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Water, Volume 13, Issue 9 (May-1 2021) – 195 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The high visual quality of lakes supports aesthetic and recreational experiences. This study assessed people’s preferences regarding visual characteristics of mountain lakes. We used a photo-based questionnaire including different picture sets related to water clarity, water colour, presence of algae, lake shore, and surrounding land cover. Our results indicate a strong preference for blue and clear water without algae. Most preferred were large rocks at the lake shore and forest around the lake. This study also exemplifies the quantification of aesthetic value for four selected study lakes in the European Alps, integrating the results with spatial and limnological data. View this paper
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Review
A Comprehensive Review on Membrane Fouling: Mathematical Modelling, Prediction, Diagnosis, and Mitigation
Water 2021, 13(9), 1327; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091327 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 2560
Abstract
Membrane-based separation has gained increased popularity over the past few decades, particularly reverse osmosis (RO). A major impediment to the improved performance of membrane separation processes, in general, is membrane fouling. Fouling has detrimental effects on the membrane’s performance and integrity, as the [...] Read more.
Membrane-based separation has gained increased popularity over the past few decades, particularly reverse osmosis (RO). A major impediment to the improved performance of membrane separation processes, in general, is membrane fouling. Fouling has detrimental effects on the membrane’s performance and integrity, as the deposition and accumulation of foulants on its surface and/or within its pores leads to a decline in the permeate flux, deterioration of selectivity, and permeability, as well as a significantly reduced lifespan. Several factors influence the fouling-propensity of a membrane, such as surface morphology, roughness, hydrophobicity, and material of fabrication. Generally, fouling can be categorized into particulate, organic, inorganic, and biofouling. Efficient prediction techniques and diagnostics are integral for strategizing control, management, and mitigation interventions to minimize the damage of fouling occurrences in the membranes. To improve the antifouling characteristics of RO membranes, surface enhancements by different chemical and physical means have been extensively sought after. Moreover, research efforts have been directed towards synthesizing membranes using novel materials that would improve their antifouling performance. This paper presents a review of the different membrane fouling types, fouling-inducing factors, predictive methods, diagnostic techniques, and mitigation strategies, with a special focus on RO membrane fouling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water and One Health)
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Article
Systematic Design, Optimization, and Sustainability Assessment for Generation of Efficient Wastewater Treatment Networks
Water 2021, 13(9), 1326; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091326 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1553
Abstract
Due to population growth and economic development, there has been an increase in global wastewater (WW) generation footprint. There are different technologies associated with the wastewater treatment (WWT) process. The challenge is to select technologies that minimize the cost of treatment, as well [...] Read more.
Due to population growth and economic development, there has been an increase in global wastewater (WW) generation footprint. There are different technologies associated with the wastewater treatment (WWT) process. The challenge is to select technologies that minimize the cost of treatment, as well as meet purity requirements. Further, there is a need to integrate sustainability analysis to facilitate a holistic decision. With the application of systems engineering, sustainable and cost-effective solutions can be achieved. In this work, we apply systems engineering to generate a sustainable and cost-effective solution. A superstructure was generated by categorizing technologies into four treatment stages. After modeling all functional equations for each technology, an optimization problem was formulated to determine the best path for the treatment process. Mixed-integer non-linear programming (MINLP), which implements a 0–1 binary integer constraint for active/inactive technologies at each stage was used. Sustainability analysis was performed for each representative case study (municipal and pharmaceutical WWT) using the sustainable process index (SPI). The total cost of municipal WWT is 1.92 USD/m3, while that for the pharmaceutical WWT is 3.44 USD/m3. With the treatment of WW, there is a reduction of over 90% ecological burden based on the SPI metric. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
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Article
Linking Microbial Functioning and Trophic Pathways to Ecological Status in a Coastal Mediterranean Ecosystem
Water 2021, 13(9), 1325; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091325 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 770
Abstract
Coastal marine ecosystems host complex microbial communities whose composition and metabolism are influenced by continental inputs and mesoscale properties of seawater masses. The identifying traits of the phytoplankton and bacteria such as biomass, size, shape and their metabolism related to organic matter production [...] Read more.
Coastal marine ecosystems host complex microbial communities whose composition and metabolism are influenced by continental inputs and mesoscale properties of seawater masses. The identifying traits of the phytoplankton and bacteria such as biomass, size, shape and their metabolism related to organic matter production and degradation, recognized as indicators of the functioning of an ecosystem, were observed in the Gulf of Manfredonia (South Adriatic Sea, Italy) in late spring. This Gulf area is characterized by terrestrial inputs and mesoscale circulation influence such as coastal waters flowing southward from the North Adriatic and offshore waters interested by the Ionian Sea. Water samples were grouped in clusters (Coastal, Intermediate, Offshore and Deep Systems) according to the water column properties. Phytoplankton community biomass and composition, autotrophic and total prokaryotic abundances and microbial metabolism such as enzyme activity rates and prokaryotic heterotrophic production were analyzed to elucidate the trophic pathways with the objective to infer on the ecosystem status. As expected, size-fractionated phytoplankton biomass and production showed greater concentration in coastal waters with prevalence of the largest fractions (micro- and nano-) supported by the diatoms. Conversely, lower biomass and production were measured in all off-shore waters, mainly sustained by smallest fractions (nano-sized phytoflagellates and picophytoplankton). Total and autotrophic prokaryotic abundance decreased from coastal to offshore stations, inversely with respect to cell volume. Prokaryotic heterotrophic production was just below 50% compared to that of phytoplankton in all waters, evidencing an active biomass synthesis. High alkaline phosphatase and leucine aminopeptidase in coastal and offshore waters suggested the quick regeneration of Phosphorus and protein decomposition, respectively. Different levels of phytoplankton-bacteria association might provide a tool to define the ecological status of the studied system in the observed period; an approach to ecosystem assessment exportable to other coastal systems is proposed. Full article
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Article
A Holistic Framework for Evaluating Adaptation Approaches to Coastal Hazards and Sea Level Rise: A Case Study from Imperial Beach, California
Water 2021, 13(9), 1324; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091324 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1682
Abstract
Sea level rise increases community risks from erosion, wave flooding, and tides. Current management typically protects existing development and infrastructure with coastal armoring. These practices ignore long-term impacts to public trust coastal recreation and natural ecosystems. This adaptation framework models physical responses to [...] Read more.
Sea level rise increases community risks from erosion, wave flooding, and tides. Current management typically protects existing development and infrastructure with coastal armoring. These practices ignore long-term impacts to public trust coastal recreation and natural ecosystems. This adaptation framework models physical responses to the public beach and private upland for each adaptation strategy over time, linking physical changes in widths to damages, economic costs, and benefits from beach recreation and nature using low-lying Imperial Beach, California, as a case study. Available coastal hazard models identified community vulnerabilities, and local risk communication engagement prioritized five adaptation approaches—armoring, nourishment, living shorelines, groins, and managed retreat. This framework innovates using replacement cost as a proxy for ecosystem services normally not valued and examines a managed retreat policy approach using a public buyout and rent-back option. Specific methods and economic values used in the analysis need more research and innovation, but the framework provides a scalable methodology to guide coastal adaptation planning everywhere. Case study results suggest that coastal armoring provides the least public benefits over time. Living shoreline approaches show greater public benefits, while managed retreat, implemented sooner, provides the best long-term adaptation strategy to protect community identity and public trust resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation to Coastal Climate Change and Sea-Level Rise)
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Article
GIS-Based Spatiotemporal Mapping of Groundwater Potability and Palatability Indices in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas
Water 2021, 13(9), 1323; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091323 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1036
Abstract
This paper aims to assess groundwater potability and palatability in the West Bank, Palestine. It combines the adjusted weighted arithmetic water quality index method (AWAWQIM), a close-ended questionnaire, and step-wise assessment ratio analysis (SWARA) to develop groundwater potability (PoGWQI) and palatability (PaGWQI) indices. [...] Read more.
This paper aims to assess groundwater potability and palatability in the West Bank, Palestine. It combines the adjusted weighted arithmetic water quality index method (AWAWQIM), a close-ended questionnaire, and step-wise assessment ratio analysis (SWARA) to develop groundwater potability (PoGWQI) and palatability (PaGWQI) indices. Both a geographic information system (GIS) and the kriging interpolation method (KIM) are employed to create spatiotemporal mapping of PoGWQI and PaGWQI. The research is based on data from 79 wells, which were provided by the Palestinian Water Authority (PWA). Data include fecal coliform (FC), nitrate (NO3), pH, chloride (Cl), sulfate (SO4), bicarbonate (HCO3), total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, and hardness. Results indicate that 2% and 5% of water samples were unpotable and unpalatable, respectively. Unpotable samples were found in areas with poor sewer networks and intensive use of agrochemicals. All groundwater samples (100%) in the eastern part of the West Bank were unpalatable because of seawater intrusion. Unconfined aquifers were more vulnerable to potability and palatability contamination. It was noticed that PoGWQI is sensitive to FC and NO3, while PaGWQI is sensitive to HCO3, TDS, and Cl. Consequently, these quality parameters should be monitored well. The proposed method is of great interest to water decision-makers in Palestine for establishing strategies to protect water resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
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Article
A Predictive Model for Estimating Damage from Wind Waves during Coastal Storms
Water 2021, 13(9), 1322; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091322 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 730
Abstract
In recent years, climate abnormalities have been observed globally. Consequently, the scale and size of natural disasters, such as typhoons, wind wave, heavy snow, downpours, and storms, have increased. However, compared to other disasters, predicting the timing, location and severity of damages associated [...] Read more.
In recent years, climate abnormalities have been observed globally. Consequently, the scale and size of natural disasters, such as typhoons, wind wave, heavy snow, downpours, and storms, have increased. However, compared to other disasters, predicting the timing, location and severity of damages associated with typhoons and other extreme wind wave events is difficult. Accurately predicting the damage extent can reduce the damage scale by facilitating a speedy response. Therefore, in this study, a model to estimate the cost of damages associated with wind waves and their impacts during coastal storms was developed for the Republic of Korea. The history of wind wave and typhoon damages for coastal areas in Korea was collected from the disaster annual report (1991–2020), and the damage cost was converted such that it reflected the inflation rate as in 2020. Furthermore, data on ocean meteorological factors were collected for the events of wind wave and typhoon damages. Using logistic and linear regression, a wind wave damage prediction model reflecting the coastal regional characteristics based on 74 regions nationwide was developed. This prediction model enabled damage forecasting and can be utilized for improving the law and policy in disaster management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Hazards Management)
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Article
Assessing Progress towards Sustainable Development Goals through Nexus Planning
Water 2021, 13(9), 1321; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091321 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1559
Abstract
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) acknowledge the inter-linkages between human wellbeing, economic prosperity, and a healthy environment and, hence, are associated with a wide range of topical issues that include the securities of water, energy and food resources, poverty eradication, economic development, climate change, [...] Read more.
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) acknowledge the inter-linkages between human wellbeing, economic prosperity, and a healthy environment and, hence, are associated with a wide range of topical issues that include the securities of water, energy and food resources, poverty eradication, economic development, climate change, health, among others. As SDGs are assessed through targets to be achieved by 2030 and monitored through measurable indicators, this study applied the nexus planning model to monitor and evaluate progress towards SDGs using South Africa as a case study. The study highlighted pathways to ensure socio-ecological sustainability and environmental health by establishing the connectivity between SDGs and nexus approaches. The linkages between SDGs and nexus planning facilitated the sustainable management of resources in an integrated manner. They addressed the cross-sectoral synergies, value-addition, and trade-offs within interlinked sectors. The connectedness of current challenges facing humankind (climate change, rapid urbanisation, migration, and the emergence of novel infectious diseases) require transformative approaches that address these cross-cutting challenges holistically. Managing the intricate relationships between distinct but interconnected sectors through nexus planning has provided decision support tools to formulate coherent strategies that drive resilience and sustainability. The established linkages between nexus planning and SDGs have strengthened cross-sectoral collaboration and unpacked measures for cooperative governance and management through evidence-based interventions. As food production, water provision, and energy accessibility are the major socio-economic and environmental issues currently attracting global attention; the methodology promotes attaining sustainability by 2030. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Water-Energy-Food Security Nexus)
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Article
Structure and Dynamics of Interfacial Water on Muscovite Surface under Different Temperature Conditions (298 K to 673 K): Molecular Dynamics Investigation
Water 2021, 13(9), 1320; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091320 - 09 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1096
Abstract
We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study structure, stability, and dynamics of the water adsorption layer on muscovite mica at several temperatures (from 298 K to 673 K) and pressures (0.1 MPa, 10 MPa, and 50 MPa). We studied the structure of [...] Read more.
We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study structure, stability, and dynamics of the water adsorption layer on muscovite mica at several temperatures (from 298 K to 673 K) and pressures (0.1 MPa, 10 MPa, and 50 MPa). We studied the structure of the adsorption layers with three characteristic peaks of density and orientation of H2O molecules in one-dimensional and two-dimensional profiles. The results show that the water adsorption layers become less structured and more mobile as the temperature increases. We also found the first and the second layers are less diffusive than the third one, and the difference of diffusivity gets unclear as the temperature increases. Finally, we discuss implications to hydration forces and wettability, which are significant interfacial properties of the multiphase fluids system such as water/gas/mineral systems, from the viewpoint of water adsorption film with nanometer thickness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
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Article
Combined Dispatching of Hydropower and Wind Power Based on the Hedging Theory
Water 2021, 13(9), 1319; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091319 - 09 May 2021
Viewed by 891
Abstract
In order to improve the utilization rate of water resources in the flood season of the reservoir effectively and promote wind power consumption, this paper proposes an optimization model for the combined dispatching of wind power and hydropower based on the hedging theory. [...] Read more.
In order to improve the utilization rate of water resources in the flood season of the reservoir effectively and promote wind power consumption, this paper proposes an optimization model for the combined dispatching of wind power and hydropower based on the hedging theory. First, the conflicting relationship between the water storage benefits of hydropower stations, flood control risks, and the joint output of hydropower and wind power in joint dispatching is studied. The introduction of hedging theory divides the combined dispatching of wind power and hydropower into a two-stage dispatching problem including the decision-making stage and the remaining stage; Second, considering the uncertainty of water forecasting and wind power forecasting, a multi-objective optimal dispatching model of hydropower and wind power based on hedging theory is constructed. This model aims to minimize flood control risks, maximize water storage benefits, and minimize wind power and hydropower combined power output volatility. Finally, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA2) is used to solve the specific examples. The results show that the model built in the article controls the flood control risk at each time period not to be higher than 1.63 × 10−3 (the flood control standard corresponding to the flood control risk in 50 years is 0.006). Additionally, the water level of the reservoir increased from the flood limit water level (583.00 m) to 583.70 m. It greatly increases the water storage capacity and effectively improves the utilization rate of water resources. At the same time, the optimized scheduling scheme reduced the peak-valley difference of joint output from 125.00 MW to 35.66 MW, and the peak-valley difference was greatly reduced. It effectively improves the volatility of wind power. The validity of the model is verified, and the obtained scheme can provide decision-making for the joint dispatch scheme of hydropower and wind power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Challenges in Hydropower)
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Article
An Improved Inexact Two-Stage Stochastic with Downside Risk-Control Programming Model for Water Resource Allocation under the Dual Constraints of Water Pollution and Water Scarcity in Northern China
Water 2021, 13(9), 1318; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091318 - 09 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 867
Abstract
Water resource allocation aimed at sustainable watershed development suffers from prominent challenges such as water pollution and scarcity, especially in water-deprived regions. Based on analysis of water quality, use, and sectoral demands during the planning period in the Fenhe River Basin, an improved [...] Read more.
Water resource allocation aimed at sustainable watershed development suffers from prominent challenges such as water pollution and scarcity, especially in water-deprived regions. Based on analysis of water quality, use, and sectoral demands during the planning period in the Fenhe River Basin, an improved inexact two-stage stochastic programming model with downside risk control was built for optimal resource allocations for the four primary sectors (industry, domestic use, agriculture, and the environment) in the basin. The principal constraints are river water quality and available water resources under the three hydrological scenarios (low, medium, and high). The results show that industrial, domestic, and agricultural water use in the middle and lower reaches were significantly reduced by requiring improved water quality; agriculture suffered the greatest water shortage and risk. As the level of risk control improved, the comprehensive watershed benefits and agricultural risks were gradually reduced. Improving water reuse significantly reduces the risk and increases the benefits. The model can effectively manage rational water allocations under the dual constraints of water quality and quantity, meanwhile alleviating water competition caused by different water benefits to provide support for coordinating the improvement of water quality and socio-economic development in the basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
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Article
Design, Scaling, and Development of Biofilters with E crassipes for Treatment of Water Contaminated with Cr (VI)
Water 2021, 13(9), 1317; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091317 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 975
Abstract
The heavy metal water treatment process is the subject of worldwide research. Chromium (VI) is a heavy metal that is very dangerous to humans due to it being able to alter genetic material and cause cancer. Cellulose is an interesting material for removing [...] Read more.
The heavy metal water treatment process is the subject of worldwide research. Chromium (VI) is a heavy metal that is very dangerous to humans due to it being able to alter genetic material and cause cancer. Cellulose is an interesting material for removing heavy metals, and excellent removals have been achieved in many experiments at the laboratory scale. However, scaling these processes to polluting industries is not easy. The objective of this research is to design, scale, and test a biofilter with biomass of E crassipes transformed with iron for treatment of water contaminated with Cr (VI). The biomasses of E crassipes (EC) and E crassipes with iron (EC + Fe) were evaluated at the batch laboratory scale to determine the adsorption capacities through Langmuir isotherms. With these capacities, a mass balance was formulated, obtaining the design equation to build a biofilter at the pilot scale and providing the required amount of biomass from (EC) and (EC + Fe) for the adequate treatment of the Cr (VI) present in the water. The mass, as suggested by the relevant equations, for the greatest concentration of Cr (VI) of 500 mg/L was 42 g together with a flow rate of 10 mL/min for the biomass of (EC + Fe); for the biomass of (EC), the suggested model for the treatment of the greatest Cr (VI) concentration of 500 mg/L was 64 g of biomass together with a flow rate of 10 mL/min. We conclude that the two pilot-scale treatment systems were consistent with the Cr (VI) removal process and that the equation for the design was adequate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Wastewater Treatment)
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Article
Promotion of Growth and Physiological Characteristics in Water-Stressed Triticum aestivum in Relation to Foliar-Application of Salicylic Acid
Water 2021, 13(9), 1316; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091316 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1308
Abstract
The present work reports the assessment of the effectiveness of a foliar-spray of salicylic acid (SA) on growth attributes, biochemical characteristics, antioxidant activities and osmolytes accumulation in wheat grown under control (100% field capacity) and water stressed (60% field capacity) conditions. The total [...] Read more.
The present work reports the assessment of the effectiveness of a foliar-spray of salicylic acid (SA) on growth attributes, biochemical characteristics, antioxidant activities and osmolytes accumulation in wheat grown under control (100% field capacity) and water stressed (60% field capacity) conditions. The total available water (TAW), calculated for a rooting depth of 1.65 m was 8.45 inches and readily available water (RAW), considering a depletion factor of 0.55, was 4.65 inches. The water contents corresponding to 100 and 60% field capacity were 5.70 and 1.66 inches, respectively. For this purpose, seeds of two wheat cultivars (Fsd-2008 and S-24) were grown in pots subjected to water stress. Water stress at 60% field capacity markedly reduced the growth attributes, photosynthetic pigments, total soluble proteins (TSP) and total phenolic contents (TPC) compared with control. However, cv. Fsd-2008 was recorded as strongly drought-tolerant and performed better compared to cv. S-24, which was moderately drought tolerant. However, water stress enhanced the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and membrane electrolyte leakage (EL) and modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), as well as accumulation of ascorbic acid (AsA), proline (Pro) and glycine betaine (GB) contents. Foliar-spray with salicylic acid (SA; 0, 3 mM and 6 mM) effectively mitigated the adverse effects of water stress on both cultivars. SA application at 6 mM enhanced the shoot and root length, as well as their fresh and dry weights, and improved photosynthetic pigments. SA foliage application further enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, and CAT) and nonenzymatic antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and phenolics contents. However, foliar-spray of SA reduced MDA, H2O2 and membrane permeability in both cultivars under stress conditions. The results of the present study suggest that foliar-spray of salicylic acid was effective in increasing the tolerance of wheat plants under drought stress in terms of growth attributes, antioxidant defense mechanisms, accumulation of osmolytes, and by reducing membrane lipid peroxidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water, Agriculture and Aquaculture)
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Article
Effect of Salinity on UVA-Vis Light Driven Photo-Fenton Process at Acidic and Circumneutral pH
Water 2021, 13(9), 1315; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091315 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 815
Abstract
In the present work, the treatment of a mixture of six emerging pollutants (acetamiprid, acetaminophen, caffeine, amoxicillin, clofibric acid and carbamazepine) by means of photo-Fenton process has been studied, using simulated sunlight as an irradiation source. Removal of these pollutants has been investigated [...] Read more.
In the present work, the treatment of a mixture of six emerging pollutants (acetamiprid, acetaminophen, caffeine, amoxicillin, clofibric acid and carbamazepine) by means of photo-Fenton process has been studied, using simulated sunlight as an irradiation source. Removal of these pollutants has been investigated in three different aqueous matrices distinguished by the amount of chlorides (distilled water, 1 g L−1 of NaCl and 30 g L−1 of NaCl) at a pH of 2.8 and 5.0. Interestingly, the presence of 1 g L−1 was able to slightly accelerate the pollutants removal at pH = 5, although the reverse was true at pH = 2.8. This is attributed to the pH-dependent interference of chlorides on photo-Fenton process, that is more acute in an acidic medium. As a matter of fact, the fastest reaction was obtained at pH = 3.5, in agreement with literature results. Monitoring of hydrogen peroxide consumption and iron in solution indicates that interference with chlorides is due to changes in the interaction between iron and the peroxide, rather than a scavenging effect of chloride for hydroxyl radicals. Experiments were also carried out with real seawater and showed higher inhibition than in the NaCl experiments, probably due to the effect of different dissolved salts present in natural water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment by Using the Photocatalysis)
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Article
Predicting Tropical Monsoon Hydrology Using CFSR and CMADS Data over the Cau River Basin in Vietnam
Water 2021, 13(9), 1314; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091314 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1293
Abstract
To improve knowledge of this matter, the potential application of two gridded meteorological products (GMPs), the China Meteorological Assimilation Driving Datasets for the SWAT model (CMADS) and Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), are compared for the first time with data from ground-based meteorological [...] Read more.
To improve knowledge of this matter, the potential application of two gridded meteorological products (GMPs), the China Meteorological Assimilation Driving Datasets for the SWAT model (CMADS) and Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), are compared for the first time with data from ground-based meteorological stations over 6 years, from 2008 to 2013, over the Cau River basin (CRB), northern Vietnam. Statistical indicators and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model are employed to investigate the hydrological performances of the GMPs against the data of 17 rain gauges distributed across the CRB. The results show that there are strong correlations between the temperature reanalysis products in both CMADS and CFSR and those obtained from the ground-based observations (the correlation coefficients range from 0.92 to 0.97). The CFSR data overestimate precipitation (percentage bias approximately 99%) at both daily and monthly scales, whereas the CMADS product performs better, with obvious differences (compared to the ground-based observations) in high-terrain areas. Regarding the simulated river flows, CFSR-SWAT produced “unsatisfactory”, while CMADS-SWAT (R2 > 0.76 and NSE > 0.78) performs better than CFSR-SWAT on the monthly scale. This assessment of the applicative potential of GMPs, especially CMADS, may further provide an additional rapid alternative for water resource research and management in basins with similar hydro-meteorological conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water and the Ecosphere in the Anthropocene)
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Review
A Review of SWAT Model Application in Africa
Water 2021, 13(9), 1313; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091313 - 08 May 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 2291
Abstract
The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) is a well-known hydrological modeling tool that has been applied in various hydrologic and environmental simulations. A total of 206 studies over a 15-year period (2005–2019) were identified from various peer-reviewed scientific journals listed on the [...] Read more.
The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) is a well-known hydrological modeling tool that has been applied in various hydrologic and environmental simulations. A total of 206 studies over a 15-year period (2005–2019) were identified from various peer-reviewed scientific journals listed on the SWAT website database, which is supported by the Centre for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD). These studies were categorized into five areas, namely applications considering: water resources and streamflow, erosion and sedimentation, land-use management and agricultural-related contexts, climate-change contexts, and model parameterization and dataset inputs. Water resources studies were applied to understand hydrological processes and responses in various river basins. Land-use and agriculture-related context studies mainly analyzed impacts and mitigation measures on the environment and provided insights into better environmental management. Erosion and sedimentation studies using the SWAT model were done to quantify sediment yield and evaluate soil conservation measures. Climate-change context studies mainly demonstrated streamflow sensitivity to weather changes. The model parameterization studies highlighted parameter selection in streamflow analysis, model improvements, and basin scale calibrations. Dataset inputs mainly compared simulations with rain-gauge and global rainfall data sources. The challenges and advantages of the SWAT model’s applications, which range from data availability and prediction uncertainties to the model’s capability in various applications, are highlighted. Discussions on considerations for future simulations such as data sharing, and potential for better future analysis are also highlighted. Increased efforts in local data availability and a multidimensional approach in future simulations are recommended. Full article
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Article
Micropollutants in Urban Stormwater Runoff of Different Land Uses
Water 2021, 13(9), 1312; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091312 - 07 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2011
Abstract
The main aim of this study was a survey of micropollutants in stormwater runoff of Berlin (Germany) and its dependence on land-use types. In a one-year monitoring program, event mean concentrations were measured for a set of 106 parameters, including 85 organic micropollutants [...] Read more.
The main aim of this study was a survey of micropollutants in stormwater runoff of Berlin (Germany) and its dependence on land-use types. In a one-year monitoring program, event mean concentrations were measured for a set of 106 parameters, including 85 organic micropollutants (e.g., flame retardants, phthalates, pesticides/biocides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)), heavy metals and standard parameters. Monitoring points were selected in five catchments of different urban land-use types, and at one urban river. We detected 77 of the 106 parameters at least once in stormwater runoff of the investigated catchment types. On average, stormwater runoff contained a mix of 24 µg L−1 organic micropollutants and 1.3 mg L−1 heavy metals. For organic micropollutants, concentrations were highest in all catchments for the plasticizer diisodecyl phthalate. Concentrations of all but five parameters showed significant differences among the five land-use types. While major roads were the dominant source of traffic-related substances such as PAH, each of the other land-use types showed the highest concentrations for some substances (e.g., flame retardants in commercial area, pesticides in catchment dominated by one family homes). Comparison with environmental quality standards (EQS) for surface waters shows that 13 micropollutants in stormwater runoff and 8 micropollutants in the receiving river exceeded German quality standards for receiving surface waters during storm events, highlighting the relevance of stormwater inputs for urban surface waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Urban Runoff Pollution)
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A Novel Hybrid Approach Based on Cellular Automata and a Digital Elevation Model for Rapid Flood Assessment
Water 2021, 13(9), 1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091311 - 07 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 898
Abstract
An efficient inundation model is necessary for emergency flood responses during storm events. Cellular automata (CA)-based flood models have been proven to produce rapid results while maintaining a certain degree of accuracy. However, the need for computational resources dramatically increases when the number [...] Read more.
An efficient inundation model is necessary for emergency flood responses during storm events. Cellular automata (CA)-based flood models have been proven to produce rapid results while maintaining a certain degree of accuracy. However, the need for computational resources dramatically increases when the number of grid cells increases. Digital elevation model (DEM)-based models generate results even faster, but the simplified governing equations within the models fail to reflect temporal flood evolution. To achieve rapid flood modeling while maintaining model simplicity, a novel two-dimensional hybrid inundation model (HIM) was developed by combining the CA- and DEM-based concepts. Given the temporal flood evolution generated by the CA concept, final finer-scale predictions were obtained by applying the DEM-based concept. The performance of this model was compared to those of widely used, physically based hydraulic models using three UK Environment Agency (EA) benchmark test cases. The HIM yielded consistent prediction results but was faster than the CA-based model. Finally, a comparison was made against flood observations, and the overall root mean squared error (RMSE) for flood depth was 0.388–0.400 m. Considering the uncertainty in the observed flood depths, the HIM shows promising potential to serve as an intermediate tool for emergency response in practical cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Paradigms in Flood Hazard and Risk Management)
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Article
Joint Gravity and Seismic Reflection Methods to Characterize the Deep Aquifers in Arid Ain El Beidha Plain (Central Tunisia, North Africa)
Water 2021, 13(9), 1310; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091310 - 07 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1205
Abstract
Electric resistivity sounding and tomography, as well as electromagnetic sounding, are the classical methods frequently used for hydrogeological studies. In this work, we propose the development and implementation of an original integrated approach using the unconventional hydro–geophysical methods of gravity and seismic reflection [...] Read more.
Electric resistivity sounding and tomography, as well as electromagnetic sounding, are the classical methods frequently used for hydrogeological studies. In this work, we propose the development and implementation of an original integrated approach using the unconventional hydro–geophysical methods of gravity and seismic reflection for the fast, large–scale characterization of hydrogeological potential using the Ain El Beidha plain (central Tunisia) as an analogue. Extending the values of vintage petroleum seismic reflection profiles and gravity data, in conjunction with available geological and hydrogeological information, we performed an advanced analysis to characterize the geometry of deep tertiary (Oligocene and Eocene) aquifers in this arid area. Residual and tilt angle gravity maps revealed that most gravity anomalies have a short wavelength. The study area was mainly composed of three major areas: the Oued Ben Zitoun and Ain El Beidha basins, which are both related to negative gravity trends corresponding to low–density subsiding depocenters. These basins are separated by an important NE–SW trend called “El Gonna–J. El Mguataa–Kroumet Zemla” gravity high. Evaluation of the superposition of detected lineaments and Euler deconvolution solutions’ maps showed several NE–SW and N–S relay system faults. The 3D density inversion model using a lateral and vertical cutting plane suggested the presence of two different tectonic styles (thin VS thick). Results from the gravity analysis were in concordance with the seismic analysis. The deep Oligocene and Eocene seismic horizons were calibrated to the hydraulic wells and surrounding outcrops. Oligocene and Eocene geological reservoirs appear very fractured and compartmented. The faulting network also plays an important role in enhancing groundwater recharge process of the Oligocene and Eocene aquifers. Finally, generated isochron maps provided an excellent opportunity to develop future comprehensive exploration surveys over smaller and more favorable areas’ sub–basins. Full article
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Editorial
Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment
Water 2021, 13(9), 1309; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091309 - 07 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 999
Abstract
Technical and scientific developments have facilitated an increase in human life expectancy and quality, which is reflected in a large growth of global population [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment)
Article
A Medium and Long-Term Runoff Forecast Method Based on Massive Meteorological Data and Machine Learning Algorithms
Water 2021, 13(9), 1308; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091308 - 07 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1477
Abstract
Accurate and reliable predictors selection and model construction are the key to medium and long-term runoff forecast. In this study, 130 climate indexes are utilized as the primary forecast factors. Partial Mutual Information (PMI), Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE) and Classification and Regression Tree [...] Read more.
Accurate and reliable predictors selection and model construction are the key to medium and long-term runoff forecast. In this study, 130 climate indexes are utilized as the primary forecast factors. Partial Mutual Information (PMI), Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE) and Classification and Regression Tree (CART) are respectively employed as the typical algorithms of Filter, Wrapper and Embedded based on Feature Selection (FS) to obtain three final forecast schemes. Random Forest (RF) and Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGB) are respectively constructed as the representative models of Bagging and Boosting based on Ensemble Learning (EL) to realize the forecast of the three types of forecast lead time which contains monthly, seasonal and annual runoff sequences of the Three Gorges Reservoir in the Yangtze River Basin. This study aims to summarize and compare the applicability and accuracy of different FS methods and EL models in medium and long-term runoff forecast. The results show the following: (1) RFE method shows the best forecast performance in all different models and different forecast lead time. (2) RF and XGB models are suitable for medium and long-term runoff forecast but XGB presents the better forecast skills both in calibration and validation. (3) With the increase of the runoff magnitudes, the accuracy and reliability of forecast are improved. However, it is still difficult to establish accurate and reliable forecasts only large-scale climate indexes used. We conclude that the theoretical framework based on Machine Learning could be useful to water managers who focus on medium and long-term runoff forecast. Full article
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Article
Remote Sensing Investigation of the Offset Effect between Reservoir Impoundment and Glacier Meltwater Supply in Tibetan Highland Catchment
Water 2021, 13(9), 1307; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091307 - 07 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 791
Abstract
This article presents multi-source remote sensing measurements to quantify the water impoundment and regulation of the Zhikong Reservoir (ZKR) and Pangduo Reservoir (PDR), together with the estimation of the glacier mass balance to explore whether the increased glacier meltwater supply can buffer the [...] Read more.
This article presents multi-source remote sensing measurements to quantify the water impoundment and regulation of the Zhikong Reservoir (ZKR) and Pangduo Reservoir (PDR), together with the estimation of the glacier mass balance to explore whether the increased glacier meltwater supply can buffer the influences of the reservoir impoundment to some degree in the Tibetan highland catchment. The ZKR and PDR are two reservoirs constructed on the upper Lhasa River that originate from the Nyainqentanglha glaciers in the remote headwater in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and lacks historical in situ hydrological observations in the long term. Therefore, the Joint Research Center (JRC) Global Surface Water dataset (GSW), and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) data were used for estimating the total amount of water storage of the two reservoirs, and the SRTM and TanDEM-X DEMs were used for estimating the glacier mass balance. The result shows that the total amount of water impounded by reservoirs is 0.76 Gt, roughly 54% of their design capacities. The mass balance of the glaciers is estimated by comparing the elevation changes between the SRTM and TanDEM-X DEMs. The glaciers in this region melt at an average rate of 0.09 ± 0.02 Gt·year−1 from 2000 to circa 2013, and the impounded water of these reservoirs is comparable to the amount of glacier-fed meltwater in eight years. Full article
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Article
Sewage Sludge Compared with Other Substrates in the Inoculation, Growth, and Tolerance to Water Stress of Samanea saman
Water 2021, 13(9), 1306; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091306 - 07 May 2021
Viewed by 688
Abstract
This study evaluated the initial growth and tolerance to water stress after planting Samanea saman seedlings produced with different substrates and inoculation patterns. The experiment used a factorial design (3 × 3), with three substrates: standard (67% subsoil + 33% cattle manure), a [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the initial growth and tolerance to water stress after planting Samanea saman seedlings produced with different substrates and inoculation patterns. The experiment used a factorial design (3 × 3), with three substrates: standard (67% subsoil + 33% cattle manure), a commercial substrate (composed mainly of peat), and treated sewage sludge; and three inoculation patterns: control (no inoculation), fertilized (no inoculation + chemical fertilization), and inoculation with nitrogen-fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The seedlings were planted in plastic pots inside a greenhouse. They received irrigation after planting and were submitted to water deficit for 35 days, followed by rehydration for 31 days. The inoculation promoted higher height and biomass for seedlings produced in the standard substrate. In the sludge, the roots biomass decreased when fertilized or inoculated. Seedlings grown in sludge showed higher height and biomass before planting and at the end of the experiment. Although, after rehydration, the height increment was similar for the sludge and the standard substrate. Seedlings grown with the commercial substrate are not recommended for planting sites subjected to water deficit. The standard substrate with inoculation and the sludge without inoculation or fertilization produced seedlings that showed better recovery and growth after water deficit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Reuse of Sewage Sludge from Wastewater Treatment)
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Article
A Sentinel-2 Image-Based Irrigation Advisory Service: Cases for Tea Plantations
Water 2021, 13(9), 1305; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091305 - 07 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 824
Abstract
In this study, we aim to develop an inexpensive site-specific irrigation advisory service for resolving disadvantages related to using immobile soil moisture sensors and to the differences in irrigation needs of different tea plantations affected by variabilities in cultivars, plant ages, soil heterogeneity, [...] Read more.
In this study, we aim to develop an inexpensive site-specific irrigation advisory service for resolving disadvantages related to using immobile soil moisture sensors and to the differences in irrigation needs of different tea plantations affected by variabilities in cultivars, plant ages, soil heterogeneity, and management practices. In the paper, we present methodologies to retrieve two biophysical variables, surface soil water content and canopy water content of tea trees from Sentinel-2 (S2) (European Space Agency, Paris, France) images and consider their association with crop water availability status to be used for making decisions to send an alert level. Precipitation records are used as auxiliary information to assist in determining or modifying the alert level. Once the site-specific alert level for each target plantation is determined, it is sent to the corresponding farmer through text messaging. All the processes that make up the service, from downloading an S2 image from the web to alert level text messaging, are automated and can be completed before 7:30 a.m. the next day after an S2 image was taken. Therefore, the service is operated cyclically, and corresponds to the five-day revisit period of S2, but one day behind the S2 image acquisition date. However, it should be noted that the amount of irrigation water required for each site-specific plantation has not yet been estimated because of the complexities involved. Instead, a single irrigation rate (300 t ha−1) per irrigation event is recommended. The service is now available to over 20 tea plantations in the Mingjian Township, the largest tea producing region in Taiwan, free of charge since September 2020. This operational application is expected to save expenditures on buying irrigation water and induce deeper root systems by decreasing the frequency of insufficient irrigation commonly employed by local farmers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contributions of Remote Sensing to Hydrologic Flux Quantification)
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Article
Optimising the Workflow for Fish Detection in DIDSON (Dual-Frequency IDentification SONar) Data with the Use of Optical Flow and a Genetic Algorithm
Water 2021, 13(9), 1304; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091304 - 07 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 918
Abstract
DIDSON acoustic cameras provide a way to collect temporally dense, high-resolution imaging data, similar to videos. Detection of fish targets on those videos takes place in a manual or semi-automated manner, typically assisted by specialised software. Exploiting the visual nature of the recordings, [...] Read more.
DIDSON acoustic cameras provide a way to collect temporally dense, high-resolution imaging data, similar to videos. Detection of fish targets on those videos takes place in a manual or semi-automated manner, typically assisted by specialised software. Exploiting the visual nature of the recordings, tools and techniques from the field of computer vision can be applied in order to facilitate the relatively involved workflows. Furthermore, machine learning techniques can be used to minimise user intervention and optimise for specific detection and tracking scenarios. This study explored the feasibility of combining optical flow with a genetic algorithm, with the aim of automating motion detection and optimising target-to-background segmentation (masking) under custom criteria, expressed in terms of the result. A 1000-frame video sequence sample with sparse, smoothly moving targets, reconstructed from a 125 s DIDSON recording, was analysed under two distinct scenarios, and an elementary detection method was used to assess and compare the resulting foreground (target) masks. The results indicate a high sensitivity to motion, as well as to the visual characteristics of targets, with the resulting foreground masks generally capturing fish targets on the majority of frames, potentially with small gaps of undetected targets, lasting for no more than a few frames. Despite the high computational overhead, implementation refinements could increase computational feasibility, while an extension of the algorithms, in order to include the steps of target detection and tracking, could further improve automation and potentially provide an efficient tool for the automated preliminary assessment of voluminous DIDSON data recordings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Management: Advances in Machine Learning Approaches)
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Article
Analysis of Seepage Characteristics of a Foundation Pit with Horizontal Waterproof Curtain in Highly Permeable Strata
Water 2021, 13(9), 1303; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091303 - 06 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1344
Abstract
At present, jet-grouted horizontal waterproof curtain reinforcement has become an essential method for deep foundation pit groundwater control. However, there is still a lack of an effective theoretical calculation method for horizontal waterproof curtain reinforcement, and there is little research on the seepage [...] Read more.
At present, jet-grouted horizontal waterproof curtain reinforcement has become an essential method for deep foundation pit groundwater control. However, there is still a lack of an effective theoretical calculation method for horizontal waterproof curtain reinforcement, and there is little research on the seepage laws of foundation pits under different horizontal waterproof curtain conditions. Based on Darcy’s seepage theory, theoretical analysis models of deep foundation pit seepage were established considering the effect of a horizontal curtain in a highly permeable formation. Through the established models, the calculation method of the water inflow and the water pressure under the condition of a horizontal curtain was derived. Then through indoor tests, the reliability of the theoretical calculation method was verified. Furthermore, the established theoretical calculation method is used to analyze the influence of various factors on the water inflow and the water pressure, such as the ratio of hydraulic conductivity of the horizontal curtain to surrounding soil, thickness, and reinforcement position of the horizontal curtain. It is found that the hydraulic conductivity ratio has the most significant influence on the seepage characteristics of the foundation pit. Finally, the design method was applied to an example of the horizontal waterproof curtain of the foundation pit, which is located at Juyuanzhou Station in Fuzhou (China). The water inflow per unit area is 0.36 m3/d in the foundation pit, and this implies that the design method of the horizontal waterproof curtain applied for the excavation case is good and meets the requirements of design and safety. Full article
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Article
Interactions of Solitary Wave with a Submerged Step: Experiments and Simulations
Water 2021, 13(9), 1302; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091302 - 06 May 2021
Viewed by 846
Abstract
A series of experiments exploring the propagation of a solitary wave over a submerged step were performed using a flow-field visualization measurement system, an image-connection technique as well as model simulations. The experimental data were used to validate a one-layer finite-element non-hydrostatic model [...] Read more.
A series of experiments exploring the propagation of a solitary wave over a submerged step were performed using a flow-field visualization measurement system, an image-connection technique as well as model simulations. The experimental data were used to validate a one-layer finite-element non-hydrostatic model and a multi-layer finite-difference non-hydrostatic σ model for various submerged step configurations and wave conditions—combinations of step height ratios d/h, width ratios B/h and solitary wave height ratios H/h, where d denotes the step height, B the step width, H the solitary wave height, and h the still water depth. The main differences between the numerical results and the experimental data are highlighted. The effect of the height and width of the submerged step as well as the wave height of the solitary wave are quantified in terms of reflection (R), transmission (T), and energy dissipation (D). Through a series of numerical experiments, an optimal combination of the height ratio d/h, width ratio B/h, and solitary wave height ratio H/h for breakwater design for coastal protection is suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrodynamics in Ocean Environment: Experiment and Simulation)
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Article
Effects of Infiltration Amounts on Preferential Flow Characteristics and Solute Transport in the Protection Forest Soil of Southwestern China
Water 2021, 13(9), 1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091301 - 06 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 833
Abstract
Preferential flow has an important role as it strongly influences solute transport in forest soil. The quick passage of water and solutes through preferential flow paths without soil absorption results in considerable water loss and groundwater pollution. However, preferential flow and solute transport [...] Read more.
Preferential flow has an important role as it strongly influences solute transport in forest soil. The quick passage of water and solutes through preferential flow paths without soil absorption results in considerable water loss and groundwater pollution. However, preferential flow and solute transport under different infiltration volumes in southwestern China remain unclear. Three plots, named P20, P40 and P60, were subjected to precipitation amounts of 20, 40 and 60 mm, respectively, to investigate preferential flow and solute transport characteristics via field multiple-tracer experiments. Stained soils were collected to measure Br and NO3 concentrations. This study demonstrated that precipitation could promote dye tracer infiltration into deep soils. The dye tracer reached the maximum depth of 40 cm in P60. Dye coverage generally reduced with greater depth, and sharp reductions were observed at the boundary of matrix flow and preferential flow. Dye coverage peaked at the soil depth of 15 cm in P40. This result demonstrated that lateral infiltration was enhanced. The long and narrow dye coverage pattern observed in P60 indicated the occurrence of macropore flow. Br and NO3 were found at each soil depth where preferential flow had moved. Increasing precipitation amounts increased Br and NO3 concentration and promoted solute movement into deep soil layers. Solute concentration peaked at near the end of the preferential flow path and when preferential flow underwent lateral movement. These results indicated that the infiltration volume and transport capacity of preferential flow had important effects on the distribution of Br and NO3 concentrations. The results of this study could help expand our understanding of the effects of preferential flow on solute transport and provide some suggestions for protection forest management in southwestern China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Water Erosion)
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Article
Evaluation of Subsurface Drip Irrigation Designs in a Soil Profile with a Capillary Barrier
Water 2021, 13(9), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091300 - 06 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1526
Abstract
Enhanced water use efficiency (WUE) is the key to sustainable agriculture in arid regions. The installation of capillary barriers (CB) has been suggested as one of the potential solutions. CB effects are observed between two soil layers with distinctly different soil hydraulic properties. [...] Read more.
Enhanced water use efficiency (WUE) is the key to sustainable agriculture in arid regions. The installation of capillary barriers (CB) has been suggested as one of the potential solutions. CB effects are observed between two soil layers with distinctly different soil hydraulic properties. A CB helps retain water in the upper, relatively fine-textured soil layer, suppressing water losses by deep drainage. However, retaining water in a shallow surface layer also intensifies water loss by evaporation. The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) with a CB may prevent such water loss. This study evaluated the performance of SDI in a soil profile with a CB using a pot experiment and numerical analysis with the HYDRUS (2D/3D) software package. The ring-shaped emitter was selected for the SDI system for its low capital expenditures (CapEx) and maintenance. Strawberry was selected as a model plant. The results indicated that the proposed SDI system with a CB was effective in terms of WUE. The numerical analysis revealed that the CB’s depth influences the system’s water balance more than the ring-shaped emitter’s installation depth. While the CB’s shallow installation led to more root water uptake by the strawberry and less water loss by deep drainage, it induced more water loss by evaporation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Application of Subsurface Irrigation Techniques)
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Article
Relationship between Upstream Swimming Behaviors of Juvenile Grass Carp and Characteristic Hydraulic Conditions of a Vertical Slot Fishway
Water 2021, 13(9), 1299; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091299 - 06 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 778
Abstract
The successful fish upstream movement through a dam/gate is closely associated with the hydraulic conditions of a fishway. To improve the passage efficiency, this study investigated the upstream swimming behaviors of juvenile grass carp, a representative fish of four major Chinese carps, under [...] Read more.
The successful fish upstream movement through a dam/gate is closely associated with the hydraulic conditions of a fishway. To improve the passage efficiency, this study investigated the upstream swimming behaviors of juvenile grass carp, a representative fish of four major Chinese carps, under characteristic hydraulic conditions of a designed vertical slot fishway model. The impacts of different discharges and baffle lead angles on the successful movement of test fish were analyzed, and the selection of the movement trajectory was studied through overlay of their upstream swimming trajectories on the water flow field resulting from numerical modeling. We found that under the same discharge, the percentage of successful test fish movement with a lead angle of 45° was higher than 60° and 30°. Within a fixed lead angle, the higher the discharge, the lower the percentage of successful movement. During upstream movement, the test fish had a preferred water velocity of 0.01–0.45 m/s in the pool, and avoided areas where the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) was greater than 0.012 m2/s2. These results provide a basis for the hydraulic design of vertical slot fishways and a reference for studying swimming behaviors of other fish species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams)
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Article
Characteristics of Ultrasonically Enhanced Low-Temperature Thermal Regeneration of Powdered Activated Carbon: A Case Study of Acetone and Aniline
Water 2021, 13(9), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091298 - 06 May 2021
Viewed by 727
Abstract
Effective regeneration of powdered activated carbon (PAC) is the key to reduce the operating cost of the PAC in wastewater treatment processes. In this study, volatile acetone and semi-volatile aniline were selected to investigate the regeneration characteristics of ultrasonically enhanced low-temperature thermal process. [...] Read more.
Effective regeneration of powdered activated carbon (PAC) is the key to reduce the operating cost of the PAC in wastewater treatment processes. In this study, volatile acetone and semi-volatile aniline were selected to investigate the regeneration characteristics of ultrasonically enhanced low-temperature thermal process. The results showed that the regeneration efficiency of the PAC that had adsorbed aniline or acetone increased with the increase in ultrasonic power, and optimal value of frequency and regeneration times were determined. The concentration and properties of organic solvents had a significant influence on the ultrasonic regeneration process. With the increase in heating temperature and regeneration time, the regeneration efficiency increased, but the loss of mass of the saturated PAC increased noticeably. With the combination of ultrasonic treatment in a solvent with low temperature heating, the PAC regeneration efficiency was successfully improved, and the PAC mass loss rate was noticeably reduced. The microjet, shock wave, and cavitation effects produced by ultrasonic treatment restored the specific surface area of the PAC, expanded its mesopore volume, and increased the pore diameter. A reasonable selection of the regeneration solution and optimization of the ultrasonic treatment conditions could create favorable conditions for subsequent low temperature thermal regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
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