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Article

External Validation of the RETREAT Score for Prediction of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence after Liver Transplantation

1
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus MC Transplant Institute, University Medical Center Rotterdam, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
2
Department of Surgery, Division of HPB & Transplant Surgery, Erasmus MC Transplant Institute, University Medical Center Rotterdam, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
3
Department of Pathology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Boris Guiu
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030630
Received: 12 December 2021 / Revised: 22 January 2022 / Accepted: 24 January 2022 / Published: 27 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Liver Disease)
Liver transplantation (LT) is a potentially curative treatment option for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but is frequently complicated by HCC recurrence. In order to estimate the recurrence risk a novel risk score was developed in the United States: the Risk Estimation of Tumor Recurrence After Transplant (RETREAT). External validation of this novel risk score, in a different patient population with other LT selection criteria, is needed. In this study we demonstrate that the RETREAT score is able to predict the risk of HCC recurrence after liver transplantation in a European population. These findings may be used to inform patients of recurrence risk and as a basis for studies on surveillance strategies.
Background. We aimed to externally validate the performance of the RETREAT score in a European population. Methods. This single center retrospective cohort study enrolled all consecutive patients with HCC who underwent LT between 1989 and 2019. The performance of RETREAT was assessed in the overall population and after stratification between being within or beyond the Milan criteria based on the explant pathology report. Recurrence probabilities were estimated by using the Kaplan–Meier method and compared by log-rank test. Results. We studied 203 patients; 42 patients were beyond the Milan criteria based on explant pathology. The median follow-up was 26.8 months (IQR 7.2–60.7). Overall cumulative HCC recurrence rates were 10.6%, 21.3%, and 23.0% at 2, 5, and 10 years, with the majority of recurrences extrahepatic and at multiple sites. Higher RETREAT scores were associated with higher recurrence rates, with a 10-year recurrence rate of 60.5% in patients with RETREAT ≥ 3 (n = 65), compared to 6.2% in those with RETREAT ≤2 (n = 138; p < 0.001). HCC recurrence rates were even lower in patients within the Milan criteria who also had a low RETREAT score (n = 122; 2.7% at 10 years). Conclusion. Low RETREAT scores identify patients at low risk of HCC recurrence after LT in patients within the Milan criteria based on explant pathology. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; liver neoplasms; liver transplantation; Milan criteria; risk score; recurrence hepatocellular carcinoma; liver neoplasms; liver transplantation; Milan criteria; risk score; recurrence
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MDPI and ACS Style

van Hooff, M.C.; Sonneveld, M.J.; Ijzermans, J.N.; Doukas, M.; Sprengers, D.; Metselaar, H.J.; den Hoed, C.M.; de Man, R.A. External Validation of the RETREAT Score for Prediction of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence after Liver Transplantation. Cancers 2022, 14, 630. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030630

AMA Style

van Hooff MC, Sonneveld MJ, Ijzermans JN, Doukas M, Sprengers D, Metselaar HJ, den Hoed CM, de Man RA. External Validation of the RETREAT Score for Prediction of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence after Liver Transplantation. Cancers. 2022; 14(3):630. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030630

Chicago/Turabian Style

van Hooff, Maria C., Milan J. Sonneveld, Jan N. Ijzermans, Michail Doukas, Dave Sprengers, Herold J. Metselaar, Caroline M. den Hoed, and Robert A. de Man. 2022. "External Validation of the RETREAT Score for Prediction of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence after Liver Transplantation" Cancers 14, no. 3: 630. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030630

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