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Micromachines, Volume 6, Issue 5 (May 2015) , Pages 544-659

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Open AccessArticle On-Chip Transportation and Measurement of Mechanical Characteristics of Oocytes in an Open Environment
Micromachines 2015, 6(5), 648-659; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6050648
Received: 21 April 2015 / Revised: 11 May 2015 / Accepted: 19 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2326 | PDF Full-text (6944 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We propose a system that transports oocytes and measures their mechanical characteristics in an open environment using a robot integrated microfluidic chip (chip). The cells are transported through a micropillar array in the chip, and their characteristics are measured by a mechanical probe [...] Read more.
We propose a system that transports oocytes and measures their mechanical characteristics in an open environment using a robot integrated microfluidic chip (chip). The cells are transported through a micropillar array in the chip, and their characteristics are measured by a mechanical probe and a force sensor. Because the chip has an open microchannel, important cells such as oocytes are easily introduced and collected without the risk for losing them. In addition, any bubbles trapped in the chip, which degrade the measurement precision, are easily removed. To transport the oocytes through the open microchannel, we adopt a transportation technique based on a vibration-induced flow. Under this flow, oocytes arrive at the measurement point, where their mechanical characteristics are determined. We demonstrate the introduction, transportation, measurement of mechanical characteristics, and collection of oocytes using this system. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Lab-on-a-Chip)
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Open AccessArticle Cell Size Discrimination Based on the Measurement of the Equilibrium Velocity in Rectangular Microchannels
Micromachines 2015, 6(5), 634-647; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6050634
Received: 31 December 2014 / Accepted: 19 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
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Abstract
Flow cytometry is a well-established diagnostic tool for cell counting and characterization. It utilizes fluorescence and scattered excitation light simultaneously emitted from cells passing an excitation laser focus to discriminate various cell types and estimate cell size. Here, we apply the principle of [...] Read more.
Flow cytometry is a well-established diagnostic tool for cell counting and characterization. It utilizes fluorescence and scattered excitation light simultaneously emitted from cells passing an excitation laser focus to discriminate various cell types and estimate cell size. Here, we apply the principle of spatially modulated emission (SME) to fluorescently stained SUP-B15 cells as a model system for cancer cells and Marinococcus luteus as model for bacteria. We demonstrate that the experimental apparatus is able to detect these model cells and that the results are comparable to those obtained by a commercially available CASY® TT Counter. Furthermore, by examining the velocity distribution of the cells, we observe clear relationships between cell condition/size and cell velocity. Thus, the cell velocity provides information comparable to the scatter signal in conventional flow cytometry. These results indicate that the SME technique is a promising method for simultaneous cell counting and viability characterization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Formation of Polymeric Hollow Microcapsules and Microlenses Using Gas-in-Organic-in-Water Droplets
Micromachines 2015, 6(5), 622-633; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6050622
Received: 24 April 2015 / Revised: 18 May 2015 / Accepted: 19 May 2015 / Published: 21 May 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2565 | PDF Full-text (4638 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents methods for the formation of hollow microcapsules and microlenses using multiphase microdroplets. Microdroplets, which consist of a gas core and an organic phase shell, were generated at a single junction on a silicon device without surface treatment of the fluidic [...] Read more.
This paper presents methods for the formation of hollow microcapsules and microlenses using multiphase microdroplets. Microdroplets, which consist of a gas core and an organic phase shell, were generated at a single junction on a silicon device without surface treatment of the fluidic channels. Droplet, core and shell dimensions were controlled by varying the flow rates of each phase. When the organic solvent was released from the organic phase shell, the environmental conditions changed the shape of the solidified polymer shell to either a hollow capsule or a microlens. A uniform solvent release process produced polymeric capsules with nanoliter gas core volumes and a membrane thickness of approximately 3 μm. Alternatively physical rearrangement of the core and shell allowed for the formation of polymeric microlenses. On-demand formation of the polymer lenses in wells and through-holes polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) structures was achieved. Optical properties of the lenses were controlled by changing the dimension of these structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Droplet Microfluidics: Techniques and Technologies)
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Open AccessArticle Novel SU-8/Ionic Liquid Composite for Tribological Coatings and MEMS
Micromachines 2015, 6(5), 611-621; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6050611
Received: 25 March 2015 / Accepted: 13 May 2015 / Published: 19 May 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1974 | PDF Full-text (5224 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tribology of SU-8 polymer is increasingly relevant due to bursting use of this material in a variety of applications. This study is directed towards introduction and investigation of a novel self-lubricating composite of an ionic liquid (IL) in SU-8. The new material can [...] Read more.
Tribology of SU-8 polymer is increasingly relevant due to bursting use of this material in a variety of applications. This study is directed towards introduction and investigation of a novel self-lubricating composite of an ionic liquid (IL) in SU-8. The new material can be utilized for fabrication of lubricating polymer coating with tunable surface properties or SU8-made elements for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with enhanced tribological performance. It is shown that addition of IL drastically alters water affinity of the composite while UV patternability remains unmodified. A lower coefficient of friction and wear has been obtained for two investigated compositions with 4 and 10 wt % ionic liquid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 15 Years of SU8 as MEMS Material)
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Open AccessArticle Nano-Workbench: A Combined Hollow AFM Cantilever and Robotic Manipulator
Micromachines 2015, 6(5), 600-610; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6050600
Received: 6 March 2015 / Revised: 4 May 2015 / Accepted: 7 May 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2396 | PDF Full-text (7169 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
To manipulate liquid matter at the nanometer scale, we have developed a robotic assembly equipped with a hollow atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever that can handle femtolitre volumes of liquid. The assembly consists of four independent robots, each sugar cube sized with four [...] Read more.
To manipulate liquid matter at the nanometer scale, we have developed a robotic assembly equipped with a hollow atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever that can handle femtolitre volumes of liquid. The assembly consists of four independent robots, each sugar cube sized with four degrees of freedom. All robots are placed on a single platform around the sample forming a nano-workbench (NWB). Each robot can travel the entire platform and has a minimum position resolution of 5 nm both in-plane and out-of-plane. The cantilever chip was glued to the robotic arm. Dispensing was done by the capillarity between the substrate and the cantilever tip, and was monitored visually through a microscope. To evaluate the performance of the NWB, we have performed three experiments: clamping of graphene with epoxy, mixing of femtolitre volume droplets to synthesize gold nanoparticles and accurately dispense electrolyte liquid for a nanobattery. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design of 340 GHz 2× and 4× Sub-Harmonic Mixers Using Schottky Barrier Diodes in Silicon-Based Technology
Micromachines 2015, 6(5), 592-599; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6050592
Received: 1 March 2015 / Revised: 2 May 2015 / Accepted: 7 May 2015 / Published: 12 May 2015
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Abstract
This paper presents the design of terahertz 2× and 4× sub-harmonic down-mixers using Schottky Barrier Diodes fabricated in standard 0.13 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology. The 340 GHz sub-harmonic mixers (SHMs) are designed based on anti-parallel-diode-pairs (APDPs). With the 2nd and 4th harmonic, local [...] Read more.
This paper presents the design of terahertz 2× and 4× sub-harmonic down-mixers using Schottky Barrier Diodes fabricated in standard 0.13 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology. The 340 GHz sub-harmonic mixers (SHMs) are designed based on anti-parallel-diode-pairs (APDPs). With the 2nd and 4th harmonic, local oscillator (LO) frequencies of 170 GHz and 85 GHz are used to pump the two 340 GHz SHMs. With LO power of 7 dBm, the 2× SHM exhibits a conversion loss of 34.5–37 dB in the lower band (320–340 GHz) and 35.5–41 dB in the upper band (340–360 GHz); with LO power of 9 dBm, the 4× SHM exhibits a conversion loss of 39–43 dB in the lower band (320–340 GHz) and 40–48 dB in the upper band (340–360 GHz). The measured input 1-dB conversion gain compression point for the 2× and 4× SHMs are −8 dBm and −10 dBm at 325 GHz, respectively. The simulated LO-IF (intermediate frequency) isolation of the 2× SHM is 21.5 dB, and the measured LO-IF isolation of the 4× SHM is 32 dB. The chip areas of the 2× and 4× SHMs are 330 μm × 580 μm and 550 μm × 610 μm, respectively, including the testing pads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in MMICs)
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Open AccessArticle Optimizing Polymer Lab-on-Chip Platforms for Ultrasonic Manipulation: Influence of the Substrate
Micromachines 2015, 6(5), 574-591; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6050574
Received: 10 February 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 29 April 2015 / Published: 7 May 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2140 | PDF Full-text (3332 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The choice of substrate material in a chip that combines ultrasound with microfluidics for handling biological and synthetic microparticles can have a profound effect on the performance of the device. This is due to the high surface-to-volume ratio that exists within such small [...] Read more.
The choice of substrate material in a chip that combines ultrasound with microfluidics for handling biological and synthetic microparticles can have a profound effect on the performance of the device. This is due to the high surface-to-volume ratio that exists within such small structures and acquires particular relevance in polymer-based resonators with 3D standing waves. This paper presents three chips developed to perform particle flow-through separation by ultrasound based on a polymeric SU-8 layer containing channelization over three different substrates: Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA); Pyrex; and a cracked PMMA composite-like structure. Through direct observations of polystyrene microbeads inside the channel, the three checked chips exhibit their potential as disposable continuous concentration devices with different spatial pressure patterns at frequencies of resonance close to 1 Mhz. Chips with Pyrex and cracked PMMA substrates show restrictions on the number of pressure nodes established in the channel associated with the inhibition of 3D modes in the solid structure. The glass-substrate chip presents some advantages associated with lower energy requirements to collect particles. According to the results, the use of polymer-based chips with rigid substrates can be advantageous for applications that require short treatment times (clinical tests handling human samples) and low-cost fabrication. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Lab-on-a-Chip)
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Open AccessArticle Research on High-Precision, Low Cost Piezoresistive MEMS-Array Pressure Transmitters Based on Genetic Wavelet Neural Networks for Meteorological Measurements
Micromachines 2015, 6(5), 554-573; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6050554
Received: 4 February 2015 / Revised: 21 April 2015 / Accepted: 29 April 2015 / Published: 6 May 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2305 | PDF Full-text (4947 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper provides a novel and effective compensation method by improving the hardware design and software algorithm to achieve optimization of piezoresistive pressure sensors and corresponding measurement systems in order to measure pressure more accurately and stably, as well as to meet the [...] Read more.
This paper provides a novel and effective compensation method by improving the hardware design and software algorithm to achieve optimization of piezoresistive pressure sensors and corresponding measurement systems in order to measure pressure more accurately and stably, as well as to meet the application requirements of the meteorological industry. Specifically, GE NovaSensor MEMS piezoresistive pressure sensors within a thousandth of accuracy are selected to constitute an array. In the versatile compensation method, the hardware utilizes the array of MEMS pressure sensors to reduce random error caused by sensor creep, and the software adopts the data fusion technique based on the wavelet neural network (WNN) which is improved by genetic algorithm (GA) to analyze the data of sensors for the sake of obtaining accurate and complete information over the wide temperature and pressure ranges. The GA-WNN model is implemented in hardware by using the 32-bit STMicroelectronics (STM32) microcontroller combined with an embedded real-time operating system µC/OS-II to make the output of the array of MEMS sensors be a direct digital readout. The results of calibration and test experiments clearly show that the GA-WNN technique can be effectively applied to minimize the sensor errors due to the temperature drift, the hysteresis effect and the long-term drift because of aging and environmental changes. The maximum error of the low cost piezoresistive MEMS-array pressure transmitter proposed by us is within 0.04% of its full-scale value, and it can satisfy the meteorological pressure measurement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Transferable Integrated Optical SU8 Devices: From Micronic Waveguides to 1D-Nanostructures
Micromachines 2015, 6(5), 544-553; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6050544
Received: 26 March 2015 / Revised: 20 April 2015 / Accepted: 21 April 2015 / Published: 23 April 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2218 | PDF Full-text (4319 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report on optical components for integrated optics applications at the micro- and nanoscale. Versatile shapes and dimensions are achievable due to the liquid phase processability of SU8 resist. On the one hand, by adjusting the UV-lithography process, waveguiding structures are patterned and [...] Read more.
We report on optical components for integrated optics applications at the micro- and nanoscale. Versatile shapes and dimensions are achievable due to the liquid phase processability of SU8 resist. On the one hand, by adjusting the UV-lithography process, waveguiding structures are patterned and released from their original substrate. They can be replaced on any other substrate and also immerged in liquid wherein they still show off efficient light confinement. On the other hand, filled and hollow 1D-nanostructures are achievable by the wetting template method. By exploiting the large range of available SU8 viscosities, nanowires of diameter ranging between 50 nm and 240 nm, as well as nanotubes of controllable wall thickness are presented. Optical injection, propagation, and coupling in such nanostructures are relevant for highly integrated devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 15 Years of SU8 as MEMS Material)
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Micromachines EISSN 2072-666X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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