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Micromachines, Volume 6, Issue 7 (July 2015) , Pages 813-968

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Open AccessArticle Passive Micromixers with Interlocking Semi-Circle and Omega-Shaped Modules: Experiments and Simulations
Micromachines 2015, 6(7), 953-968; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6070953
Received: 3 June 2015 / Revised: 6 July 2015 / Accepted: 14 July 2015 / Published: 22 July 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2283 | PDF Full-text (4134 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study presents experiments and computational simulations of single-layer passive micromixer designs. The proposed designs consist of chains of interlocking semicircles and omega-shaped mixing modules. The performance of the new designs is compared with the concentric spiral channel configuration. The micromixers are intended [...] Read more.
This study presents experiments and computational simulations of single-layer passive micromixer designs. The proposed designs consist of chains of interlocking semicircles and omega-shaped mixing modules. The performance of the new designs is compared with the concentric spiral channel configuration. The micromixers are intended to be integrated into a lab on chip (LOC) micro-system that operates under continuous flow conditions. The purpose behind the multi-curvature in these designs is the introduction of Dean vortices in addition to molecular diffusion in order to enhance the mixing performance. The micromixers were fabricated in PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) and bonded to a glass substrate. A three-dimensional computational model of micromixers was carried out using Fluent ANSYS. In experiments, the mixing of a 1 g/L fluorescein isothiocyanate diluted in distilled water was observed and photographed using a charge-coupled device (CCD) microscopic camera. The obtained images were processed to determine the mixing intensity at different Reynolds numbers. The standard deviation (σ) of the fluorescence indicates the mixing completeness, which was calculated along the width of the channel at various locations downstream from the channel inlet. The value of σ = 0.5 indicates unmixed streams and 0 is for complete mixing. It is found that the two new designs have a standard deviation of nearly 0.05. Additionally, complete mixing was observed at the channel outlet as demonstrated by the fluorescence images and the numerical results. However, the location of complete mixing at different positions depends on the Reynolds number, which varies between 0.01 and 50. Good agreement was found between the experiment and the numerical results. A correlation to predict the length scale where complete mixing can be achieved is given in terms of the radius of curvature, the mixing module, and the Reynolds number. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Lab-on-a-Chip)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Kalman Filter with State Constraint Approach for the Integration of Multiple Pedestrian Navigation Systems
Micromachines 2015, 6(7), 926-952; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6070926
Received: 31 May 2015 / Revised: 8 July 2015 / Accepted: 9 July 2015 / Published: 16 July 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2357 | PDF Full-text (2153 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Numerous solutions/methods to solve the existing problems of pedestrian navigation/localization have been proposed in the last decade by both industrial and academic researchers. However, to date there are still major challenges for a single pedestrian navigation system (PNS) to operate continuously, robustly, and [...] Read more.
Numerous solutions/methods to solve the existing problems of pedestrian navigation/localization have been proposed in the last decade by both industrial and academic researchers. However, to date there are still major challenges for a single pedestrian navigation system (PNS) to operate continuously, robustly, and seamlessly in all indoor and outdoor environments. In this paper, a novel method for pedestrian navigation approach to fuse the information from two separate PNSs is proposed. When both systems are used at the same time by a specific user, a nonlinear inequality constraint between the two systems’ navigation estimates always exists. Through exploring this constraint information, a novel filtering technique named Kalman filter with state constraint is used to diminish the positioning errors of both systems. The proposed method was tested by fusing the navigation information from two different PNSs, one is the foot-mounted inertial navigation system (INS) mechanization-based system, the other PNS is a navigation device that is mounted on the user’s upper body, and adopting the pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) mechanization for navigation update. Monte Carlo simulations and real field experiments show that the proposed method for the integration of multiple PNSs could improve each PNS’ navigation performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next Generation MEMS-Based Navigation—Systems and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle A Concentration-Controllable Microfluidic Droplet Mixer for Mercury Ion Detection
Micromachines 2015, 6(7), 915-925; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6070915
Received: 12 June 2015 / Revised: 6 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 July 2015 / Published: 13 July 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2297 | PDF Full-text (4920 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A microfluidic droplet mixer is developed for rapid detection of Hg(II) ions. Reagent concentration and droplets can be precisely controlled by adjusting the flow rates of different fluid phases. By selecting suitable flow rates of the oil phase, probe phase and sample phase, [...] Read more.
A microfluidic droplet mixer is developed for rapid detection of Hg(II) ions. Reagent concentration and droplets can be precisely controlled by adjusting the flow rates of different fluid phases. By selecting suitable flow rates of the oil phase, probe phase and sample phase, probe droplets and sample droplets can be matched and merged in pairs and subsequently well-mixed in the poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) channels. The fluorescence enhancement probe (Rhodamine B mixed with gold nanoparticles) encapsulated in droplets can react with Hg(II) ions. The Hg(II) ion concentration in the sample droplets is adjusted from about 0 to 1000 nM through fluid regulation to simulate possible various contaminative water samples. The intensity of the emission fluorescence is sensitive to Hg(II) ions (increases as the Hg(II) ion concentration increases). Through the analysis of the acquired fluorescence images, the concentration of Hg(II) ions can be precisely detected. With the advantages of less time, cost consumption and easier manipulations, this device would have a great potential in micro-scale sample assays and real-time chemical reaction studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Droplet Microfluidics: Techniques and Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle Multiscale Modeling of Skeletal Muscle Active Contraction in Relation to Mechanochemical Coupling of Molecular Motors
Micromachines 2015, 6(7), 902-914; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6070902
Received: 22 May 2015 / Revised: 29 June 2015 / Accepted: 2 July 2015 / Published: 10 July 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2211 | PDF Full-text (352 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, a mathematical model was developed to relate the mechanochemical characterizations of molecular motors with the macroscopic manifestation of muscle contraction. Non-equilibrium statistical mechanics were used to study the collective behavior of myosin molecular motors in terms of the complex conformation [...] Read more.
In this work, a mathematical model was developed to relate the mechanochemical characterizations of molecular motors with the macroscopic manifestation of muscle contraction. Non-equilibrium statistical mechanics were used to study the collective behavior of myosin molecular motors in terms of the complex conformation change and multiple chemical states in one working cycle. The stochastic evolution of molecular motor probability density distribution during the contraction of sarcomere was characterized by the Fokker-Planck Equation. Quick muscle contraction was demonstrated by the collective dynamic behavior of myosin motors, the muscle contraction force, and the muscle contraction velocity-force relation. Our results are validated against published experiments, as well as the predictions from the Hill’s model. The quantitative relation between myosin molecular motors and muscle contraction provides a novel way to unravel the mechanism of force generation. Full article
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Open AccessReview Micromachined Shape-Memory-Alloy Microactuators and Their Application in Biomedical Devices
Micromachines 2015, 6(7), 879-901; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6070879
Received: 16 March 2015 / Revised: 9 May 2015 / Accepted: 19 May 2015 / Published: 10 July 2015
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3119 | PDF Full-text (4011 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a class of smart materials characterized by shape memory effect and pseudo-elastic behavior. They have the capability to retain their original form when subjected to certain stimuli, such as heat or a magnetic field. These unique properties have [...] Read more.
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a class of smart materials characterized by shape memory effect and pseudo-elastic behavior. They have the capability to retain their original form when subjected to certain stimuli, such as heat or a magnetic field. These unique properties have attracted many researchers to seek their application in various fields including transportation, aerospace, and biomedical. The ease process adaption from semiconductor manufacturing technology provides many opportunities for designing micro-scale devices using this material. This paper gives an overview of the fabrication and manufacturing technique of thin-film and bulk micromachined SMAs. Key features such as material properties, transformation temperature, material composition, and actuation method are also presented. The application and micromechanism for both thin-film and bulk SMA are described. Finally, the microactuator devices emphasized for biomedical applications such as microgrippers and micropumps are highlighted. The presented review will provide information for researchers who are actively working on the development of SMA-based microscale biomedical devices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle All Silicon Micro-GC Column Temperature Programming Using Axial Heating
Micromachines 2015, 6(7), 865-878; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6070865
Received: 14 May 2015 / Revised: 19 June 2015 / Accepted: 3 July 2015 / Published: 10 July 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2093 | PDF Full-text (4238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work we present a high performance micro gas chromatograph column with a novel two dimensional axial heating technique for faster and more precise temperature programming, resulting in an improved separation performance. Three different axial resistive heater designs were simulated theoretically on [...] Read more.
In this work we present a high performance micro gas chromatograph column with a novel two dimensional axial heating technique for faster and more precise temperature programming, resulting in an improved separation performance. Three different axial resistive heater designs were simulated theoretically on a 3.0 m × 300 μm × 50 μm column for the highest temperature gradient on a 22 by 22 μm column. The best design was then micro-fabricated and evaluated experimentally. The simulation results showed that simultaneous temperature gradients in time and distance along the column are possible by geometric optimization of the heater when using forced convection. The gradients along the column continuously refocused eluting bands, offsetting part of the chromatographic band spreading. The utility of this method was further investigated for a test mixture of three hydrocarbons (hexane, octane, and decane). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro/Nano Devices for Chemical Analysis) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Fumed and Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles on the Properties of Sylgard 184 Polydimethylsiloxane
Micromachines 2015, 6(7), 855-864; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6070855
Received: 21 April 2015 / Revised: 17 June 2015 / Accepted: 2 July 2015 / Published: 8 July 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2521 | PDF Full-text (4278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of silica nanoparticles on the properties of a commonly used Sylgard 184 polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in microfluidics were systemically studied. Two kinds of silica nanoparticles, A380 fumed silica nanoparticles and MCM-41 mesoporous silica nanoparticles, were individually doped into PDMS, and the properties [...] Read more.
The effects of silica nanoparticles on the properties of a commonly used Sylgard 184 polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in microfluidics were systemically studied. Two kinds of silica nanoparticles, A380 fumed silica nanoparticles and MCM-41 mesoporous silica nanoparticles, were individually doped into PDMS, and the properties of PDMS with these two different silica nanoparticles were separately tested and compared. The thermal and mechanical stabilities of PDMS were significantly enhanced, and the swelling characteristics were also improved by doping these two kinds of nanoparticles. However, the transparency of PDMS was decreased due to the light scattering by nanoparticles. By contrast, PDMS/MCM-41 nanocomposites showed a lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) owing to the mesoporous structure of MCM-41 nanoparticles, while PDMS/A380 nanocomposites showed a larger elastic modulus and better transparency due to the smaller size of A380 nanoparticles. In addition, A380 and MCM-41 nanoparticles had the similar effects on the swelling characteristics of PDMS. The swelling ratio of PDMS in toluene was decreased to 0.68 when the concentration of nanoparticles was 10 wt %. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mixing Performance of a Serpentine Micromixer with Non-Aligned Inputs
Micromachines 2015, 6(7), 842-854; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6070842
Received: 30 April 2015 / Revised: 25 June 2015 / Accepted: 26 June 2015 / Published: 3 July 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1804 | PDF Full-text (3328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, a numerical investigation on mixing and flow structure in a serpentine microchannel with non-aligned input channels was performed. The non-aligned input channels generate a vortical flow, which is formed by incoming fluid streams through tangentially aligned channels. Mixing index was [...] Read more.
In this study, a numerical investigation on mixing and flow structure in a serpentine microchannel with non-aligned input channels was performed. The non-aligned input channels generate a vortical flow, which is formed by incoming fluid streams through tangentially aligned channels. Mixing index was evaluated to measure the degree of mixing in the micromixer. Analyses of mixing and flow field were investigated for a Reynolds number range starting from 0.1 to 120. The vortical structure of the flow was analyzed to find its effect on the mixing performance. Mixing of two working fluids in the micromixer was evaluated by using three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations. In order to compare the mixing performance between the serpentine micromixers with and without non-aligned inputs, the geometric parameters, such as cross-section areas of the input channels and main channel, height of the channel, axial length of the channel, and number of pitches, were kept constant. Pressure drops were also calculated with fixed axial length in both cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micromixer & Micromixing)
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Open AccessArticle An Integrated Glucose Sensor with an All-Solid-State Sodium Ion-Selective Electrode for a Minimally Invasive Glucose Monitoring System
Micromachines 2015, 6(7), 831-841; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6070831
Received: 2 May 2015 / Revised: 16 June 2015 / Accepted: 25 June 2015 / Published: 30 June 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2362 | PDF Full-text (1603 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We developed a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system that uses a microneedle to permeate the skin surface and a small hydrogel to accumulate interstitial fluid glucose. The measurement of glucose and sodium ion levels in the hydrogel is required for estimating glucose levels [...] Read more.
We developed a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system that uses a microneedle to permeate the skin surface and a small hydrogel to accumulate interstitial fluid glucose. The measurement of glucose and sodium ion levels in the hydrogel is required for estimating glucose levels in blood; therefore, we developed a small, enzyme-fixed glucose sensor with a high-selectivity, all-solid-state, sodium ion-selective electrode (ISE) integrated into its design. The glucose sensor immobilized glucose oxidase showed a good correlation between the glucose levels in the hydrogels and the reference glucose levels (r > 0.99), and exhibited a good precision (coefficient of variation = 2.9%, 0.6 mg/dL). In the design of the sodium ISEs, we used the insertion material Na0.33MnO2 as the inner contact layer and DD16C5 exhibiting high Na+/K+ selectivity as the ionophore. The developed sodium ISE exhibited high selectivity (\( \log \,k^{pot}_{Na,K} = -2.8\)) and good potential stability. The sodium ISE could measure 0.4 mM (10−3.4 M) sodium ion levels in the hydrogels containing 268 mM (10−0.57 M) KCl. The small integrated sensor (ϕ < 10 mm) detected glucose and sodium ions in hydrogels simultaneously within 1 min, and it exhibited sufficient performance for use as a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Laser-Induced Heating on Raman Measurement within a Silicon Microfluidic Channel
Micromachines 2015, 6(7), 813-830; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6070813
Received: 24 April 2015 / Revised: 10 June 2015 / Accepted: 19 June 2015 / Published: 29 June 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1733 | PDF Full-text (1007 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
When Raman microscopy is adopted to detect the chemical and biological processes in the silicon microfluidic channel, the laser-induced heating effect will cause a temperature rise in the sample liquid. This undesired temperature rise will mislead the Raman measurement during the temperature-influencing processes. [...] Read more.
When Raman microscopy is adopted to detect the chemical and biological processes in the silicon microfluidic channel, the laser-induced heating effect will cause a temperature rise in the sample liquid. This undesired temperature rise will mislead the Raman measurement during the temperature-influencing processes. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics simulations were conducted to evaluate the maximum local temperature-rise (MLT). Through the orthogonal analysis, the sensitivity of potential influencing parameters to the MLT was determined. In addition, it was found from transient simulations that it is reasonable to assume the actual measurement to be steady-state. Simulation results were qualitatively validated by experimental data from the Raman measurement of diffusion, a temperature-dependent process. A correlation was proposed for the first time to estimate the MLT. Simple in form and convenient for calculation, this correlation can be efficiently applied to Raman measurement in a silicon microfluidic channel. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Lab-on-a-Chip)
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