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Atmosphere, Volume 14, Issue 4 (April 2023) – 153 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Urban heat islands (UHI) and climate change are exacerbating livability in metropolitan areas, especially during heatwaves. The study proposes a methodology to map diurnal outdoor thermal comfort during a heatwave at city level using a combination of satellite products, in situ measurements and Envi-met model runs upscaled from specific test areas to the broader city. The method exploits the ECOSTRESS sensor to detect surface thermal patterns at different diurnal times by developing an hourly based index (hUHTI, hourly urban heatwave thermal index) that serves as a proxy. A case study on Prato (Italy) municipality during the 2021 summer heatwave events is presented. The method provides a tool for public administrations to intervene with urban regeneration plans in the most vulnerable areas. View this paper
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25 pages, 202627 KiB  
Article
Big-Data-Driven Machine Learning for Enhancing Spatiotemporal Air Pollution Pattern Analysis
by Mateusz Zareba, Hubert Dlugosz, Tomasz Danek and Elzbieta Weglinska
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040760 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2150
Abstract
Air pollution is an important problem for public health. The spatiotemporal analysis is a crucial step for understanding the complex characteristics of air pollution. Using many sensors and high-resolution time-step observations makes this task a big data challenge. In this study, unsupervised machine [...] Read more.
Air pollution is an important problem for public health. The spatiotemporal analysis is a crucial step for understanding the complex characteristics of air pollution. Using many sensors and high-resolution time-step observations makes this task a big data challenge. In this study, unsupervised machine learning algorithms were applied to analyze spatiotemporal patterns of air pollution. The analysis was conducted using PM10 big data collected from almost 100 sensors located in Krakow, over a period of one year, with data being recorded at 1-h intervals. The analysis results using K-means and SKATER clustering revealed distinct differences between average and maximum values of pollutant concentrations. The study found that the K-means algorithm with Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) was more accurate in identifying yearly patterns and clustering in rapidly and spatially varying data, compared to the SKATER algorithm. Moreover, the clustering analysis of data after kriging greatly facilitated the interpretation of the results. These findings highlight the potential of machine learning techniques and big data analysis for identifying hot-spots, cold-spots, and patterns of air pollution and informing policy decisions related to urban planning, traffic management, and public health interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning in Air Pollution)
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14 pages, 4795 KiB  
Article
Physics-Informed Neural Network for Flow Prediction Based on Flow Visualization in Bridge Engineering
by Hui Yan, Yaning Wang, Yan Yan and Jiahuan Cui
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040759 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2212
Abstract
Wind loads can endanger the safety and stability of bridges, especially long-span cable-supported bridges. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the potential wind loads during the bridge design stage. Traditionally, wind load evaluation is performed by wind tunnel testing, which is relatively expensive. [...] Read more.
Wind loads can endanger the safety and stability of bridges, especially long-span cable-supported bridges. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the potential wind loads during the bridge design stage. Traditionally, wind load evaluation is performed by wind tunnel testing, which is relatively expensive. With the development of computational fluid dynamics and high-performance computing, numerical simulations are becoming more accessible for designers. However, the costs required for accurate numerical results are still high, especially for high-fidelity simulations. Under this condition, searching for a more efficient method to evaluate the wind loads in bridge wind engineering has become a new goal. It seems that flow visualization is a good entry point. Although flow visualization techniques have been developed in recent years, it remains difficult to extract velocity and pressure fields from images. To address this problem, physics-informed neural networks (PINNs) have been developed and validated. This study establishes a PINN to investigate the two-dimensional viscous incompressible fluid flow passing a generic bridge deck section. Two cases with different Reynolds numbers are tested. After careful training, it is found that the PINN can accurately extract the velocity and pressure fields from the concentration field and predict the drag and lift coefficients. The results demonstrate that PINNs are a promising method for extracting useful flow information from flow visualization data in engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atmospheric Techniques, Instruments, and Modeling)
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35 pages, 4986 KiB  
Article
Use of Assimilation Analysis in 4D-Var Source Inversion: Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) with GOSAT Methane and Hemispheric CMAQ
by Sina Voshtani, Richard Ménard, Thomas W. Walker and Amir Hakami
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040758 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1801
Abstract
We previously introduced the parametric variance Kalman filter (PvKF) assimilation as a cost-efficient system to estimate the dynamics of methane analysis concentrations. As an extension of our development, this study demonstrates the linking of PvKF to a 4D-Var inversion aiming to improve on [...] Read more.
We previously introduced the parametric variance Kalman filter (PvKF) assimilation as a cost-efficient system to estimate the dynamics of methane analysis concentrations. As an extension of our development, this study demonstrates the linking of PvKF to a 4D-Var inversion aiming to improve on methane emissions estimation in comparison with the traditional 4D-Var. Using the proposed assimilation–inversion framework, we revisit fundamental assumptions of the perfect and already optimal model state that is typically made in the 4D-Var inversion algorithm. In addition, the new system objectively accounts for error correlations and the evolution of analysis error variances, which are non-trivial or computationally prohibitive to maintain otherwise. We perform observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) aiming to isolate and explore various effects of the assimilation analysis on the source inversion. The effect of the initial field of analysis, forecast of analysis error covariance, and model error is examined through modified 4D-Var cost functions, while different types of perturbations of the prior emissions are considered. Our results show that using PvKF optimal analysis instead of the model forecast to initialize the inversion improves posterior emissions estimate (~35% reduction in the normalized mean bias, NMB) across the domain. The propagation of analysis error variance using the PvKF formulation also tends to retain the effect of background correlation structures within the observation space and, thus, results in a more reliable estimate of the posterior emissions in most cases (~50% reduction in the normalized mean error, NME). Our sectoral analysis of four main emission categories indicates how the additional information of assimilation analysis enhances the constraints of each emissions sector. Lastly, we found that adding the PvKF optimal analysis field to the cost function benefits the 4D-Var inversion by reducing its computational time (~65%), while including only the error covariance in the cost function has a negligible impact on the inversion time (10–20% reduction). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atmospheric Techniques, Instruments, and Modeling)
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24 pages, 5650 KiB  
Article
The Association between Vessel Departures and Air Pollution in Helsinki Port Area 2016–2021
by Mikko Heikkilä and Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 757; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040757 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2137
Abstract
European ports are struggling to install enough shore power connections to follow the European Commission initiative, which insists ships that lie alongside to be plugged in and have their auxiliary engines off in EU ports by 2030. The port of Helsinki is one [...] Read more.
European ports are struggling to install enough shore power connections to follow the European Commission initiative, which insists ships that lie alongside to be plugged in and have their auxiliary engines off in EU ports by 2030. The port of Helsinki is one of the busiest passenger ports in the world handling on average more than 10 million international passengers per year. As passenger ships consume more fuel than other vessel types, the shore power regulation poses additional challenges for the port of Helsinki. Passenger ferry and cruise ship terminals are in the middle of the city meaning that their air emissions carry a public health burden in the urban areas. Using port arrivals and departures combined with the EU Monitoring, Reporting and Verifying (MRV), this study estimates that 75–80% of the fuel combusted by ship auxiliary engines falls under the upcoming regulation. However, using statistical methods to find the association and effects between vessel movements and port air quality measurements, ship departures were found to have noticeable increases in the hourly mean NO2 concentration measured at the port terminals. This is most likely caused by starting cold main engines for departure and will not be solved by connecting ships to shore power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Shipping Emissions and Their Environmental Impacts)
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19 pages, 3898 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Distributions and Vulnerability Assessment of Highway Blockage under Low-Visibility Weather in Eastern China Based on the FAHP and CRITIC Methods
by Tian Jing, Duanyang Liu, Yunxuan Bao, Hongbin Wang, Mingyue Yan and Fan Zu
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 756; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040756 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1166
Abstract
In this study, the spatiotemporal distributions of highway blockage and the low-visibility weather events in eastern China are studied by taking Jiangsu Province as an example. Based on the record table data of highway-blocking events, a vulnerability evaluation model for the highway network [...] Read more.
In this study, the spatiotemporal distributions of highway blockage and the low-visibility weather events in eastern China are studied by taking Jiangsu Province as an example. Based on the record table data of highway-blocking events, a vulnerability evaluation model for the highway network in Jiangsu Province is established using the weight assignment methods of the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) and criteria importance though intercriteria correlation (CRITIC). By using the geographic information system, the vulnerability evaluation map of road network in low-visibility weather in Jiangsu Province is finally drawn. The results show that the monthly blockage events on Jiangsu highways are more frequent in the north than in the south and are more frequent along the coast than inland, with the highest occurrence number in winter and a second peak in May. There are basically no blockage events from July to October. Traffic blockage on Jiangsu highways mainly occurs between 22:00 and 08:00 Beijing time. In the afternoon, there are almost no highway-blocking events caused by low-visibility weather. The vulnerability of highway blockage in Jiangsu Province is high in the north and low in the south and high in coastal areas and relatively low in inland. The section K6-K99 of the G30 Lianhuo Highway is the most sensitive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Transportation Meteorology)
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27 pages, 15377 KiB  
Article
Past and Future Responses of Soil Water to Climate Change in Tropical and Subtropical Rainforest Systems in South America
by Santiago M. Márquez Arévalo, Rafael Coll Delgado, Douglas da Silva Lindemann, Yuri A. Gelsleichter, Marcos Gervasio Pereira, Rafael de Ávila Rodrigues, Flávio Barbosa Justino, Henderson Silva Wanderley, Everaldo Zonta, Romário Oliveira de Santana and Renato Sinquini de Souza
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 755; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040755 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2068
Abstract
The present study aimed to contribute to the diagnosis and advance the knowledge of the impacts of land use change and climate change on the tropical longleaf forest biome at the continental scale in South America (Biome 1 according to the WWF classification) [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to contribute to the diagnosis and advance the knowledge of the impacts of land use change and climate change on the tropical longleaf forest biome at the continental scale in South America (Biome 1 according to the WWF classification) for realizing scientific progress in the search for convincing strategies and actions by different actors for the preservation of forests in the continent. The status and climate of the area, which harbors the tropical longleaf forests of South America, were assessed. Moreover, volumetric soil moisture (VSM) was evaluated through maps and simulation using the autoregressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA). Furthermore, future climate scenarios were predicted based on El Niño–Southern Oscillation phenomena, meteorological systems, and scientific evidence, such as the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) and sociopolitical dynamics evident in the region from the case analysis of the Brazilian states of Acre and Rio de Janeiro. An increase was noted in the temperature and range of precipitation variation in the biome. ARIMA analysis indicated changes of up to 0.24 m3 m−3 and an increased range of future VSM values. The December–January–February (DJF) quarter recorded the highest VSM median with the measurement scale of 0.05 to 0.44 m3 m−3, while the June–July–August (JJA) quarter recorded the lowest value. The regions of the biome with the lowest VSM values included southern Amazon (Ecuador, Peru, and the Brazilian states of Acre, Mato Grosso, Pará, and Maranhão), Brazilian Atlantic Forest, Southeast Region, and the Brazilian state of Bahia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Variability and Change in Brazil)
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18 pages, 3655 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Mechanical Draft Cooling Tower Thermal Emissions from Visual Images of Plumes
by Christopher Sobecki, Alfred Garrett, Brian d’Entremont, Ryan Connal and Sebastian Aleman
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040754 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1953
Abstract
Using a one-dimensional code, we computed the power (enthalpy discharge rate) of a twelve-cell mechanical draft cooling tower (MDCT) using over two hundred visible condensed water vapor plume volume measurements derived from images, weather data, and tower operating conditions. The plume images were [...] Read more.
Using a one-dimensional code, we computed the power (enthalpy discharge rate) of a twelve-cell mechanical draft cooling tower (MDCT) using over two hundred visible condensed water vapor plume volume measurements derived from images, weather data, and tower operating conditions. The plume images were simultaneously captured by multiple stationary digital cameras surrounding the cooling tower. An analysis technique combining structure from motion (SfM), a neural-network-based image segmentation algorithm, and space carving was used to quantify the volumes. Afterwards, the power output was computed using novel techniques in the one-dimensional code that included cooling tower exhaust plume adjacency effects implemented with a modified version of the entrainment function, weather data averaged from eleven stations, and fan operations at the times when plume volumes were measured. The model was then compared with the averaged observed power output, and it validated well with an average error ranging from 6 to 12%, depending on the meteorological data used in the simulations. This methodology can possibly determine power plant fuel consumption rates by applying visible imagery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Techniques in Air Pollution Assessment)
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20 pages, 2085 KiB  
Article
Comparisons of Spatial and Temporal Variations in PM2.5-Bound Trace Elements in Urban and Rural Areas of South Korea, and Associated Potential Health Risks
by Jayant Nirmalkar, Kwangyul Lee, Junyoung Ahn, Jiyi Lee and Mijung Song
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040753 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2060
Abstract
PM2.5-bound trace elements were chosen for health risk assessment because they have been linked to an increased risk of respiratory and cardiovascular illness. Since the Korean national air quality standard for ambient particulate matter is based on PM2.5 mass concentration, [...] Read more.
PM2.5-bound trace elements were chosen for health risk assessment because they have been linked to an increased risk of respiratory and cardiovascular illness. Since the Korean national air quality standard for ambient particulate matter is based on PM2.5 mass concentration, there have only been a few measurements of PM2.5 particles together with trace elements that can be utilized to evaluate their effects on air quality and human health. Thus, this study describes the trace elements bound to PM2.5 in Seoul (urban area) and Seosan (rural area) using online nondestructive energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis from December 2020 to January 2021. At both the Seoul and Seosan sites, S, K, Si, Ca, and Fe constituted most of the PM2.5-bound trace elements (~95%); major components such as S, K, and soil (estimatedcalculatedcalculated based on oxides of Si, Fe, Ca, and Ti) were presumably from anthropogenic and crustal sources, as well as favorable meteorological conditions. During winter, synoptic meteorology favored the transport of particles from severely contaminated regions, such as the East Asian outflow and local emissions. The total dry deposition flux for crustal elements was 894.5 ± 320.8 µg m−2 d−1 in Seoul and 1088.8 ± 302.4 µg m−2 d−1 in Seosan. Moreover, potential health risks from the trace elements were estimated. Cancer risk values for carcinogenic trace elements (Cr, As, Ni, and Pb) were within the tolerable limit (1 × 10−6), suggesting that adults and children were not at risk of cancer throughout the study period in Seoul and Seosan. Furthermore, a potential risk assessment of human exposure to remaining carcinogens (Cr, As, Ni, and Pb) and non-carcinogens (Cu, Fe, Zn, V, Mn, and Se) indicated that these trace elements posed no health risks. Nevertheless, trace element monitoring, risk assessment, and mitigation must be strengthened throughout the study area to confirm that trace-element-related health effects remain harmless. Researchers and policymakers can use the database from this study on spatial and temporal variation to establish actions and plans in the future. Full article
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11 pages, 3033 KiB  
Article
Variations of Cooling and Dehumidification Degree Days in Major Climate Zones of China during the Past 57 Years
by Jingfu Cao, Jun Shi, Mingcai Li, Zhihong Zhai, Ruixue Zhang and Min Wang
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040752 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1562
Abstract
In previous studies, the concept of degree days has been widely used to indicate heating or cooling energy requirements, but it does not consider the dehumidification effect. In the present study, the concept of dehumidification degree days based on moisture content is used, [...] Read more.
In previous studies, the concept of degree days has been widely used to indicate heating or cooling energy requirements, but it does not consider the dehumidification effect. In the present study, the concept of dehumidification degree days based on moisture content is used, and the degree days over the past 57 years for temperature decreasing and dehumidification in 4 cities belonging to major climate zones of China are analyzed. The results showed that the number of cooling degree days showed a significant increase (1.2–4.6 days/10 a) in all the selected cities, corresponding to the warming climate. In contrast, the degree days of dehumidification accounted for 19%–45% of the total days in summer and showed significant decreases (2.0–3.7 days/10 a) in the cold, hot summer and cold winter, and hot summer and warm winter climate zones. Comfortable days, i.e., days requiring no cooling and no dehumidification, accounting for 8–45% of the total days in summer, decreased significantly in the extreme cold and cold zones (0.9–1.8 days/10 a) but showed no apparent changes in the hot summer and cold winter and hot summer and warm winter climate zones. This study suggests that energy consumption for cooling increases linearly with climate warming, and only the energy consumed for dehumidification had an apparent decrease. The degree days of dehumidification, as well as those requiring no cooling and no dehumidification, should be fully considered in the capacity design of air-conditioning units, especially air-conditioning systems with temperature- and humidity-independent control (THIC). This study indicates that the assessment of energy consumption for requests for air-conditioning in relation to climate change should be carried out after separating energy consumption for cooling from energy consumption for dehumidification to improve building energy efficiency and indoor comfort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earth System Energy Budget and Climate Change)
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12 pages, 2749 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Diurnal Variation in Coastal Boundary Layer Winds on Hainan Island Using Three Tower Observations
by Ziqiang Duan, Bingke Zhao, Shiwang Fu, Shuai Zhang, Limin Lin and Jie Tang
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040751 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1259
Abstract
This study analyzes wind structures up to 509 m in the atmospheric boundary layer in the coastal area of Hainan Island, using a dataset obtained from ultrasonic anemometers housed in three towers. The wind profile, consisting of the measurements from the three towers, [...] Read more.
This study analyzes wind structures up to 509 m in the atmospheric boundary layer in the coastal area of Hainan Island, using a dataset obtained from ultrasonic anemometers housed in three towers. The wind profile, consisting of the measurements from the three towers, followed logarithmic law. In a diurnal variation, the maximum wind speed occurred at night, with a greater component of northerly wind, while the minimum wind speed was observed at noon, with a greater component of easterly wind. The variation in wind speed suggests that the measurements were representative of the wind field in the upper part of the atmospheric boundary layer, and the variation in wind direction might be affected by sea and land breezes, which can be induced by the different thermal conditions of underlying surfaces. The diurnal variation in average wind speed ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 m s−1, and the diurnal variation in wind direction was 10–20 degrees. In our measurements, the diurnal trajectory of the wind vector was observed to be counterclockwise, which differs from previous studies conducted over uniform and flat underlying surfaces. This is partially due to the different thermodynamic conditions of the underlying land and sea surfaces. The impact of topographic relief on wind measurement is also discussed. The measurements suggest that wind speeds at altitudes above 50 m are less influenced by terrain. The height of the reversal layer, which is generated by the different diurnal variations in wind speed in the upper and lower parts of the boundary layer, was estimated to be around 300 m. Full article
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13 pages, 2906 KiB  
Article
The Roles of Atmospheric and Air–Sea Interaction Processes in Causing the Eastward Extension of the Western North Pacific Monsoon Trough in Boreal Summer
by Chi Qin and Tim Li
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040750 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1332
Abstract
What causes the eastward extension of the climatological monsoon trough over the western North Pacific in the boreal summer was investigated through both observational analyses and numerical simulations. It was found that the highest SST is always located to the east of maximum [...] Read more.
What causes the eastward extension of the climatological monsoon trough over the western North Pacific in the boreal summer was investigated through both observational analyses and numerical simulations. It was found that the highest SST is always located to the east of maximum precipitation, and this asymmetric SST pattern favors the eastward extension of the monsoon trough through SST induced boundary layer convergence. A mixed-layer heat budget analysis further indicates that the SST asymmetry arises primarily from the asymmetric pattern of cloud-modified downward shortwave radiation. In addition, two internal atmospheric mechanisms are identified. Firstly, there is a zonal asymmetry in the lower-tropospheric moisture advection. Southeasterlies to the east of the convection, in association with the subtropical high advect high mean moisture from south, leads to low-level moistening to the east of the convective center. Secondly, the heating-induced Kelvin wave response leads to a boundary layer convergence ahead of the convection. Both the processes lead to the setup of a convectively unstable stratification to the east, favoring the eastward extension of the monsoon trough. Two sets of the WRF model experiments that specify a fixed and a time-dependent SST field confirm the roles of the aforementioned atmospheric internal processes as well as the air–sea interaction process in causing the eastward progression of the climatological monsoon trough over the western North Pacific. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology)
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14 pages, 1941 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Impacts of Land Use/Land Cover Changes on Water Resources of the Nile River Basin, Ethiopia
by Mohammed Gedefaw, Yan Denghua and Abel Girma
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040749 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3260
Abstract
Land use/land cover change and climate change have diverse impacts on the water resources of river basins. This study investigated the trends of climate change and land use/land cover change in the Nile River Basin. The climate trends were analyzed using the Mann–Kendall [...] Read more.
Land use/land cover change and climate change have diverse impacts on the water resources of river basins. This study investigated the trends of climate change and land use/land cover change in the Nile River Basin. The climate trends were analyzed using the Mann–Kendall test, Sen’s slope estimator test and an innovative trend analysis method. Land use/land cover (LULC) change was examined using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) with a resolution of 30 m during 2012–2022. The findings revealed that forestland and shrub land area decreased by 5.18 and 2.39%, respectively. On the other hand, area of grassland, cropland, settlements and water bodies increased by 1.56, 6.18, 0.05 and 0.11%, respectively. A significant increasing trend in precipitation was observed at the Gondar (Z = 1.69) and Motta (Z = 0.93) stations. However, the trend was decreasing at the Adet (Z = −0.32), Dangla (Z = −0.37) and Bahir Dar stations. The trend in temperature increased at all stations. The significant changes in land use/land cover may be caused by human-induced activities in the basin. Full article
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13 pages, 2521 KiB  
Article
Simulation and Estimation of the Inter-Source Category and/or Inter-Pollutant Emission Offset Ratios for a Heavy Industry City
by Tu-Fu Chen, Bo-Yan Chen and Ken-Hui Chang
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 748; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040748 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1099
Abstract
Kao-Ping Air Basin (KPAB) is a heavy industrial area, and also the first and only air quality total quantity control district in Taiwan. Pollutant emission offsetting is an important tool to reduce pollution source emissions and improve air quality in the total quantity [...] Read more.
Kao-Ping Air Basin (KPAB) is a heavy industrial area, and also the first and only air quality total quantity control district in Taiwan. Pollutant emission offsetting is an important tool to reduce pollution source emissions and improve air quality in the total quantity control district. In this study, an air quality model was employed to evaluate the sensitivity of SOX, NOX, and primary PM2.5 emissions from point, mobile, and fugitive sources on PM2.5 concentrations in KPAB. The findings show that the emission offset ratios of mobile PM2.5-to-point PM2.5 and fugitive PM2.5-to-point PM2.5 were both greater than one in urban areas (1.3 and 2.0, respectively) and both less than one in non-urban areas. The offset ratios of point SOX-to-point PM2.5 and point NOX-to-point PM2.5 were significantly greater than one, especially those in urban areas (20 and 60, respectively) were higher than those in non-urban areas by more than 2–4 times. No matter whether in urban or non-urban areas, the offset ratio of mobile NOX-to-point NOX was close to one, and the offset ratios of point NOX-to-point PM2.5 and mobile NOX-to-point PM2.5 were similar. The above findings were closely related to the proximity of point sources to densely populated urban areas in KPAB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Air Quality)
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24 pages, 3919 KiB  
Article
Two-Dimensional Flow on the Sphere
by Rick Salmon and Nick Pizzo
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040747 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1710
Abstract
Equilibrium statistical mechanics predicts that inviscid, two-dimensional, incompressible flow on the sphere eventually reaches a state in which spherical harmonic modes of degrees n=1 and n=2 hold all the energy. By a separate theory, such flow is static in [...] Read more.
Equilibrium statistical mechanics predicts that inviscid, two-dimensional, incompressible flow on the sphere eventually reaches a state in which spherical harmonic modes of degrees n=1 and n=2 hold all the energy. By a separate theory, such flow is static in a reference frame rotating at angular speed 2Ω/3 with respect to the inertial frame. The vorticity field in the static frame is an accident of the initial conditions, but, once established, it lasts forever under the stated assumptions. We investigate the possibility of such behavior with a stereographic-coordinate model that conserves energy and enstrophy when the viscosity vanishes. Full article
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16 pages, 4182 KiB  
Article
Recent Urban Issues Related to Particulate Matter in Ploiesti City, Romania
by Mia Sanda, Daniel Dunea, Stefania Iordache, Laurentiu Predescu, Mirela Predescu, Alin Pohoata and Ion Onutu
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 746; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040746 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1579
Abstract
The present work aimed to assess the ambient levels of air pollution with particulate matter for both mass concentrations and number of particles for various fractions in Ploiesti city during the lockdown period determined by the COVID-19 pandemic (March–June 2020). The PM10 continuously [...] Read more.
The present work aimed to assess the ambient levels of air pollution with particulate matter for both mass concentrations and number of particles for various fractions in Ploiesti city during the lockdown period determined by the COVID-19 pandemic (March–June 2020). The PM10 continuously monitored data was retrieved from four air quality automatic stations that are connected to the Romanian National Network for Monitoring Air Quality and located in the city. Because no other information was available for other more dangerous fractions, we used monitoring campaigns employing the Lighthouse 3016 IAQ particle counter near the locations of monitoring stations assessing size-segregated mass fraction concentrations (PM0.5, PM1, PM2.5, PM5, PM10, and TPM) and particle number concentration (differential Δ) range between 0.3 and 10 microns during the specified timeline between 8.00 and 11.00 a.m., which were considered the morning rush hours interval. Interpolation maps estimating the spatial distribution of the mass concentrations of various PM fractions and particle number concentration were drawn using the IDW algorithm in ArcGIS 10.8.2. Regarding the particle count of 0.5 microns during the lockdown, the smallest number was recorded when the restriction of citizens’ movement was declared (24 March 2020), which was 5.8-times lower (17,301.3 particles/cm3) compared to a common day outside the lockdown period (100,047.3 particles/cm3). Similar results were observed for other particle sizes. Regarding the spatial distribution of the mass concentrations, the smaller fractions were higher in the middle of the city and west (PM0.5, PM1, and PM2.5) while the PM10 was more concentrated in the west. These are strongly related to traffic patterns. The analysis is useful to establish the impact of PM and the assessment of urban exposure and better air quality planning. Long-term exposure to PM in conjunction with other dangerous air pollutants in urban aerosols of Ploiesti can lead to potential adverse effects on the population, especially for residents located in the most impacted areas. Full article
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2 pages, 368 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Phairuang et al. Ambient Nanoparticles (PM0.1) Mapping in Thailand. Atmosphere 2023, 14, 66
by Worradorn Phairuang, Suthida Piriyakarnsakul, Muanfun Inerb, Surapa Hongtieab, Thunyapat Thongyen, Jiraporn Chomanee, Yaowatat Boongla, Phuchiwan Suriyawong, Hisam Samae, Phuvasa Chanonmuang, Panwadee Suwattiga, Thaneeya Chetiyanukornkul, Sirima Panyametheekul, Muhammad Amin, Mitsuhiko Hata and Masami Furuuchi
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 745; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040745 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 976
Abstract
There were errors in the original article [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Particulate Matter Hazard Mapping)
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17 pages, 2815 KiB  
Article
Passive Hydrocarbon Sampling in a Shale Oil and Gas Production Area Shows Spatially Heterogeneous Air Toxics Exposure Based on Type and Proximity to Emission Sources
by Gunnar W. Schade and Emma N. Heienickle
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040744 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1653
Abstract
Shale oil and gas production areas are especially active in Texas. The Eagle Ford Shale in south central Texas contributes substantially to US oil and gas production; it has repeatedly been the focus of air quality studies due to its associated emissions. Among [...] Read more.
Shale oil and gas production areas are especially active in Texas. The Eagle Ford Shale in south central Texas contributes substantially to US oil and gas production; it has repeatedly been the focus of air quality studies due to its associated emissions. Among these emissions are hazardous air pollutants such as benzene, a known carcinogen. To monitor exposure to such compounds, we teamed up with local citizens in 2019 to begin a passive sampling study for hydrocarbons. The study tracked selected non-methane hydrocarbons at six locations throughout a busy central production area of the shale. A state air quality monitoring station allowed for a comparison exercise, and we report both the results of that exercise and the observations from various properties affected by the surrounding oil and gas exploration activities. The passive samplers accurately reflected mean to median ambient hydrocarbon levels despite high variability and skewness in the hourly measurements. Field sites either right next to oil and gas production pads, surrounded by more surface pads than other sites, or affected by an additional emission source showed higher exposure to selected hydrocarbons. Passive sampling shows promise to bridge the gap between centralized air monitoring and campaign-style mobile monitoring to evaluate hydrocarbon emissions and abundances. It is a cost-effective way to provide both spatial and temporal information on exposure levels. Full article
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21 pages, 5593 KiB  
Article
Effects of Visitor Influx on the Indoor Climate of the Milan Cathedral
by Harold Enrique Huerto-Cardenas, Niccolò Aste, Claudio Del Pero, Stefano Della Torre, Fabrizio Leonforte and Camille Luna Stella Blavier
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 743; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040743 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1610
Abstract
The indoor climate of non-climatized churches is usually subject to cyclical fluctuations of temperature and relative humidity induced by external climate conditions which might be dampened by the high thermal capacity of their envelope. However, several phenomena affect their indoor climate (e.g., internal [...] Read more.
The indoor climate of non-climatized churches is usually subject to cyclical fluctuations of temperature and relative humidity induced by external climate conditions which might be dampened by the high thermal capacity of their envelope. However, several phenomena affect their indoor climate (e.g., internal gains due to people and artificial lighting, air infiltration, etc.), which lead to environmental variations that might jeopardize the artworks contained within. In particular, one of the most influential parameters that may affect non-climatized churches is the massive and intermittent presence of people who constantly visit their spaces. In such regard, long-term monitoring allows the collection of environmental data with different building operation conditions and visitor fluxes. This paper analyses the indoor climate of the Milan Cathedral (Duomo di Milano) in Italy for three continuous years (including the lockdown period that occurred in 2020 caused by the COVID-19 pandemic), with a focus on visitors’ effects on the indoor environment and the conservation of the main artworks contained within. The results of the analysis have shown that spaces with huge volume are most influenced by the opening of the doors rather than the hygrothermal contribution of the intermittent presence of massive crowds. Moreover, the absence of visitors for a prolonged period correlates with an improvement in the indoor conservation conditions for artworks, especially those made of hygroscopic materials, due to the reduction in short, rapid climate fluctuations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Environment and Cultural Heritage Protection)
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14 pages, 3292 KiB  
Article
Verification and Accuracy Analysis of Single-Frequency Occultation Processing Based on the BeiDou Navigation System
by Ruimin Li, Qifei Du, Ming Yang, Haoran Tian, Yueqiang Sun, Xiangguang Meng, Weihua Bai, Xianyi Wang, Guangyuan Tan and Peng Hu
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 742; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040742 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1212
Abstract
GNSS single-frequency occultation processing technology has the advantage of simple instrumentation, but it is not clear about the accuracy of the Beidou-based single-frequency occultation processing. This paper verifies the single-frequency occultation processing algorithm of the BeiDou navigation system (BDS) and analyzes its accuracy [...] Read more.
GNSS single-frequency occultation processing technology has the advantage of simple instrumentation, but it is not clear about the accuracy of the Beidou-based single-frequency occultation processing. This paper verifies the single-frequency occultation processing algorithm of the BeiDou navigation system (BDS) and analyzes its accuracy based on occultation observation data from the FY3E satellite. The research aimed to verify the single-frequency ionospheric relative total electron content (relTEC), analyze the accuracy of the reconstructed second frequency B3’s excess phase Doppler, and analyze the accuracy of the refractive index products. Results: (1) As for relTEC and excess phase Doppler, the correlation coefficient between single-frequency occultation processing and dual-frequency occultation processing is greater than 0.95. (2) The relative average deviations of the excess phase Doppler of B3 are mostly less than 0.2%, and the relative standard deviations are mostly around 0.5%. (3) The bias index and root mean square index of single/dual-frequency inversion have good consistency compared with ERA5 data. All the results show that the single- and dual-frequency inversion refractive index products have comparable accuracies, and the accuracy of the standard deviation of single-frequency inversion refractive index products over 25 km being slightly lower than that of dual-frequency inversion refractive index products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS Meteorology: Algorithm, Modelling, Assessment and Application)
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21 pages, 4552 KiB  
Article
Investigation and Prediction of the Land Use/Land Cover (LU/LC) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) Changes for Mashhad City in Iran during 1990–2030
by Mohammad Mansourmoghaddam, Iman Rousta, Pedro Cabral, Ashehad A. Ali, Haraldur Olafsson, Hao Zhang and Jaromir Krzyszczak
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040741 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2231
Abstract
Studies on how cities are affected by urban heat islands (UHI) are critical nowadays for a better understanding of the connected effects and for providing helpful insights for sustainable city development planning. In this study, Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM), Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ [...] Read more.
Studies on how cities are affected by urban heat islands (UHI) are critical nowadays for a better understanding of the connected effects and for providing helpful insights for sustainable city development planning. In this study, Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM), Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ (ETM+), and Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images were used to assess the dynamics of the spatiotemporal pattern of land use/land cover (LU/LC) and land surface temperature (LST) in the metropolitan city of Mashhad, Iran in the period between 1990 and 2019. The Markov chain model (MCM) was used to predict LU/LC and LST for 2030. In the analyzed LU/LC maps, three LU/LC classes were distinguished, including built-up land (BUL), vegetated land (VL), and bare land (BL) using the maximum likelihood (ML) classification method. The collected data showed different variations in the geographical pattern of Mashhad LST during the research period that impacted the LST in this metropolis. The study evaluated the variations in LU/LC classes and evaluated their impact on the LST. The value of the LST was positively correlated with the occurrence of the built-up land (BUL), and with the bare land areas, while it was negatively correlated with the occurrence of the VL areas. The analysis of changes observed over three decades with 10-year intervals and the prediction of the LU/LC and LST for 2030 constitute an important contribution to the delineation of the dynamics of long LU/LC and LST records. These innovative results may have an important impact on policymaking fostering environmental sustainability, such as the control and management of urban expansion of Mashhad in connection with UHI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosphere/Hydrosphere/Land–Atmosphere Interactions)
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16 pages, 3653 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Summertime Ozone Formation and Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Suburb Area of Hefei: A Case Study of 2020
by Hui Yu, Qianqian Liu, Nana Wei, Mingfeng Hu, Xuezhe Xu, Shuo Wang, Jiacheng Zhou, Weixiong Zhao and Weijun Zhang
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040740 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1804
Abstract
Ground surface ozone (O3) is an emerging concern in China due to its complex formation process. In August 2020, field measurements of O3, NOx, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were carried out in Hefei’s western suburbs. The [...] Read more.
Ground surface ozone (O3) is an emerging concern in China due to its complex formation process. In August 2020, field measurements of O3, NOx, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were carried out in Hefei’s western suburbs. The pollution features of VOCs and O3 formation were thoroughly analyzed. The total VOC concentration was 42.26 ppb, with the dominant contributor being oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs). Seven emission sources were recognized using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, including aged air masses, combustion sources, fuel evaporation, industrial emissions, vehicular emission, solvent utilization, and biogenic emission. Ozone generation mainly occurred under an NOx-limited regime based on the zero-dimensional box model analysis. According to the scenario analysis, the 13% cut in O3 might be achieved by the 10% and 30% reduction in NOx and VOCs, respectively. The O3 budget analysis demonstrates its high ozone production rate during the pollution period. The influence of regional transport cannot be ignored for high O3 pollution. This paper provides scientific evidence for O3 production and the strategies of reducing O3 by controlling its precursors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Source Apportionment of Regional Ozone Pollution)
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17 pages, 5465 KiB  
Article
Ground-Based MAX-DOAS Observation of Trace Gases from 2019 to 2021 in Huaibei, China
by Fusheng Mou, Jing Luo, Qijin Zhang, Chuang Zhou, Song Wang, Fan Ye, Suwen Li and Youwen Sun
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040739 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1266
Abstract
With the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic and the implementation of closure measures in 2020, population mobility and human activities have decreased, which has seriously impacted atmospheric quality. Huaibei City is an important coal and chemical production base in East China, which faces [...] Read more.
With the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic and the implementation of closure measures in 2020, population mobility and human activities have decreased, which has seriously impacted atmospheric quality. Huaibei City is an important coal and chemical production base in East China, which faces increasing environmental problems. The impact of anthropogenic activities on air quality in this area was investigated by comparing the COVID-19 lockdown in 2020 with the normal situation in 2021. Tropospheric NO2, HCHO and SO2 column densities were observed by ground-based multiple axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS). In situ measurements for PM2.5, NO2, SO2 and O3 were also taken. The observation period was divided into four phases, the pre-lockdown period, phase 1 lockdown, phase 2 lockdown and the post-lockdown period. Ground-based MAX-DOAS results showed that tropospheric NO2, HCHO and SO2 column densities increased by 41, 14 and 14%, respectively, during phase 1 in 2021 vs. 2020. In situ results showed that NO2 and SO2 increased by 59 and 11%, respectively, during phase 1 in 2021 vs. 2020, but PM2.5 and O3 decreased by 15 and 17%, respectively. In the phase 2 period, due to the partial lifting of control measures, the concentration of pollutants did not significantly change. The weekly MAX-DOAS results showed that there was no obvious weekend effect of pollutants in the Huaibei area, and NO2, HCHO and SO2 had obvious diurnal variation characteristics. In addition, the relationship between the column densities and wind speed and direction in 2020 and 2021 was studied. The results showed that, in the absence of traffic control in 2021, elevated sources in the Eastern part of the city emitted large amounts of NO2. The observed ratios of HCHO to NO2 suggested that tropospheric ozone production involved NOX-limited scenarios. The correlation analysis between HCHO and different gases showed that HCHO mainly originated from primary emission sources related to SO2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Pollutants: Characteristics, Sources and Transport)
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19 pages, 14151 KiB  
Article
Improving Air Pollution Modelling in Complex Terrain with a Coupled WRF–LOTOS–EUROS Approach: A Case Study in Aburrá Valley, Colombia
by Jhon E. Hinestroza-Ramirez, Santiago Lopez-Restrepo, Andrés Yarce Botero, Arjo Segers, Angela M. Rendon-Perez, Santiago Isaza-Cadavid, Arnold Heemink and Olga Lucia Quintero
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 738; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040738 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1605
Abstract
Chemical transport models (CTM) are crucial for simulating the distribution of air pollutants, such as particulate matter, and evaluating their impact on the environment and human health. However, these models rely heavily on accurate emission inventory and meteorological inputs, usually obtained from reanalyzed [...] Read more.
Chemical transport models (CTM) are crucial for simulating the distribution of air pollutants, such as particulate matter, and evaluating their impact on the environment and human health. However, these models rely heavily on accurate emission inventory and meteorological inputs, usually obtained from reanalyzed weather data, such as the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). These inputs do not accurately reflect the complex topography and micro-scale meteorology in tropical regions where air pollution can pose a severe public health threat. We propose coupling the LOTOS–EUROS CTM model and the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to improve LOTOS–EUROS representation. Using WRF as a meteorological driver provides high-resolution inputs for accurate pollutant simulation. We compared LOTOS–EUROS results when WRF and ECMWF provided the meteorological inputs during low and high pollutant concentration periods. The findings indicate that the WRF–LOTOS–EUROS coupling offers a more precise representation of the meteorology and pollutant dispersion than the default input of ECMWF. The simulations also capture the spatio-temporal variability of pollutant concentration and emphasize the importance of accounting for micro-scale meteorology and topography in air pollution modelling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Air Quality Modelling)
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21 pages, 5821 KiB  
Article
Atmospheric Deposition around the Industrial Areas of Milazzo and Priolo Gargallo (Sicily–Italy)—Part B: Trace Elements
by Filippo Brugnone, Walter D’Alessandro, Francesco Parello, Lorenzo Brusca, Filippo Saiano, Lorenza Li Vigni, Mario Sprovieri and Sergio Calabrese
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040737 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1567
Abstract
The concentrations of trace elements in atmospheric bulk depositions (wet plus dry) were investigated from two highly industrialised areas of Sicily (southern Italy) from June 2018 to July 2019, in order to recognise the main natural and anthropogenic sources. A side objective of [...] Read more.
The concentrations of trace elements in atmospheric bulk depositions (wet plus dry) were investigated from two highly industrialised areas of Sicily (southern Italy) from June 2018 to July 2019, in order to recognise the main natural and anthropogenic sources. A side objective of this study was to improve the common sampling procedures and analytical methods used for monitoring trace elements in atmospheric deposition. The trace element VWM (Volume-Weighted Mean) concentrations ranged from less than 0.01 μg L−1 for trace elements such as Cs, Tl, and U, up to 24 μg L−1 for minor elements (Al, Zn, Sr), in the filtered aliquot, while they reached concentrations up to 144 μg L−1 for the same elements, in the unfiltered aliquot. Therefore, significant differences in concentrations between these two aliquots were found, particularly for Al, Fe, Ti, Zn, Cr, Pb, Se, Cs, and U. This implies that filtering operations may produce a consistent underestimation of concentrations of certain ‘constituents’ of the atmospheric deposition. Natural (marine spray, local and regional geogenic input, volcanic emanations) and anthropogenic sources (industrial emissions, auto vehicular traffic, and diffuse background pollution) which influence rainwater chemistry were identified. Enrichment factors (EFs), with respect to the upper crust composition, provided clear evidence of the different sources above mentioned: Ti, Fe, Al, Cs, Cr, Rb, and Co have low EFs (<1), and are referable to the (local and/or regional) geogenic input, while Se, Sb, Zn, B, Cd, Cu, Mo, Sr, As, with high EFs (>10), highlight the influence of marine and/or industrial sources. The study produced a novel dataset on the atmospheric deposition rate of several trace elements, which had never been studied in the investigated areas. Finally, a comparison of trace element deposition rates in the studied areas with the atmospheric deposition reported for 53 different sites, belonging to 20 different European nations, was made. The comparison showed that some elements, such as Al, V, Zn, and Mo had higher median deposition fluxes in the Sicilian sites than in European monitoring sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosphere/Hydrosphere/Land–Atmosphere Interactions)
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8 pages, 230 KiB  
Review
Beyond Scale-by-Scale Equilibrium
by John C. Vassilicos
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 736; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040736 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1486
Abstract
Homogeneous turbulence and turbulence in scale-by-scale equilibrium, played a leading role in the turbulence research of the second half of the twentieth century, and Jack Herring was an important contributor to these developments. The research activity which has followed these developments over the [...] Read more.
Homogeneous turbulence and turbulence in scale-by-scale equilibrium, played a leading role in the turbulence research of the second half of the twentieth century, and Jack Herring was an important contributor to these developments. The research activity which has followed these developments over the past ten to fifteen years concerns turbulence, which is out of scale-by-scale equilibrium either because it is non-stationary or because it is non-homogeneous or both. This paper is a short review of recent progress in this relatively new direction of turbulence research. Full article
21 pages, 11015 KiB  
Article
Impacts of GNSS RO Data on Typhoon Forecasts Using Global FV3GFS with GSI 4DEnVar
by Tang-Xun Hong, Ching-Yuang Huang, Chen-Yang Lin, Guo-Yuan Lien, Zih-Mao Huang and Shu-Ya Chen
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040735 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1468
Abstract
The FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 satellites were launched in 2019, which can provide considerably larger amounts of radio occultation (RO) observations than the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites. The radio signals emitted from the global navigation satellites system (GNSS) are received by these low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites to [...] Read more.
The FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 satellites were launched in 2019, which can provide considerably larger amounts of radio occultation (RO) observations than the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites. The radio signals emitted from the global navigation satellites system (GNSS) are received by these low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites to provide the so-called bending angle accounting for bending of the rays after penetrating through the atmosphere. Deeper RO observations can be retrieved from FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 for use in RO data assimilation to improve forecasts of tropical cyclones. This study used the global model FV3GFS with the finest grid resolution of about 25 km to simulate five selected typhoons over the western North Pacific, including Hagibis in 2019, Maysak and Haishen in 2020, and Kompasu and Rai in 2021. For each case, two experiments were conducted with and without assimilating FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 RO bending angle. The RO data were assimilated by the GSI 4DEnVar data assimilation system for a total period of 4 days (with 6 h assimilation window) before the typhoon genesis time, followed by a forecast length of 120 h. The RO data assimilation improved the typhoon track forecasts on average of 42 runs. However, no significantly positive impacts, in general, were found on the typhoon intensity forecasts, except for Maysak. Analyses for Maysak attributed the improved intensity forecast mainly to the improved analyses for wind, temperature, and moisture in the mid-upper troposphere after data assimilation. Consequently, the RO data largely enhanced the evolving intensity of the typhoon at a more consistent movement as explained by the wavenumber-one vorticity budget analysis. On the other hand, a noted improvement on the wind analysis, but still with degraded temperature analysis above the boundary layer, also improved track forecast at some specific times for Hagibis. The predictability of typhoon track and intensity as marginally improved by use of the large RO data remains very challenging to be well explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Typhoon/Hurricane Dynamics and Prediction)
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14 pages, 3205 KiB  
Article
A Study of Elemental Composition and Risk Assessment Due to Exposure to Indoor PM10 in Two Residences in Mexico City
by Salvador Reynoso-Cruces, Javier Miranda-Martín-del-Campo and Juan Carlos Pineda-Santamaría
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040734 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1922
Abstract
Samples of airborne particles with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 10 µm (PM10) were collected in 2021 at two households in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City. Both sites are in areas with different characteristics (residential or industrial zones). Simultaneous sampling indoors [...] Read more.
Samples of airborne particles with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 10 µm (PM10) were collected in 2021 at two households in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City. Both sites are in areas with different characteristics (residential or industrial zones). Simultaneous sampling indoors and outdoors was carried out at the two locations, using low-volume samplers. The study aimed to determine the indoor and outdoor gravimetric mass and elemental concentrations, identify emitting sources and possible penetration towards the households enhanced by natural ventilation, and assess risks to human health due to inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption, through hazard quotients. Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Se, and Pb concentrations were measured with X-ray fluorescence. Mass concentrations were higher indoors than outdoors, and most elemental concentrations had similar values in both environments. Cluster analysis was applied to identify possible emitting sources. The results showed a strong penetration of geogenic and industrial emissions at the Iztapalapa site, while only particles of industrial origin entered the interior of the Tlalnepantla dwelling, in both cases caused by the natural ventilation of the households. Health risks due to exposure to particles containing Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Mn are not significant, and Pb and Cr only pose a risk via ingestion for men and women, although for children, there is a risk due to ingestion of all these elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Air Quality and Health Risk)
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16 pages, 4178 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Patterns and Characteristics of PM2.5 Pollution in the Yellow River Golden Triangle Demonstration Area
by Ning Jin, Liang He, Haixia Jia, Mingxing Qin, Dongyan Zhang, Cheng Wang, Xiaojian Li and Yanlin Li
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040733 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1186
Abstract
Improving air quality in the Yellow River Golden Triangle Demonstration Area (YRGTDA) is an important practice for ecological protection and high-quality development in the Yellow River Basin. Preventing and controlling PM2.5 pollution in this region will require a scientific understanding of the [...] Read more.
Improving air quality in the Yellow River Golden Triangle Demonstration Area (YRGTDA) is an important practice for ecological protection and high-quality development in the Yellow River Basin. Preventing and controlling PM2.5 pollution in this region will require a scientific understanding of the spatiotemporal patterns and characteristics of PM2.5 pollution. PM2.5 data from different sources were combined in this study (the annual average of PM2.5 concentrations were obtained from the Atmospheric Composition Analysis Group of Dalhousie University, and the daily PM2.5 concentration data were obtained from the China National Environmental Monitoring Centre). Then, the temporal variation of PM2.5 concentrations at annual, seasonal, and monthly scales, the spatial variation of PM2.5 concentrations, and the variation of PM2.5 pollution classes were analyzed. Results showed that: (1) at the annual scale, the PM2.5 concentrations showed a decreasing trend from 2000 to 2021 in the study area. The variation of PM2.5 concentrations were divided into two different stages. (2) At the seasonal scale, high PM2.5 concentrations occurred mainly in winter, low PM2.5 concentrations occurred in summer. At the monthly scale, PM2.5 concentrations showed a U-shaped variation pattern from January to December each year. (3) The hotspot analysis of the PM2.5 concentrations in the study area showed a cyclical variation pattern. (4) The PM2.5 concentrations exhibited a spatial pattern of high values in the central and low values in the northern and southern parts of YRGTDA. (5) The number of days for different PM2.5 pollution classes from 2015 to 2021 followed the order of Good > Excellent > Light pollution > Moderate pollution > Heavy pollution > Severe pollution in YRGTDA. The results of this study have great theoretical and practical significance because they reveal the spatiotemporal patterns and pollution characteristics of PM2.5 and will lead to the development of scientifically based measures to reasonably prevent and control pollution in YRGTDA. Full article
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13 pages, 3825 KiB  
Article
Off-Cycle Emissions of Particle Number from Gasoline and DPF Diesel Passenger Cars in High-Load Conditions
by Hiroyuki Yamada, Taichi Kimura, Hidenori Konno and Yoshinori Kondo
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040732 - 18 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1286
Abstract
To evaluate regulated gases and solid particle number (SPN) emissions in high-load off-cycle conditions, two diesel vehicles with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system, respectively, and four gasoline port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles were tested with [...] Read more.
To evaluate regulated gases and solid particle number (SPN) emissions in high-load off-cycle conditions, two diesel vehicles with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system, respectively, and four gasoline port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles were tested with the worldwide light-duty test cycle, including an extra-high (Ex-hi) phase. All the tested vehicles were developed for the Japanese market and did not comply with the Ex-hi phase. All vehicles exhibited higher CO2 emissions in the Ex-hi phase than in low, the mid and high phases. Increased NOx and SPN10-23 emissions were observed with the DPF vehicle. These increased emissions were due to the occurrence of passive regeneration of the DPF, and the urea SCR system was stopped as a result. The small gasoline PFI cars showed increased CO and SPN emissions in the Ex-hi phase. These emissions were due to enrichment control, which occurred in a quite high load operation condition. The feature of higher emissions with enrichment control differed from that observed in a warming-up process in the cold-start mode. SPN23 increased mainly in the warming-up process, whereas SPN10-23 increased in the Ex-hi phase with enrichment control. Hybrid vehicles seem to have fewer opportunities to show the enrichment control due to motor assist. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle Emissions: New Challenges and Potential Solutions)
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15 pages, 5667 KiB  
Review
A Review on Aerodynamic Characteristics and Wind-Induced Response of Flexible Support Photovoltaic System
by Fubin Chen, Yuzhe Zhu, Weijia Wang, Zhenru Shu and Yi Li
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040731 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2558
Abstract
Photovoltaic (PV) system is an essential part in renewable energy development, which exhibits huge market demand. In comparison with traditional rigid-supported photovoltaic (PV) system, the flexible photovoltaic (PV) system structure is much more vulnerable to wind load. Hence, it is imperative to gain [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic (PV) system is an essential part in renewable energy development, which exhibits huge market demand. In comparison with traditional rigid-supported photovoltaic (PV) system, the flexible photovoltaic (PV) system structure is much more vulnerable to wind load. Hence, it is imperative to gain a better understanding of the aerodynamic characteristics and wind-induced response of flexible photovoltaic system. The main objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review on the state-of-the-art studies focusing on the aerodynamic characteristics and wind-induced response of flexible PV system. Relevant studies have been carried out, using either physical or numerical simulation tools, and the effect of a series of governing parameters, such as spacing ratio, angle of attack, inclination and position are considered. In addition, dynamic response of these flexible structures, including buffeting, flutter, vortex-induced vibration, are also discussed and documented. Full article
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