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GIS-Based Spatiotemporal Mapping of Groundwater Potability and Palatability Indices in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas

Laboratoire de Génie Civil et géo-Environnement, University Lille, IMT Lille Douai, JUNIA Hauts-de-France, ULR 4515-LGCgE, F-59000 Lille, France
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Academic Editor: Frédéric Huneau
Water 2021, 13(9), 1323; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091323
Received: 13 April 2021 / Revised: 3 May 2021 / Accepted: 7 May 2021 / Published: 10 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
This paper aims to assess groundwater potability and palatability in the West Bank, Palestine. It combines the adjusted weighted arithmetic water quality index method (AWAWQIM), a close-ended questionnaire, and step-wise assessment ratio analysis (SWARA) to develop groundwater potability (PoGWQI) and palatability (PaGWQI) indices. Both a geographic information system (GIS) and the kriging interpolation method (KIM) are employed to create spatiotemporal mapping of PoGWQI and PaGWQI. The research is based on data from 79 wells, which were provided by the Palestinian Water Authority (PWA). Data include fecal coliform (FC), nitrate (NO3), pH, chloride (Cl), sulfate (SO4), bicarbonate (HCO3), total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, and hardness. Results indicate that 2% and 5% of water samples were unpotable and unpalatable, respectively. Unpotable samples were found in areas with poor sewer networks and intensive use of agrochemicals. All groundwater samples (100%) in the eastern part of the West Bank were unpalatable because of seawater intrusion. Unconfined aquifers were more vulnerable to potability and palatability contamination. It was noticed that PoGWQI is sensitive to FC and NO3, while PaGWQI is sensitive to HCO3, TDS, and Cl. Consequently, these quality parameters should be monitored well. The proposed method is of great interest to water decision-makers in Palestine for establishing strategies to protect water resources. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater; potability; palatability; assessment; quality index; SWARA; GIS groundwater; potability; palatability; assessment; quality index; SWARA; GIS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Judeh, T.; Bian, H.; Shahrour, I. GIS-Based Spatiotemporal Mapping of Groundwater Potability and Palatability Indices in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas. Water 2021, 13, 1323. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091323

AMA Style

Judeh T, Bian H, Shahrour I. GIS-Based Spatiotemporal Mapping of Groundwater Potability and Palatability Indices in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas. Water. 2021; 13(9):1323. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091323

Chicago/Turabian Style

Judeh, Tariq, Hanbing Bian, and Isam Shahrour. 2021. "GIS-Based Spatiotemporal Mapping of Groundwater Potability and Palatability Indices in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas" Water 13, no. 9: 1323. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091323

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