Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Genes, Volume 10, Issue 6 (June 2019)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Pet dogs are potentially the most powerful natural model for many human diseases, including cancer, [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-76
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Survey of the Bradysia odoriphaga Transcriptome Using PacBio Single-Molecule Long-Read Sequencing
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 20 June 2019 / Accepted: 22 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
Viewed by 305 | PDF Full-text (3045 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The damage caused by Bradysia odoriphaga is the main factor threatening the production of vegetables in the Liliaceae family. However, few genetic studies of B. odoriphaga have been conducted because of a lack of genomic resources. Many long-read sequencing technologies have been developed [...] Read more.
The damage caused by Bradysia odoriphaga is the main factor threatening the production of vegetables in the Liliaceae family. However, few genetic studies of B. odoriphaga have been conducted because of a lack of genomic resources. Many long-read sequencing technologies have been developed in the last decade; therefore, in this study, the transcriptome including all development stages of B. odoriphaga was sequenced for the first time by Pacific single-molecule long-read sequencing. Here, 39,129 isoforms were generated, and 35,645 were found to have annotation results when checked against sequences available in different databases. Overall, 18,473 isoforms were distributed in 25 various Clusters of Orthologous Groups, and 11,880 isoforms were categorized into 60 functional groups that belonged to the three main Gene Ontology classifications. Moreover, 30,610 isoforms were assigned into 44 functional categories belonging to six main Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes functional categories. Coding DNA sequence (CDS) prediction showed that 36,419 out of 39,129 isoforms were predicted to have CDS, and 4319 simple sequence repeats were detected in total. Finally, 266 insecticide resistance and metabolism-related isoforms were identified as candidate genes for further investigation of insecticide resistance and metabolism in B. odoriphaga. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Genetics and Genomics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Genomic Makeup of Nine Horse Populations Sampled in the Netherlands
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 22 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
Viewed by 334 | PDF Full-text (7206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The spectrum of modern horse populations encompasses populations with a long history of development in isolation and relatively recently formed types. To increase our understanding of the evolutionary history and provide information on how to optimally conserve or improve these populations with varying [...] Read more.
The spectrum of modern horse populations encompasses populations with a long history of development in isolation and relatively recently formed types. To increase our understanding of the evolutionary history and provide information on how to optimally conserve or improve these populations with varying development and background for the future, we analyzed genotype data of 184 horses from 9 Dutch or common horse populations in the Netherlands: The Belgian draft horse, Friesian horse, Shetland pony, Icelandic horse, Gelder horse, Groninger horse, harness horse, KWPN sport horse and the Lipizzaner horse population. Various parameters were estimated (e.g., runs of homozygosity and FST values) to gain insight into genetic diversity and relationships within and among these populations. The identified genomic makeup and quantified relationships did mostly conform to the development of these populations as well as past and current breeding practices. In general, populations that allow gene-flow showed less inbreeding and homozygosity. Also, recent bottlenecks (e.g., related to high selective pressure) caused a larger contribution of long ROHs to inbreeding. Maintaining genetic diversity through tailor-made breeding practices is crucial for a healthy continuation of the investigated, mostly inbred and (effectively) small sized horse populations, of which several already experience inbreeding related issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Genetics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Electromagnetic Fields, Genomic Instability and Cancer: A Systems Biological View
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 22 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
Viewed by 307 | PDF Full-text (1320 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review discusses the use of systems biology in understanding the biological effects of electromagnetic fields, with particular focus on induction of genomic instability and cancer. We introduce basic concepts of the dynamical systems theory such as the state space and attractors and [...] Read more.
This review discusses the use of systems biology in understanding the biological effects of electromagnetic fields, with particular focus on induction of genomic instability and cancer. We introduce basic concepts of the dynamical systems theory such as the state space and attractors and the use of these concepts in understanding the behavior of complex biological systems. We then discuss genomic instability in the framework of the dynamical systems theory, and describe the hypothesis that environmentally induced genomic instability corresponds to abnormal attractor states; large enough environmental perturbations can force the biological system to leave normal evolutionarily optimized attractors (corresponding to normal cell phenotypes) and migrate to less stable variant attractors. We discuss experimental approaches that can be coupled with theoretical systems biology such as testable predictions, derived from the theory and experimental methods, that can be used for measuring the state of the complex biological system. We also review potentially informative studies and make recommendations for further studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmentally Induced Genomic Instability)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Modulating the Precursor and Terpene Synthase Supply for the Whole-Cell Biocatalytic Production of the Sesquiterpene (+)-Zizaene in a Pathway Engineered E. coli
Received: 19 May 2019 / Revised: 15 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 24 June 2019
Viewed by 153 | PDF Full-text (2726 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The vetiver essential oil from Chrysopogon zizanioides contains fragrant sesquiterpenes used widely in the formulation of nearly 20% of men’s cosmetics. The growing demand and issues in the supply have raised interest in the microbial production of the sesquiterpene khusimol, the main compound [...] Read more.
The vetiver essential oil from Chrysopogon zizanioides contains fragrant sesquiterpenes used widely in the formulation of nearly 20% of men’s cosmetics. The growing demand and issues in the supply have raised interest in the microbial production of the sesquiterpene khusimol, the main compound of the vetiver essential oil due to its woody smell. In this study, we engineered the biosynthetic pathway for the production of (+)-zizaene, the immediate precursor of khusimol. A systematic approach of metabolic engineering in Escherichia coli was applied to modulate the critical bottlenecks of the metabolic flux towards (+)-zizaene. Initially, production of (+)-zizaene was possible with the endogenous methylerythritol phosphate pathway and the codon-optimized zizaene synthase (ZS). Raising the precursor E,E-farnesyl diphosphate supply through the mevalonate pathway improved the (+)-zizaene titers 2.7-fold, although a limitation of the ZS supply was observed. To increase the ZS supply, distinct promoters were tested for the expression of the ZS gene, which augmented 7.2-fold in the (+)-zizaene titers. Final metabolic enhancement for the ZS supply by using a multi-plasmid strain harboring multiple copies of the ZS gene improved the (+)-zizaene titers 1.3-fold. The optimization of the fermentation conditions increased the (+)-zizaene titers 2.2-fold, achieving the highest (+)-zizaene titer of 25.09 mg L−1. This study provides an alternative strategy to enhance the terpene synthase supply for the engineering of isoprenoids. Moreover, it demonstrates the development of a novel microbial platform for the sustainable production of fragrant molecules for the cosmetic industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Genetics and Genomics)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Genome-Wide Analysis of Long Non-Coding RNA Profiles in Canine Oral Melanomas
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 23 June 2019
Viewed by 392 | PDF Full-text (2616 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Mucosal melanomas (MM) are rare aggressive cancers in humans, and one of the most common forms of oral cancers in dogs. Similar biological and histological features are shared between MM in both species, making dogs a powerful model for comparative oncology studies of [...] Read more.
Mucosal melanomas (MM) are rare aggressive cancers in humans, and one of the most common forms of oral cancers in dogs. Similar biological and histological features are shared between MM in both species, making dogs a powerful model for comparative oncology studies of melanomas. Although exome sequencing recently identified recurrent coding mutations in canine MM, little is known about changes in non-coding gene expression, and more particularly, in canine long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are commonly dysregulated in human cancers. Here, we sampled a large cohort (n = 52) of canine normal/tumor oral MM from three predisposed breeds (poodles, Labrador retrievers, and golden retrievers), and used deep transcriptome sequencing to identify more than 400 differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs. We further prioritized candidate lncRNAs by comparative genomic analysis to pinpoint 26 dog–human conserved DE lncRNAs, including SOX21-AS, ZEB2-AS, and CASC15 lncRNAs. Using unsupervised co-expression network analysis with coding genes, we inferred the potential functions of the DE lncRNAs, suggesting associations with cancer-related genes, cell cycle, and carbohydrate metabolism Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Finally, we exploited our multi-breed design to identify DE lncRNAs within breeds. This study provides a unique transcriptomic resource for studying oral melanoma in dogs, and highlights lncRNAs that may potentially be diagnostic or therapeutic targets for human and veterinary medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Canine Genetics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Expression and Regulation of PpEIN3b during Fruit Ripening and Senescence via Integrating SA, Glucose, and ACC Signaling in Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai. Whangkeumbae)
Received: 17 May 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
Viewed by 303 | PDF Full-text (4341 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The economic value of fruit is reduced by having a short shelf life. Whangkeumbae is a type of sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) considered a climacteric fruit. The pear is famous for its smooth surface and good flavor. However, its shelf life [...] Read more.
The economic value of fruit is reduced by having a short shelf life. Whangkeumbae is a type of sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) considered a climacteric fruit. The pear is famous for its smooth surface and good flavor. However, its shelf life is very short because of senescence and disease after harvest and a burst of ethylene (ET) production prompting the onset of fruit ripening. In plants, ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) and EIN3like (EIL), located in the nucleus, are important components of the ET signaling pathway and act as transcription factors. EIN3s and EILs belong to a small family involved in regulating the expression of ethylene response factor gene (ERF), whose encoding protein is the final component in the ET signaling pathway. The mutation of these components will cause defects in the ethylene pathway. In this study, one gene encoding an EIN3 was cloned and identified from Whangkeumbae and designated PpEIN3b. The deduced PpEIN3b contained a conserved EIN3 domain, a bipartite nuclear localization signal profile (NLS_BP), and an N-6 adenine-specific DNA methylase signature (N6_MTASE). PpEIN3b belongs to the EIN3 super-family by phylogenetic analysis. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that PpEIN3b was preferentially expressed in fruit. Additionally, its expression was developmentally regulated during fruit ripening and senescence. Furthermore, PpEIN3b transcripts were obviously repressed by salicylic acid (SA) and glucose treatment in pear fruit and in diseased fruit, while it was significantly induced by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) treatment. Taken together, our results reveal the expression and regulation profiles of PpEIN3b and suggest that PpEIN3b might integrate SA, glucose, and ACC signaling to regulate fruit ripening and senescence in pear, which would provide a candidate gene for this regulation to obtain fruit with a long shelf life and improved economic value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormonal Control of Gene Expression in Plants)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Identification of Stress Associated microRNAs in Solanum lycopersicum by High-Throughput Sequencing
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 13 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
Viewed by 385 | PDF Full-text (3393 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most important crops around the world and also a model plant to study response to stress. High-throughput sequencing was used to analyse the microRNA (miRNA) profile of tomato plants undergoing five biotic and abiotic [...] Read more.
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most important crops around the world and also a model plant to study response to stress. High-throughput sequencing was used to analyse the microRNA (miRNA) profile of tomato plants undergoing five biotic and abiotic stress conditions (drought, heat, P. syringae infection, B. cinerea infection, and herbivore insect attack with Leptinotarsa decemlineata larvae) and one chemical treatment with a plant defence inducer, hexanoic acid. We identified 104 conserved miRNAs belonging to 37 families and we predicted 61 novel tomato miRNAs. Among those 165 miRNAs, 41 were stress-responsive. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to validate high-throughput expression analysis data, confirming the expression profiles of 10 out of 11 randomly selected miRNAs. Most of the differentially expressed miRNAs were stress-specific, except for sly-miR167c-3p upregulated in B. cinerea and P. syringae infection, sly-newmiR26-3p upregulated in drought and Hx treatment samples, and sly-newmiR33-3p, sly-newmiR6-3p and sly-newmiR8-3p differentially expressed both in biotic and abiotic stresses. From mature miRNAs sequences of the 41 stress-responsive miRNAs 279 targets were predicted. An inverse correlation between the expression profiles of 4 selected miRNAs (sly-miR171a, sly-miR172c, sly-newmiR22-3p and sly-miR167c-3p) and their target genes (Kinesin, PPR, GRAS40, ABC transporter, GDP and RLP1) was confirmed by RT-qPCR. Altogether, our analysis of miRNAs in different biotic and abiotic stress conditions highlight the interest to understand the functional role of miRNAs in tomato stress response as well as their putative targets which could help to elucidate plants molecular and physiological adaptation to stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant miRNA Mediated Defense Response)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessCommunication
Immunophenotyping of a Stromal Vascular Fraction from Microfragmented Lipoaspirate Used in Osteoarthritis Cartilage Treatment and Its Lipoaspirate Counterpart
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
Viewed by 312 | PDF Full-text (4024 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease accompanied by pain and loss of function. Adipose tissue harbors mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC), or medicinal signaling cells as suggested by Caplan (Caplan, 2017), used in autologous transplantation in many clinical settings. The aim of the [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease accompanied by pain and loss of function. Adipose tissue harbors mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC), or medicinal signaling cells as suggested by Caplan (Caplan, 2017), used in autologous transplantation in many clinical settings. The aim of the study was to characterize a stromal vascular fraction from microfragmented lipoaspirate (SVF-MLA) applied for cartilage treatment in OA and compare it to that of autologous lipoaspirate (SVF-LA). Samples were first stained using a DuraClone SC prototype tube for the surface detection of CD31, CD34, CD45, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD146 and LIVE/DEAD Yellow Fixable Stain for dead cell detection, followed by DRAQ7 cell nuclear dye staining, and analyzed by flow cytometry. In SVF-LA and SVF-MLA samples, the following population phenotypes were identified within the CD45 fraction: CD31+CD34+CD73±CD90±CD105±CD146± endothelial progenitors (EP), CD31+CD34CD73±CD90±CD105CD146± mature endothelial cells, CD31CD34CD73±CD90+CD105CD146+ pericytes, CD31CD34+CD73±CD90+CD105CD146+ transitional pericytes, and CD31CD34+CD73highCD90+CD105CD146 supra-adventitial-adipose stromal cells (SA-ASC). The immunophenotyping profile of SVF-MLA was dominated by a reduction of leukocytes and SA-ASC, and an increase in EP, evidencing a marked enrichment of this cell population in the course of adipose tissue microfragmentation. The role of EP in pericyte-primed MSC-mediated tissue healing, as well as the observed hormonal implication, is yet to be investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cells Application in Clinical Practice: Advances and Challenges)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of Class III Peroxidases in Allotetraploid Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and their Responses to PK Deficiency
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 15 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
Viewed by 253 | PDF Full-text (3174 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Class III peroxidases (PODs), commonly known as secretable class III plant peroxidases, are plant-specific enzymes that play critical roles in not only plant growth and development but also the responses to biotic and abiotic stress. In this study, we identified 198 nonredundant POD [...] Read more.
Class III peroxidases (PODs), commonly known as secretable class III plant peroxidases, are plant-specific enzymes that play critical roles in not only plant growth and development but also the responses to biotic and abiotic stress. In this study, we identified 198 nonredundant POD genes, designated GhPODs, with 180 PODs being predicted to secrete into apoplast. These POD genes were divided into 10 sub-groups based on their phylogenetic relationships. We performed systematic bioinformatic analysis of the POD genes, including analysis of gene structures, phylogenetic relationships, and gene expression profiles. The GhPODs are unevenly distributed on both upland cotton sub-genome A and D chromosomes. Additionally, these genes have undergone 15 segmental and 12 tandem duplication events, indicating that both segmental and tandem duplication contributed to the expansion of the POD gene family in upland cotton. Ka/Ks analysis suggested that most duplicated GhPODs experienced negative selection, with limited functional divergence during the duplication events. High-throughput RNA-seq data indicated that most highly expressed genes might play significant roles in root, stem, leaf, and fiber development. Under K or P deficiency conditions, PODs showed different expression patterns in cotton root and leaf. This study provides useful information for further functional analysis of the POD gene family in upland cotton. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics and Genomics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of the Chitinases under Cold and Osmotic Stress in Ammopiptanthus nanus
Received: 12 May 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
Viewed by 277 | PDF Full-text (7810 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Chitinase is a kind of hydrolase with chitin as a substrate and is proposed to play an essential role in plant defense system by functioning against fungal pathogens through degrading chitin. Recent studies indicated chitinase is also involved in abiotic stress response in [...] Read more.
Chitinase is a kind of hydrolase with chitin as a substrate and is proposed to play an essential role in plant defense system by functioning against fungal pathogens through degrading chitin. Recent studies indicated chitinase is also involved in abiotic stress response in plants, helping plants to survive in stressful environments. A. nanus, a rare evergreen broad-leaved shrub distrusted in deserts in Central Asia, exhibits a high level of tolerance to drought and low temperature stresses. To identify the chitinase gene involved in drought and low temperature responses in A. nanus, we performed genome-wide identification, classification, sequence alignment, and spatio-temporal gene expression analysis of the chitinases in A. nanus under osmotic and low temperature stress. A total of 32 chitinase genes belonging to glycosyl hydrolase 18 (GH18) and GH19 families were identified from A. nanus. Class III chitinases appear to be amplified quantitatively in A. nanus, and their genes carry less introns, indicating their involvement in stress response in A. nanus. The expression level of the majority of chitinases varied in leaves, stems, and roots, and regulated under environmental stress. Some chitinases, such as EVM0022783, EVM0020238, and EVM0003645, are strongly induced by low temperature and osmotic stress, and the MYC/ICE1 (inducer of CBF expression 1) binding sites in promoter regions may mediate the induction of these chitinases under stress. These chitinases might play key roles in the tolerance to these abiotic stress in A. nanus and have potential for biotechnological applications. This study provided important data for understanding the biological functions of chitinases in A. nanus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Genetics and Genomics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Identification of Plasmodium falciparum Mitochondrial Malate: Quinone Oxidoreductase Inhibitors from the Pathogen Box
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
Viewed by 323 | PDF Full-text (2129 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Malaria is one of the three major global health threats. Drug development for malaria, especially for its most dangerous form caused by Plasmodium falciparum, remains an urgent task due to the emerging drug-resistant parasites. Exploration of novel antimalarial drug targets identified a [...] Read more.
Malaria is one of the three major global health threats. Drug development for malaria, especially for its most dangerous form caused by Plasmodium falciparum, remains an urgent task due to the emerging drug-resistant parasites. Exploration of novel antimalarial drug targets identified a trifunctional enzyme, malate quinone oxidoreductase (MQO), located in the mitochondrial inner membrane of P. falciparum (PfMQO). PfMQO is involved in the pathways of mitochondrial electron transport chain, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and fumarate cycle. Recent studies have shown that MQO is essential for P. falciparum survival in asexual stage and for the development of experiment cerebral malaria in the murine parasite P. berghei, providing genetic validation of MQO as a drug target. However, chemical validation of MQO, as a target, remains unexplored. In this study, we used active recombinant protein rPfMQO overexpressed in bacterial membrane fractions to screen a total of 400 compounds from the Pathogen Box, released by Medicines for Malaria Venture. The screening identified seven hit compounds targeting rPfMQO with an IC50 of under 5 μM. We tested the activity of hit compounds against the growth of 3D7 wildtype strain of P. falciparum, among which four compounds showed an IC50 from low to sub-micromolar concentrations, suggesting that PfMQO is indeed a potential antimalarial drug target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Proteins in Parasitic Protozoa)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Genome-Wide Identification and Gene Expression Analysis of ABA Receptor Family Genes in Brassica juncea var. tumida
Received: 6 April 2019 / Revised: 9 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
Viewed by 309 | PDF Full-text (7066 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Abscisic acid (ABA) plays important roles in multiple physiological processes, such as plant response to stresses and plant development. The ABA receptors pyrabactin resistance (PYR)/ PYR1-like (PYL)/regulatory components of ABA receptor (RCAR) play a crucial role in ABA perception and signaling. However, little [...] Read more.
Abscisic acid (ABA) plays important roles in multiple physiological processes, such as plant response to stresses and plant development. The ABA receptors pyrabactin resistance (PYR)/ PYR1-like (PYL)/regulatory components of ABA receptor (RCAR) play a crucial role in ABA perception and signaling. However, little is known about the details regarding PYL family genes in Brassica juncea var. tumida. Here, 25 PYL family genes were identified in B. juncea var. tumida genome, including BjuPYL3, BjuPYL4s, BjuPYL5s, BjuPYL6s, BjuPYL7s, BjuPYL8s, BjuPYL10s, BjuPYL11s, and BjuPYL13. The results of phylogenic analysis and gene structure showed that the PYL family genes performed similar gene characteristics. By analyzing cis-elements in the promoters of those BjuPYLs, several hormone and stress related cis-elements were found. The results of gene expression analysis showed that the ABA receptor homologous genes were induced by abiotic and biotic stress. The tissue-specific gene expression patterns of BjuPYLs also suggested those genes might regulate the stem swelling during plant growth. These findings indicate that BjuPYLs are involved in plant response to stresses and organ development. This study provides valuable information for further functional investigations of PYL family genes in B. juncea var. tumida. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormonal Control of Gene Expression in Plants)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessBrief Report
Satellite DNA at the Centromere Is Dispensable for Segregation Fidelity
Received: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
Viewed by 379 | PDF Full-text (1591 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The typical vertebrate centromeres contain long stretches of highly repeated DNA sequences (satellite DNA). We previously demonstrated that the karyotypes of the species belonging to the genus Equus are characterized by the presence of satellite-free and satellite-based centromeres and represent a unique biological [...] Read more.
The typical vertebrate centromeres contain long stretches of highly repeated DNA sequences (satellite DNA). We previously demonstrated that the karyotypes of the species belonging to the genus Equus are characterized by the presence of satellite-free and satellite-based centromeres and represent a unique biological model for the study of centromere organization and behavior. Using horse primary fibroblasts cultured in vitro, we compared the segregation fidelity of chromosome 11, whose centromere is satellite-free, with that of chromosome 13, which has similar size and a centromere containing long stretches of satellite DNA. The mitotic stability of the two chromosomes was compared under normal conditions and under mitotic stress induced by the spindle inhibitor, nocodazole. Two independent molecular-cytogenetic approaches were used—the interphase aneuploidy analysis and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Both assays were coupled to fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome specific probes in order to identify chromosome 11 and chromosome 13, respectively. In addition, we tested if the lack of centromeric satellite DNA affected chromatid cohesion under normal and stress conditions. We demonstrated that, in our system, the segregation fidelity of a chromosome is not influenced by the presence of long stretches of tandem repeats at its centromere. To our knowledge, the present study is the first analysis of the mitotic behavior of a natural satellite-free centromere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Genetics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Rapid and Accurate MinION-Based Workflow for Tracking Species Biodiversity in the Field
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
Viewed by 761 | PDF Full-text (1745 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Genetic markers (DNA barcodes) are often used to support and confirm species identification. Barcode sequences can be generated in the field using portable systems based on the Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) MinION sequencer. However, to achieve a broader application, current proof-of-principle workflows for [...] Read more.
Genetic markers (DNA barcodes) are often used to support and confirm species identification. Barcode sequences can be generated in the field using portable systems based on the Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) MinION sequencer. However, to achieve a broader application, current proof-of-principle workflows for on-site barcoding analysis must be standardized to ensure a reliable and robust performance under suboptimal field conditions without increasing costs. Here, we demonstrate the implementation of a new on-site workflow for DNA extraction, PCR-based barcoding, and the generation of consensus sequences. The portable laboratory features inexpensive instruments that can be carried as hand luggage and uses standard molecular biology protocols and reagents that tolerate adverse environmental conditions. Barcodes are sequenced using MinION technology and analyzed with ONTrack, an original de novo assembly pipeline that requires as few as 1000 reads per sample. ONTrack-derived consensus barcodes have a high accuracy, ranging from 99.8 to 100%, despite the presence of homopolymer runs. The ONTrack pipeline has a user-friendly interface and returns consensus sequences in minutes. The remarkable accuracy and low computational demand of the ONTrack pipeline, together with the inexpensive equipment and simple protocols, make the proposed workflow particularly suitable for tracking species under field conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MetaGenomics Sequencing In Situ)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Medium Composition and Genetic Background on Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation Efficiency of Lentinula edodes
Received: 17 May 2019 / Revised: 8 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
Viewed by 302 | PDF Full-text (3152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The establishment of genetic transformation method is crucial for the functional genomics research in filamentous fungi. Although the transformation method has been developed in several types of fungi, a highly efficient and convenient transformation system is desperately needed in Lentinula edodes. Present [...] Read more.
The establishment of genetic transformation method is crucial for the functional genomics research in filamentous fungi. Although the transformation method has been developed in several types of fungi, a highly efficient and convenient transformation system is desperately needed in Lentinula edodes. Present work established the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (ATMT) of basidiomycete L. edodes in both monokaryon and dikaryon mycelia by using constructed binary plasmid pCAMBIA-1300-GFP. Then, the transformation efficiency of ATMT was evaluated by using different mediums for recipient incubation and different varieties of L. edodes. The results showed that in dikaryon strain W1, the positive hygromycin-resistant transformants was observed in all medium with the positive frequency of selected transformants that ranged from 0 to 30%. While in the monokaryon strain W1-26, only the millet medium group obtained positive transformants with a positive frequency of 75.48%. Moreover, three dikaryotic wild strains (YS55, YS3334, and YS3357) and two dikaryotic cultivated strains (W1 and S606) showed the highest transformation efficiency, with 32.96% of the germination frequency, and 85.12% of positive frequency for hygromycin-resistant transformants. This work demonstrated that Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was successfully performed in L. edodes, and the genotype of recipients as well as the medium for mycelial incubation were suggested to play key roles in determining the transformation efficiency. These findings may provide new avenues for the genetic modification of edible mushroom and may extend the cognition of DNA-mediated transformation in filamentous fungi. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Prediction of Bone Metastasis in Breast Cancer Based on Minimal Driver Gene Set in Gene Dependency Network
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 2 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
Viewed by 327 | PDF Full-text (1591 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Bone is the most frequent organ for breast cancer metastasis, and thus it is essential to predict the bone metastasis of breast cancer. In our work, we constructed a gene dependency network based on the hypothesis that the relation between one gene and [...] Read more.
Bone is the most frequent organ for breast cancer metastasis, and thus it is essential to predict the bone metastasis of breast cancer. In our work, we constructed a gene dependency network based on the hypothesis that the relation between one gene and the risk of bone metastasis might be affected by another gene. Then, based on the structure controllability theory, we mined the driver gene set which can control the whole network in the gene dependency network, and the signature genes were selected from them. Survival analysis showed that the signature could distinguish the bone metastasis risks of cancer patients in the test data set and independent data set. Besides, we used the signature genes to construct a centroid classifier. The results showed that our method is effective and performed better than published methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Oncogenomics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Transcriptome Changes during Major Developmental Transitions Accompanied with Little Alteration of DNA Methylome in Two Pleurotus Species
Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 8 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
Viewed by 336 | PDF Full-text (2166 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Pleurotus tuoliensis (Pt) and P. eryngii var. eryngii (Pe) are important edible mushrooms. The epigenetic and gene expression signatures characterizing major developmental transitions in these two mushrooms remain largely unknown. Here, we report global analyses of DNA methylation and gene expression in both [...] Read more.
Pleurotus tuoliensis (Pt) and P. eryngii var. eryngii (Pe) are important edible mushrooms. The epigenetic and gene expression signatures characterizing major developmental transitions in these two mushrooms remain largely unknown. Here, we report global analyses of DNA methylation and gene expression in both mushrooms across three major developmental transitions, from mycelium to primordium and to fruit body, by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) and RNA-seq-based transcriptome profiling. Our results revealed that in both Pt and Pe the landscapes of methylome are largely stable irrespective of genomic features, e.g., in both protein-coding genes and transposable elements (TEs), across the developmental transitions. The repressive impact of DNA methylation on expression of a small subset of genes is likely due to TE-associated effects rather than their own developmental dynamics. Global expression of gene orthologs was also broadly conserved between Pt and Pe, but discernible interspecific differences exist especially at the fruit body formation stage, and which are primarily due to differences in trans-acting factors. The methylome and transcriptome repertories we established for the two mushroom species may facilitate further studies of the epigenetic and transcriptional regulatory mechanisms underpinning gene expression during development in Pleurotus and related genera. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Genetics and Genomics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Integrative Analysis of Genomic and Clinical Data Reveals Intrinsic Characteristics of Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma Progression
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
Viewed by 296 | PDF Full-text (3823 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The progression of bladder cancer is generally a complex and dynamic process, involving a variety of biological factors. Here, we aimed to identify a set of survival-related genes that play an important role in the progression of bladder cancer and uncover their synergistic [...] Read more.
The progression of bladder cancer is generally a complex and dynamic process, involving a variety of biological factors. Here, we aimed to identify a set of survival-related genes that play an important role in the progression of bladder cancer and uncover their synergistic patterns. Based on the large-scale genomic profiling data and clinical information of 404 bladder cancer patients derived from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, we first discovered 1078 survival-related genes related to their survival states using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazardous regression. We then investigated the dynamic changes of the cooperative behaviors of these 1078 genes by analyzing their respective genomic features, including copy number variations, DNA methylations, somatic mutations, and microRNA regulatory networks. Our analyses showed that during the progression of bladder cancer, the biological disorder involving the identified survival-related genes can be reflected by multiple levels of abnormal gene regulation, ranging from genomic alteration to post-transcriptional dysregulation. In particular, the stage-specific co-expression networks of these genes undergo a series of structural variations. Our findings provide useful hints on understanding the underlying complex molecular mechanisms related to the evolution of bladder cancer and offer a new perspective on clinical diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Genomics and Genetic Diseases)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Hematological Traits in Polled Yak by Genome-Wide Association Studies Using Individual SNPs and Haplotypes
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
Viewed by 393 | PDF Full-text (1306 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Yak (Bos grunniens) is an important domestic animal living in high-altitude plateaus. Due to inadequate disease prevention, each year, the yak industry suffers significant economic losses. The identification of causal genes that affect blood- and immunity-related cells could provide preliminary reference [...] Read more.
Yak (Bos grunniens) is an important domestic animal living in high-altitude plateaus. Due to inadequate disease prevention, each year, the yak industry suffers significant economic losses. The identification of causal genes that affect blood- and immunity-related cells could provide preliminary reference guidelines for the prevention of diseases in the population of yaks. The genome-wide association studies (GWASs) utilizing a single-marker or haplotype method were employed to analyze 15 hematological traits in the genome of 315 unrelated yaks. Single-marker GWASs identified a total of 43 significant SNPs, including 35 suggestive and eight genome-wide significant SNPs, associated with nine traits. Haplotype analysis detected nine significant haplotype blocks, including two genome-wide and seven suggestive blocks, associated with seven traits. The study provides data on the genetic variability of hematological traits in the yak. Five essential genes (GPLD1, EDNRA, APOB, HIST1H1E, and HIST1H2BI) were identified, which affect the HCT, HGB, RBC, PDW, PLT, and RDWSD traits and can serve as candidate genes for regulating hematological traits. The results provide a valuable reference to be used in the analysis of blood properties and immune diseases in the yak. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Genetics and Genomics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Ankrd45 Is a Novel Ankyrin Repeat Protein Required for Cell Proliferation
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 9 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 16 June 2019
Viewed by 416 | PDF Full-text (8819 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ankyrin repeats, the most common protein–protein interaction motifs in nature, are widely present in proteins of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Ankyrin repeat-containing proteins play diverse biological functions. Here, we identified the gene ankrd45, which encodes a novel, two ankyrin repeat-containing protein. Zebrafish [...] Read more.
Ankyrin repeats, the most common protein–protein interaction motifs in nature, are widely present in proteins of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Ankyrin repeat-containing proteins play diverse biological functions. Here, we identified the gene ankrd45, which encodes a novel, two ankyrin repeat-containing protein. Zebrafish ankrd45 displayed a tissue specific expression pattern during early development, with high expression in ciliated tissues, including otic vesicles, Kupffer’s vesicles, pronephric ducts, and floor plates. Surprisingly, zebrafish ankrd45 mutants were viable and developed grossly normal cilia. In contrast, mutant larvae developed enlarged livers when induced with liver specific expression of KrasG12V, one of the common mutations of KRAS that leads to cancer in humans. Further, histological analysis suggested that multiple cysts developed in the mutant liver due to cell apoptosis. Similarly, knockdown of ANKRD45 expression with either siRNA or CRISPR/Cas9 methods induced apoptosis in cultured cells, similar to those in zebrafish ankrd45 mutant livers after induction. Using different cell lines, we show that the distribution of ANKRD45 protein was highly dynamic during mitosis. ANKRD45 is preferably localized to the midbody ring during cytokinesis. Together, our results suggest that ANKRD45 is a novel ankyrin repeat protein with a conserved role during cell proliferation in both zebrafish embryos and mammalian cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Cycle and Regulation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Diversity of “Ca. Micrarchaeota” in Two Distinct Types of Acidic Environments and Their Associations with Thermoplasmatales
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
Viewed by 393 | PDF Full-text (2821 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Candidatus Micrarchaeota” are widely distributed in acidic environments; however, their cultivability and our understanding of their interactions with potential hosts are very limited. Their habitats were so far attributed with acidic sites, soils, peats, freshwater systems, and hypersaline mats. Using cultivation and [...] Read more.
Candidatus Micrarchaeota” are widely distributed in acidic environments; however, their cultivability and our understanding of their interactions with potential hosts are very limited. Their habitats were so far attributed with acidic sites, soils, peats, freshwater systems, and hypersaline mats. Using cultivation and culture-independent approaches (16S rRNA gene clonal libraries, high-throughput amplicon sequencing of V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA genes), we surveyed the occurrence of these archaea in geothermal areas on Kamchatka Peninsula and Kunashir Island and assessed their taxonomic diversity in relation with another type of low-pH environment, acid mine drainage stream (Wales, UK). We detected “Ca. Micrarchaeota” in thermophilic heterotrophic enrichment cultures of Kunashir and Kamchatka that appeared as two different phylotypes, namely “Ca. Mancarchaeum acidiphilum”-, and ARMAN-2-related, alongside their potential hosts, Cuniculiplasma spp. and other Thermoplasmatales archaea without defined taxonomic position. These clusters of “Ca. Micrarchaeota” together with three other groups were also present in mesophilic acid mine drainage community. Present work expands our knowledge on the diversity of “Ca. Micrarchaeota” in thermophilic and mesophilic acidic environments, suggests cultivability patterns of acidophilic archaea and establishes potential links between low-abundance species of thermophilic “Ca. Micrarchaeota” and certain Thermoplasmatales, such as Cuniculiplasma spp. in situ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Genomics of Acidophiles)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Changes in Serum Iron and Leukocyte mRNA Levels of Genes Involved in Iron Metabolism in Amateur Marathon Runners—Effect of the Running Pace
Received: 28 April 2019 / Revised: 2 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
Viewed by 362 | PDF Full-text (954 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iron is essential for physical activity due to its role in energy production pathways and oxygen transportation via hemoglobin and myoglobin. Changes in iron-related biochemical parameters after physical exercise in athletes are of substantial research interest, but molecular mechanisms such as gene expression [...] Read more.
Iron is essential for physical activity due to its role in energy production pathways and oxygen transportation via hemoglobin and myoglobin. Changes in iron-related biochemical parameters after physical exercise in athletes are of substantial research interest, but molecular mechanisms such as gene expression are still rarely tested in sports. In this paper, we evaluated the mRNA levels of genes related to iron metabolism (PCBP1, PCBP2, FTL, FTH, and TFRC) in leukocytes of 24 amateur runners at four time points: before, immediately after, 3 h after, and 24 h after a marathon. We measured blood morphology as well as serum concentrations of iron, ferritin, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Our results showed significant changes in gene expression (except for TFRC), serum iron, CRP, and morphology after the marathon. However, the alterations in mRNA and protein levels occurred at different time points (immediately and 3 h post-run, respectively). The levels of circulating ferritin remained stable, whereas the number of transcripts in leukocytes differed significantly. We also showed that running pace might influence mRNA expression. Our results indicated that changes in the mRNA of genes involved in iron metabolism occurred independently of serum iron and ferritin concentrations. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Structural and Functional Impact of Seven Missense Variants of Phenylalanine Hydroxylase
Received: 19 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 13 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
Viewed by 356 | PDF Full-text (1008 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The molecular genetics of well-characterized inherited diseases, such as phenylketonuria (PKU) and hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) predominantly caused by mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene, is often complicated by the identification of many novel variants, often with no obvious impact on the [...] Read more.
The molecular genetics of well-characterized inherited diseases, such as phenylketonuria (PKU) and hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) predominantly caused by mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene, is often complicated by the identification of many novel variants, often with no obvious impact on the associated disorder. To date, more than 1100 PAH variants have been identified of which a substantial portion have unknown clinical significance. In this work, we study the functionality of seven yet uncharacterized PAH missense variants p.Asn167Tyr, p.Thr200Asn, p.Asp229Gly, p.Gly239Ala, p.Phe263Ser, p.Ala342Pro, and p.Ile406Met first identified in the Czech PKU/HPA patients. From all tested variants, three of them, namely p.Asn167Tyr, p.Thr200Asn, and p.Ile406Met, exerted residual enzymatic activity in vitro similar to wild type (WT) PAH, however, when expressed in HepG2 cells, their protein level reached a maximum of 72.1% ± 4.9%, 11.2% ± 4.2%, and 36.6% ± 7.3% compared to WT PAH, respectively. Remaining variants were null with no enzyme activity and decreased protein levels in HepG2 cells. The chaperone-like effect of applied BH4 precursor increased protein level significantly for p.Asn167Tyr, p.Asp229Gly, p.Ala342Pro, and p.Ile406Met. Taken together, our results of functional characterization in combination with in silico prediction suggest that while p.Asn167Tyr, p.Thr200Asn, and p.Ile406Met PAH variants have a mild impact on the protein, p.Asp229Gly, p.Gly239Ala, p.Phe263Ser, and p.Ala342Pro severely affect protein structure and function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Genomics and Genetic Diseases)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Full-Length Hairpin RNA Accumulates at High Levels in Yeast but Not in Bacteria and Plants
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
Viewed by 408 | PDF Full-text (1817 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Hairpin-structured (hp) RNA has been widely used to induce RNA interference (RNAi) in plants and animals, and an in vivo expression system for hpRNA is important for large-scale RNAi applications. Bacterial expression systems have so far been developed for in vivo expression of [...] Read more.
Hairpin-structured (hp) RNA has been widely used to induce RNA interference (RNAi) in plants and animals, and an in vivo expression system for hpRNA is important for large-scale RNAi applications. Bacterial expression systems have so far been developed for in vivo expression of hpRNA or double-stranded (ds) RNA, but the structure of the resulting RNAi molecules has remained unclear. Here we report that long hpRNAs expressed in the bacteria Escherichia coli and Sinorhizobium meliloti were largely processed into shorter dsRNA fragments with no or few full-length molecules being present. A loss-of-function mutation in the dsRNA-processing enzyme RNase III, in the widely used E. coli HT115 strain, did not prevent the processing of hpRNA. Consistent with previous observations in plants, the loop sequence of long hpRNA expressed in Agrobacterium-infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves was excised, leaving no detectable levels of full-length hpRNA molecule. In contrast to bacteria and plants, long hpRNAs expressed in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae accumulated as intact, full-length molecules. RNA extracted from hpRNA-expressing yeast cells was shown to be capable of inducing RNAi against a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in tobacco leaves when applied topically on leaf surfaces. Our results indicate that yeast can potentially be used to express full-length hpRNA molecules for RNAi and perhaps other structured RNAs that are important in biological applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Genetics and Genomics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue: MicroRNA Regulation in Health and Disease
Received: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
Viewed by 258 | PDF Full-text (160 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Our understanding of non-coding RNA has significantly changed based on recent advances in genomics and molecular biology, and their role is recognized to include far more than a link between the sequence of DNA and synthesized proteins [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA in Health and Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Metagenomic Insights into the Bacterial Functions of a Diesel-Degrading Consortium for the Rhizoremediation of Diesel-Polluted Soil
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
Viewed by 477 | PDF Full-text (2421 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Diesel is a complex pollutant composed of a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Because of this complexity, diesel bioremediation requires multiple microorganisms, which harbor the catabolic pathways to degrade the mixture. By enrichment cultivation of rhizospheric soil from a diesel-polluted site, we [...] Read more.
Diesel is a complex pollutant composed of a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Because of this complexity, diesel bioremediation requires multiple microorganisms, which harbor the catabolic pathways to degrade the mixture. By enrichment cultivation of rhizospheric soil from a diesel-polluted site, we have isolated a bacterial consortium that can grow aerobically with diesel and different alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as the sole carbon and energy source. Microbiome diversity analyses based on 16S rRNA gene showed that the diesel-degrading consortium consists of 76 amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) and it is dominated by Pseudomonas, Aquabacterium, Chryseobacterium, and Sphingomonadaceae. Changes in microbiome composition were observed when growing on specific hydrocarbons, reflecting that different populations degrade different hydrocarbons. Shotgun metagenome sequence analysis of the consortium growing on diesel has identified redundant genes encoding enzymes implicated in the initial oxidation of alkanes (AlkB, LadA, CYP450) and a variety of hydroxylating and ring-cleavage dioxygenases involved in aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon degradation. The phylogenetic assignment of these enzymes to specific genera allowed us to model the role of specific populations in the diesel-degrading consortium. Rhizoremediation of diesel-polluted soil microcosms using the consortium, resulted in an important enhancement in the reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), making it suited for rhizoremediation applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Biodegradation and Bioremediation)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Novel Role for Polycystin-2 (Pkd2) in P. tetraurelia as a Probable Mg2+ Channel Necessary for Mg2+-Induced Behavior
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
Viewed by 356 | PDF Full-text (3041 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A human ciliopathy gene codes for Polycystin-2 (Pkd2), a non-selective cation channel. Here, the Pkd2 channel was explored in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia using combinations of RNA interference, over-expression, and epitope-tagging, in a search for function and novel interacting partners. Upon depletion of [...] Read more.
A human ciliopathy gene codes for Polycystin-2 (Pkd2), a non-selective cation channel. Here, the Pkd2 channel was explored in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia using combinations of RNA interference, over-expression, and epitope-tagging, in a search for function and novel interacting partners. Upon depletion of Pkd2, cells exhibited a phenotype similar to eccentric (XntA1), a Paramecium mutant lacking the inward Ca2+-dependent Mg2+ conductance. Further investigation showed both Pkd2 and XntA localize to the cilia and cell membrane, but do not require one another for trafficking. The XntA-myc protein co-immunoprecipitates Pkd2-FLAG, but not vice versa, suggesting two populations of Pkd2-FLAG, one of which interacts with XntA. Electrophysiology data showed that depletion and over-expression of Pkd2 led to smaller and larger depolarizations in Mg2+ solutions, respectively. Over-expression of Pkd2-FLAG in the XntA1 mutant caused slower swimming, supporting an increase in Mg2+ permeability, in agreement with the electrophysiology data. We propose that Pkd2 in P. tetraurelia collaborates with XntA for Mg2+-induced behavior. Our data suggest Pkd2 is sufficient and necessary for Mg2+ conductance and membrane permeability to Mg2+, and that Pkd2 is potentially a Mg2+-permeable channel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ciliate Genetics and Epigenetics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A SIX6 Nonsense Variant in Golden Retrievers with Congenital Eye Malformations
Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
Viewed by 411 | PDF Full-text (1214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Causative genetic variants for more than 30 heritable eye disorders in dogs have been reported. For other clinically described eye disorders, the genetic cause is still unclear. We investigated four Golden Retriever litters segregating for highly variable congenital eye malformations. Several affected puppies [...] Read more.
Causative genetic variants for more than 30 heritable eye disorders in dogs have been reported. For other clinically described eye disorders, the genetic cause is still unclear. We investigated four Golden Retriever litters segregating for highly variable congenital eye malformations. Several affected puppies had unilateral or bilateral retina dysplasia and/or optic nerve hypoplasia. The four litters shared the same father or grandfather suggesting a heritable condition with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. The genome of one affected dog was sequenced and compared to 601 control genomes. A heterozygous private nonsense variant, c.487C>T, was found in the SIX6 gene. This variant is predicted to truncate about a third of the open reading frame, p.(Gln163*). We genotyped all available family members and 464 unrelated Golden Retrievers. All three available cases were heterozygous. Five additional close relatives including the common sire were also heterozygous, but did not show any obvious eye phenotypes. The variant was absent from the 464 unrelated Golden Retrievers and 17 non-affected siblings of the cases. The SIX6 protein is a homeobox transcription factor with a known role in eye development. In humans and other species, SIX6 loss of function variants were reported to cause congenital eye malformations. This strongly suggests that the c.487C>T variant detected contributed to the observed eye malformations. We hypothesize that the residual amount of functional SIX6 protein likely to be expressed in heterozygous dogs is sufficient to explain the observed incomplete penetrance and the varying severity of the eye defects in the affected dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Canine Genetics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
The cGMP Pathway and Inherited Photoreceptor Degeneration: Targets, Compounds, and Biomarkers
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 5 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
Viewed by 317 | PDF Full-text (1836 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Photoreceptor physiology and pathophysiology is intricately linked to guanosine-3’,5’-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP)-signaling. Here, we discuss the importance of cGMP-signaling for the pathogenesis of hereditary retinal degeneration. Excessive accumulation of cGMP in photoreceptors is a common denominator in cell death caused by a variety of [...] Read more.
Photoreceptor physiology and pathophysiology is intricately linked to guanosine-3’,5’-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP)-signaling. Here, we discuss the importance of cGMP-signaling for the pathogenesis of hereditary retinal degeneration. Excessive accumulation of cGMP in photoreceptors is a common denominator in cell death caused by a variety of different gene mutations. The cGMP-dependent cell death pathway may be targeted for the treatment of inherited photoreceptor degeneration, using specifically designed and formulated inhibitory cGMP analogues. Moreover, cGMP-signaling and its down-stream targets may be exploited for the development of novel biomarkers that could facilitate monitoring of disease progression and reveal the response to treatment in future clinical trials. We then briefly present the importance of appropriate formulations for delivery to the retina, both for drug and biomarker applications. Finally, the review touches on important aspects of future clinical translation, highlighting the need for interdisciplinary cooperation of researchers from a diverse range of fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Therapies for Inherited Retinal Diseases)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Antisense Oligonucleotide Screening to Optimize the Rescue of the Splicing Defect Caused by the Recurrent Deep-Intronic ABCA4 Variant c.4539+2001G>A in Stargardt Disease
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
Viewed by 358 | PDF Full-text (1475 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Deep-sequencing of the ABCA4 locus has revealed that ~10% of autosomal recessive Stargardt disease (STGD1) cases are caused by deep-intronic mutations. One of the most recurrent deep-intronic variants in the Belgian and Dutch STGD1 population is the c.4539+2001G>A mutation. This variant introduces a [...] Read more.
Deep-sequencing of the ABCA4 locus has revealed that ~10% of autosomal recessive Stargardt disease (STGD1) cases are caused by deep-intronic mutations. One of the most recurrent deep-intronic variants in the Belgian and Dutch STGD1 population is the c.4539+2001G>A mutation. This variant introduces a 345-nt pseudoexon to the ABCA4 mRNA transcript in a retina-specific manner. Antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) are short sequences of RNA that can modulate splicing. In this work, we designed 26 different AONs to perform a thorough screening to identify the most effective AONs to correct splicing defects associated with c.4539+2001G>A. All AONs were tested in patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that were differentiated to photoreceptor precursor cells (PPCs). AON efficacy was assessed through RNA analysis and was based on correction efficacy, and AONs were grouped and their properties assessed. We (a) identified nine AONs with significant correction efficacies (>50%), (b) confirmed that a single nucleotide mismatch was sufficient to significantly decrease AON efficacy, and (c) found potential correlations between efficacy and some of the parameters analyzed. Overall, our results show that AON-based splicing modulation holds great potential for treating Stargardt disease caused by splicing defects in ABCA4. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Therapies for Inherited Retinal Diseases)
Figures

Figure 1

Genes EISSN 2073-4425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top