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Micromachines, Volume 6, Issue 6 (June 2015) , Pages 660-812

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Open AccessArticle PDR/INS/WiFi Integration Based on Handheld Devices for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation
Micromachines 2015, 6(6), 793-812; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6060793
Received: 1 June 2015 / Revised: 15 June 2015 / Accepted: 17 June 2015 / Published: 23 June 2015
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 2823 | PDF Full-text (2806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Providing an accurate and practical navigation solution anywhere with portable devices, such as smartphones, is still a challenge, especially in environments where global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) signals are not available or are degraded. This paper proposes a new algorithm that integrates inertial [...] Read more.
Providing an accurate and practical navigation solution anywhere with portable devices, such as smartphones, is still a challenge, especially in environments where global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) signals are not available or are degraded. This paper proposes a new algorithm that integrates inertial navigation system (INS) and pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) to combine the advantages of both mechanizations for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) sensors in pedestrian navigation applications. In this PDR/INS integration algorithm, a pseudo-velocity-vector, which is composed of the PDR-derived forward speed and zero lateral and vertical speeds from non-holonomic constraints (NHC), works as an update for the INS to limit the velocity errors. To further limit the drift of MEMS inertial sensors, trilateration-based WiFi positions with small variances are also selected as updates for the PDR/INS integrated system. The experiments illustrate that positioning error is decreased by 60%–75% by using the proposed PDR/INS integrated MEMS solution when compared with PDR. The positioning error is further decreased by 15%–55% if the proposed PDR/INS/WiFi integrated solution is implemented. The average accuracy of the proposed PDR/INS/WiFi integration algorithm achieves 4.5 m in indoor environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next Generation MEMS-Based Navigation—Systems and Applications)
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Open AccessEditorial Special Issue: 15 Years of SU8 as MEMS Material
Micromachines 2015, 6(6), 790-792; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6060790
Received: 15 June 2015 / Revised: 19 June 2015 / Accepted: 19 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1939 | PDF Full-text (624 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In 1997, the first paper using SU-8 as a material for microfabrication was published [1], demonstrating the interest of this negative photoresist for the near-UV structuration of thick layers and the manufacturing of high aspect-ratio components.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 15 Years of SU8 as MEMS Material)
Open AccessArticle Dynamics of Electrowetting Droplet Motion in Digital Microfluidics Systems: From Dynamic Saturation to Device Physics
Micromachines 2015, 6(6), 778-789; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6060778
Received: 5 May 2015 / Revised: 10 June 2015 / Accepted: 16 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2504 | PDF Full-text (2916 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A quantitative description of the dynamics of droplet motion has been a long-standing concern in electrowetting research. Although many static and dynamic models focusing on droplet motion induced by electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) already exist, some dynamic features do not fit these models well, especially [...] Read more.
A quantitative description of the dynamics of droplet motion has been a long-standing concern in electrowetting research. Although many static and dynamic models focusing on droplet motion induced by electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) already exist, some dynamic features do not fit these models well, especially the dynamic saturation phenomenon. In this paper, a dynamic saturation model of droplet motion on the single-plate EWOD device is presented. The phenomenon that droplet velocity is limited by a dynamic saturation effect is precisely predicted. Based on this model, the relationship between droplet motion and device physics is extensively discussed. The static saturation phenomenon is treated with a double-layer capacitance electric model, and it is demonstrated as one critical factor determining the dynamics of droplet motion. This work presents the relationship between dynamics of electrowetting induced droplet motion and device physics including device structure, surface material and interface electronics, which helps to better understand electrowetting induced droplet motions and physics of digital microfluidics systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Droplet Microfluidics: Techniques and Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Baffle Configuration on Mixing in a T-Shaped Micro-Channel
Micromachines 2015, 6(6), 765-777; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6060765
Received: 8 April 2015 / Revised: 6 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1725 | PDF Full-text (1460 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A numerical study was performed for a T-shaped microchannel to enhance mixing performance through a baffle configuration. The mixing performance was analyzed in terms of the DOM (degree of mixing) and the pressure load between the two inlets and outlet. Four different baffle [...] Read more.
A numerical study was performed for a T-shaped microchannel to enhance mixing performance through a baffle configuration. The mixing performance was analyzed in terms of the DOM (degree of mixing) and the pressure load between the two inlets and outlet. Four different baffle configurations were designed and simulated to determine how they affect the mixing performance of a T-shaped microchannel. Among the four baffle configurations, a cyclic configuration of baffles produced the best results. It exhibited the fastest growth in the DOM along the microchannel. The cyclic configuration means that four baffles are attached to four side walls of the channel in a cyclic order. The mixing improvement occurs in two ways. One is in the baffle region, when the cyclic configuration causes the fluid flow to rotate in the cross section, unlike other configurations. The other improvement is observed in the remaining outlet branch after the baffle region. This improvement is due to twisting and elongation of the boundary between two fluids. The baffle size and the interval between two consecutive baffles are shown to be optimized in terms of the DOM for a given condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micromixer & Micromixing)
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Open AccessArticle WiFi-Aided Magnetic Matching for Indoor Navigation with Consumer Portable Devices
Micromachines 2015, 6(6), 747-764; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6060747
Received: 30 May 2015 / Revised: 10 June 2015 / Accepted: 10 June 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 2621 | PDF Full-text (4107 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a WiFi-aided magnetic matching (MM) algorithm for indoor pedestrian navigation with consumer portable devices. This algorithm reduces both the mismatching rate (i.e., the rate of matching to an incorrect point that is more than 20 m away from [...] Read more.
This paper presents a WiFi-aided magnetic matching (MM) algorithm for indoor pedestrian navigation with consumer portable devices. This algorithm reduces both the mismatching rate (i.e., the rate of matching to an incorrect point that is more than 20 m away from the true value) and computational load of MM by using WiFi positioning solutions to limit the MM search space. Walking tests with Samsung Galaxy S3 and S4 smartphones in two different indoor environments (i.e., Environment #1 with abundant WiFi APs and significant magnetic features, and Environment #2 with less WiFi and magnetic information) were conducted to evaluate the proposed algorithm. It was found that WiFi fingerprinting accuracy is related to the signal distributions. MM provided results with small fluctuations but had a significant mismatch rate; when aided by WiFi, MM’s robustness was significantly improved. The outcome of this research indicates that WiFi and MM have complementary characteristics as the former is a point-by-point matching approach and the latter is based on profile-matching. Furthermore, performance improvement through integrating WiFi and MM depends on the environment (e.g., the signal distributions of magnetic intensity and WiFi RSS): In Environment #1 tests, WiFi-aided MM and WiFi provided similar results; in Environment #2 tests, the former was approximately 41.6% better. Our results supported that the WiFi-aided MM algorithm provided more reliable solutions than both WiFi and MM in the areas that have poor WiFi signal distribution or indistinctive magnetic-gradient features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next Generation MEMS-Based Navigation—Systems and Applications)
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Open AccessReview Towards Improved Airborne Fire Detection Systems Using Beetle Inspired Infrared Detection and Fire Searching Strategies
Micromachines 2015, 6(6), 718-746; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6060718
Received: 31 March 2015 / Accepted: 29 May 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2200 | PDF Full-text (6402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Every year forest fires cause severe financial losses in many countries of the world. Additionally, lives of humans as well as of countless animals are often lost. Due to global warming, the problem of wildfires is getting out of control; hence, the burning [...] Read more.
Every year forest fires cause severe financial losses in many countries of the world. Additionally, lives of humans as well as of countless animals are often lost. Due to global warming, the problem of wildfires is getting out of control; hence, the burning of thousands of hectares is obviously increasing. Most important, therefore, is the early detection of an emerging fire before its intensity becomes too high. More than ever, a need for early warning systems capable of detecting small fires from distances as large as possible exists. A look to nature shows that pyrophilous “fire beetles” of the genus Melanophila can be regarded as natural airborne fire detection systems because their larvae can only develop in the wood of fire-killed trees. There is evidence that Melanophila beetles can detect large fires from distances of more than 100 km by visual and infrared cues. In a biomimetic approach, a concept has been developed to use the surveying strategy of the “fire beetles” for the reliable detection of a smoke plume of a fire from large distances by means of a basal infrared emission zone. Future infrared sensors necessary for this ability are also inspired by the natural infrared receptors of Melanophila beetles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Reciprocal Estimation of Pedestrian Location and Motion State toward a Smartphone Geo-Context Computing Solution
Micromachines 2015, 6(6), 699-717; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6060699
Received: 26 February 2015 / Accepted: 10 June 2015 / Published: 15 June 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2174 | PDF Full-text (4745 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rapid advance in mobile communications has made information and services ubiquitously accessible. Location and context information have become essential for the effectiveness of services in the era of mobility. This paper proposes the concept of geo-context that is defined as an integral [...] Read more.
The rapid advance in mobile communications has made information and services ubiquitously accessible. Location and context information have become essential for the effectiveness of services in the era of mobility. This paper proposes the concept of geo-context that is defined as an integral synthesis of geographical location, human motion state and mobility context. A geo-context computing solution consists of a positioning engine, a motion state recognition engine, and a context inference component. In the geo-context concept, the human motion states and mobility context are associated with the geographical location where they occur. A hybrid geo-context computing solution is implemented that runs on a smartphone, and it utilizes measurements of multiple sensors and signals of opportunity that are available within a smartphone. Pedestrian location and motion states are estimated jointly under the framework of hidden Markov models, and they are used in a reciprocal manner to improve their estimation performance of one another. It is demonstrated that pedestrian location estimation has better accuracy when its motion state is known, and in turn, the performance of motion state recognition can be improved with increasing reliability when the location is given. The geo-context inference is implemented simply with the expert system principle, and more sophisticated approaches will be developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next Generation MEMS-Based Navigation—Systems and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Signal Processing Technique for Combining Numerous MEMS Gyroscopes Based on Dynamic Conditional Correlation
Micromachines 2015, 6(6), 684-698; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6060684
Received: 10 April 2015 / Revised: 24 May 2015 / Accepted: 2 June 2015 / Published: 12 June 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2237 | PDF Full-text (1161 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A signal processing technique is presented to improve the angular rate accuracy of Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) gyroscope by combining numerous gyroscopes. Based on the conditional correlation between gyroscopes, a dynamic data fusion model is established. Firstly, the gyroscope error model is built through [...] Read more.
A signal processing technique is presented to improve the angular rate accuracy of Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) gyroscope by combining numerous gyroscopes. Based on the conditional correlation between gyroscopes, a dynamic data fusion model is established. Firstly, the gyroscope error model is built through Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH) process to improve overall performance. Then the conditional covariance obtained through dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) estimator is used to describe the correlation quantitatively. Finally, the approach is validated by a prototype of the virtual gyroscope, which consists of six-gyroscope array. The experimental results indicate that the weights of gyroscopes change with the value of error. Also, the accuracy of combined rate signal is improved dramatically compared to individual gyroscope. The results indicate that the approach not only improves the accuracy of the MEMS gyroscope, but also discovers the fault gyroscope and eliminates its influence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next Generation MEMS-Based Navigation—Systems and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Rotational Efficiency of Photo-Driven Archimedes Screws for Micropumps
Micromachines 2015, 6(6), 674-683; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6060674
Received: 13 April 2015 / Revised: 13 May 2015 / Accepted: 4 June 2015 / Published: 9 June 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2245 | PDF Full-text (3468 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we characterized the rotational efficiency of the photo-driven Archimedes screw. The micron-sized Archimedes screws were fabricated using the two-photon polymerization technique. Free-floating screws trapped by optical tweezers align in the laser irradiation direction and rotate spontaneously. The influences of the [...] Read more.
In this study, we characterized the rotational efficiency of the photo-driven Archimedes screw. The micron-sized Archimedes screws were fabricated using the two-photon polymerization technique. Free-floating screws trapped by optical tweezers align in the laser irradiation direction and rotate spontaneously. The influences of the screw pitch and the number of screw blades have been investigated in our previous studies. In this paper, the blade thickness and the central rod of the screw were further investigated. The experimental results indicate that the blade thickness contributes to rotational stability, but not to rotational speed, and that the central rod stabilizes the rotating screw but is not conducive to rotational speed. Finally, the effect of the numerical aperture (NA) of the optical tweezers was investigated through a demonstration. The NA is inversely proportional to the rotational speed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micropumps: Design, Fabrication and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle On-Chip Method to Measure Mechanical Characteristics of a Single Cell by Using Moiré Fringe
Micromachines 2015, 6(6), 660-673; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6060660
Received: 23 April 2015 / Revised: 23 May 2015 / Accepted: 29 May 2015 / Published: 3 June 2015
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2634 | PDF Full-text (8441 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We propose a method to characterize the mechanical properties of cells using a robot-integrated microfluidic chip (robochip) and microscopy. The microfluidic chip is designed to apply the specified deformations to a single detached cell using an on-chip actuator probe. The reaction force is [...] Read more.
We propose a method to characterize the mechanical properties of cells using a robot-integrated microfluidic chip (robochip) and microscopy. The microfluidic chip is designed to apply the specified deformations to a single detached cell using an on-chip actuator probe. The reaction force is simultaneously measured using an on-chip force sensor composed of a hollow folded beam and probe structure. In order to measure the cellular characteristics in further detail, a sub-pixel level of resolution of probe position is required. Therefore, we utilize the phase detection of moiré fringe. Using this method, the experimental resolution of the probe position reaches 42 nm. This is approximately ten times smaller than the optical wavelength, which is the limit of sharp imaging with a microscope. Calibration of the force sensor is also important in accurately measuring cellular reaction forces. We calibrated the spring constant from the frequency response, by the proposed sensing method of the probe position. As a representative of mechanical characteristics, we measured the elastic modulus of Madin-Darby Cannie Kidney (MDCK) cells. In spite of the rigid spring constant, the resolution and sensitivity were twice that achieved in our previous study. Unique cellular characteristics can be elucidated by the improvements in sensing resolution and accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Lab-on-a-Chip)
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