clones. In order to automate the spectral comparison for larger libraries of antibodies, we developed the online software ABID 2.0. This open-source software determines the number of matching peptides in the fingerprint spectra. We propose that publications and other documents critically relying on monoclonal antibodies with unknown amino acid sequences should include at least one antibody fingerprint. By fingerprinting an antibody in question, its identity can be confirmed by comparison with a library spectrum at any time and context. Full article
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13 pages, 1244 KiB  
Review
Precision-Cut Tumor Slices (PCTS) as an Ex Vivo Model in Immunotherapy Research
by Paraskevi Dimou, Sumita Trivedi, Maria Liousia, Reena R. D'Souza and Astero Klampatsa
Antibodies 2022, 11(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11020026 - 6 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 6729
Abstract
Precision-cut tumor slices (PCTS) have recently emerged as important ex vivo human tumor models, offering the opportunity to study individual patient responses to targeted immunotherapies, including CAR-T cell therapies. In this review, an outline of different human tumor models available in laboratory settings [...] Read more.
Precision-cut tumor slices (PCTS) have recently emerged as important ex vivo human tumor models, offering the opportunity to study individual patient responses to targeted immunotherapies, including CAR-T cell therapies. In this review, an outline of different human tumor models available in laboratory settings is provided, with a focus on the unique characteristics of PCTS. Standard PCTS generation and maintenance procedures are outlined, followed by an in-depth overview of PCTS utilization in preclinical research aiming to better understand the unique functional characteristics of cytotoxic T cells within human tumors. Furthermore, recent studies using PCTS as an ex vivo model for predicting patient responses to immunotherapies and other targeted therapies against solid tumors are thoroughly presented. Finally, the advantages and limitations of the PCTS models are discussed. PCTS are expected to gain momentum and be fully utilized as a significant tool towards better patient stratification and personalized medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CAR-T Cell Metabolism)
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17 pages, 1427 KiB  
Review
Cellular, Antibody and Cytokine Pathways in Children with Acute SARS-CoV-2 Infection and MIS-C—Can We Match the Puzzle?
by Snezhina Lazova, Yulia Dimitrova, Diana Hristova, Iren Tzotcheva and Tsvetelina Velikova
Antibodies 2022, 11(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11020025 - 1 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3908
Abstract
The newly identified strain of the Coronaviridae family called severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) recently became the most significant health threat for adults and children. Some main predictors of severe clinical course in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection are age and concomitant health conditions. [...] Read more.
The newly identified strain of the Coronaviridae family called severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) recently became the most significant health threat for adults and children. Some main predictors of severe clinical course in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection are age and concomitant health conditions. Therefore, the proper evaluation of SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity is urgently required to understand and predict the spectrum of possible clinical phenotypes and recommend vaccination options and regimens in children. Furthermore, it is critical to characterize the nature of SARS-CoV-2-specific immune responses in children following asymptomatic infection and COVID-19 and other related conditions such as multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C), para-infectious and late postinfectious consequences. Recent studies involving children revealed a variety of cytokines, T cells and antibody responses in the pathogenesis of the disease. Moreover, different clinical scenarios in children were observed-asymptomatic seroprevalence, acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, and rarely severe COVID-19 with typical cytokine storm, MIS-C, long COVID-19, etc. Therefore, to gain a better clinical view, adequate diagnostic criteria and treatment algorithms, it is essential to create a realistic picture of the immunological puzzle of SARS-CoV-2 infection in different age groups. Finally, it was demonstrated that children may exert a potent and prolonged adaptive anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response, with significant cross-reactions against other human Corona Viruses, that might contribute to disease sparing effect in this age range. However, the immunopathology of the virus has to be elucidated first. Full article
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19 pages, 3287 KiB  
Article
Effects of Monovalent Salt on Protein-Protein Interactions of Dilute and Concentrated Monoclonal Antibody Formulations
by Amy Y. Xu, Nicholas J. Clark, Joseph Pollastrini, Maribel Espinoza, Hyo-Jin Kim, Sekhar Kanapuram, Bruce Kerwin, Michael J. Treuheit, Susan Krueger, Arnold McAuley and Joseph E. Curtis
Antibodies 2022, 11(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11020024 - 31 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4203
Abstract
In this study, we used sodium chloride (NaCl) to extensively modulate non-specific protein-protein interactions (PPI) of a humanized anti-streptavidin monoclonal antibody class 2 molecule (ASA-IgG2). The changes in PPI with varying NaCl (CNaCl) and monoclonal antibody (mAb) concentration (C [...] Read more.
In this study, we used sodium chloride (NaCl) to extensively modulate non-specific protein-protein interactions (PPI) of a humanized anti-streptavidin monoclonal antibody class 2 molecule (ASA-IgG2). The changes in PPI with varying NaCl (CNaCl) and monoclonal antibody (mAb) concentration (CmAb) were assessed using the diffusion interaction parameter kD and second virial coefficient B22 measured from solutions with low to moderate CmAb. The effective structure factor S(q)eff measured from concentrated mAb solutions using small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS/SANS) was also used to characterize the PPI. Our results found that the nature of net PPI changed not only with CNaCl, but also with increasing CmAb. As a result, parameters measured from dilute and concentrated mAb samples could lead to different predictions on the stability of mAb formulations. We also compared experimentally determined viscosity results with those predicted from interaction parameters, including kD and S(q)eff. The lack of a clear correlation between interaction parameters and measured viscosity values indicates that the relationship between viscosity and PPI is concentration-dependent. Collectively, the behavior of flexible mAb molecules in concentrated solutions may not be correctly predicted using models where proteins are considered to be uniform colloid particles defined by parameters derived from low CmAb. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monoclonal Antibody-Directed Therapy Series II)
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11 pages, 2678 KiB  
Article
Specific Immunoglobulin E and G to Common Food Antigens and Increased Serum Zonulin in IBS Patients: A Single-Center Bulgarian Study
by Milena Peruhova, Antoaneta Mihova, Iskra Altankova and Tsvetelina Velikova
Antibodies 2022, 11(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11020023 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3392
Abstract
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder whose pathogenesis is considered multifactorial, including abnormal gut motility, visceral hyperreactivity, psychological factors, disturbances in the brain-gut axis, leaky gut, oxidative stress, etc. We aimed to investigate serum levels of specific immunoglobulin E [...] Read more.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder whose pathogenesis is considered multifactorial, including abnormal gut motility, visceral hyperreactivity, psychological factors, disturbances in the brain-gut axis, leaky gut, oxidative stress, etc. We aimed to investigate serum levels of specific immunoglobulin E and G to common food antigens and zonulin and to assess their use in clinical practice for patients with IBS. Material and methods. We included 23 participants, 15 with IBS (diagnosed according to the Rome IV criteria) and 8 healthy controls. We investigated serum levels of specific IgG antibodies to 24 food antigens, specific IgE antibodies to 20 food antigens, anti-celiac antibodies, fecal calprotectin and serum zonulin by ELISA. Results. Food-specific positive IgG antibodies were significantly higher in patients with IBS than in controls (p = 0.007). IgE-mediated allergic reactions were found in five patients with IBS; no one had anti-TG antibodies. One-third of IBS patients demonstrated a low degree of chronic inflammation (positive fecal calprotectin test > 50 ng/mL) without specific bacterial infection. Serum levels of zonulin in IBS patients were higher than in healthy controls (0.378 ± 0.13 vs. 0.250 ± 0.14 ng/mL, p = 0.0315). However, no correlations between clinical symptoms and zonulin levels were found. Conclusion. The mechanisms of IgG hypersensitivity and low degree inflammation in IBS and elevated zonulin may contribute to multifactor pathogenesis in IBS. Full article
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19 pages, 318 KiB  
Review
Emerging Role of Antibody-Drug Conjugates and Bispecific Antibodies for the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma
by Waqqas Tai, Ahsan Wahab, Diana Franco, Zunairah Shah, Aqsa Ashraf, Qurrat-Ul-Ain Abid, Yaqub Nadeem Mohammed, Darshan Lal and Faiz Anwer
Antibodies 2022, 11(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib11020022 - 24 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3998
Abstract
Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by malignant proliferation of malignant plasma cells; it is the second most common hematological malignancy associated with significant morbidity. Genetic intricacy, instability, and diverse clinical presentations remain a barrier to cure. The treatment of MM is modernized with [...] Read more.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by malignant proliferation of malignant plasma cells; it is the second most common hematological malignancy associated with significant morbidity. Genetic intricacy, instability, and diverse clinical presentations remain a barrier to cure. The treatment of MM is modernized with the introduction of newer therapeutics agents, i.e., target-specific monoclonal antibodies. The currently available literature lacks the benefits of newer targeted therapy being developed with an aim to reduce side effects and increase effectiveness, compared to conventional chemotherapy regimens. This article aims to review literature about the current available monoclonal antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates, and bispecific antibodies for the treatment of MM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering (Bispecific) Antibodies for Cancer and Immunotherapy)
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