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Article

Quantitative Determination of the Effects of He–Ne Laser Irradiation on Seed Thermodynamics, Germination Attributes and Metabolites of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) in Relation with the Activities of Germination Enzymes

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Department of Physics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan
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College of Life Sciences, Yan’an University, Yan’an 716000, China
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Department of Botany, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
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Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
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Department of Biological Sciences and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
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Department of Physics, The University of Lahore (Sargodha Sub-Campus), Sargodha 40100, Pakistan
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Department of Botany, University of Salford, 43 Crescent, Salford M5 4WT, UK
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College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
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Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, The University of Haripur, Haripur 22620, Pakistan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Antonios Chrysargyris, Helen D. Skaltsa and Maria Konstantopoulou
Agronomy 2021, 11(7), 1411; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11071411
Received: 6 June 2021 / Revised: 7 July 2021 / Accepted: 9 July 2021 / Published: 14 July 2021
The present investigation was undertaken to assess the effects of different doses (100, 300, and 500 mJ) of low power He–Ne laser (632.8 nm) irradiation on seed germination and thermodynamics attributes and activities of potential germinating enzymes in relation with changes in seed metabolites. He–Ne laser seed irradiation increased the amylase (Amy), protease (Pro) and glucosidase (Gluco) activities, with a significant improvement in seed thermodynamics and seed germination attributes. A fast increase was found in free fatty acids (FFA), free amino acids (FAA), chlorophyll (Chl), carotenoids (Car), total soluble sugars (TSS) and reducing sugars (RS) in laser treated seeds in parallel with fast decline in seed oil contents and total soluble proteins (TSP). Significant positive correlations were recorded in laser-induced enhanced seed energy levels, germination, activities of germination enzymes with levels of FAA, FFA, Chl, TSS and RS, but a negative correlation with the levels of TSP and oil. In conclusion, the seed treatment with 100 and 300 mJ He–Ne laser was more effective to improve the seed germination potential associated with an improvement in seed energy levels due to increased activities of germination enzymes due to the speedy breakdown of seed reserves to simple metabolites as building blocks. View Full-Text
Keywords: thermodynamics; metabolites; germination vigor; amylase; protease; glucosidase thermodynamics; metabolites; germination vigor; amylase; protease; glucosidase
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MDPI and ACS Style

Perveen, R.; Wang, X.; Jamil, Y.; Ali, Q.; Ali, S.; Zakaria, M.Q.; Afzaal, M.; Kasana, R.A.; Saleem, M.H.; Fiaz, S. Quantitative Determination of the Effects of He–Ne Laser Irradiation on Seed Thermodynamics, Germination Attributes and Metabolites of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) in Relation with the Activities of Germination Enzymes. Agronomy 2021, 11, 1411. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11071411

AMA Style

Perveen R, Wang X, Jamil Y, Ali Q, Ali S, Zakaria MQ, Afzaal M, Kasana RA, Saleem MH, Fiaz S. Quantitative Determination of the Effects of He–Ne Laser Irradiation on Seed Thermodynamics, Germination Attributes and Metabolites of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) in Relation with the Activities of Germination Enzymes. Agronomy. 2021; 11(7):1411. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11071411

Chicago/Turabian Style

Perveen, Rashida, Xiukang Wang, Yasir Jamil, Qasim Ali, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Q. Zakaria, Muhammad Afzaal, Rehan A. Kasana, Muhammad H. Saleem, and Sajid Fiaz. 2021. "Quantitative Determination of the Effects of He–Ne Laser Irradiation on Seed Thermodynamics, Germination Attributes and Metabolites of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) in Relation with the Activities of Germination Enzymes" Agronomy 11, no. 7: 1411. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11071411

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