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Consumption Patterns of Alcohol and Alcohol mixed with Energy Drinks in Australian Students and Non-Students

1
Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC 3122, Australia
2
Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, 3584CG Utrecht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010149
Received: 3 December 2019 / Revised: 24 December 2019 / Accepted: 27 December 2019 / Published: 5 January 2020
Studies assessing alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) use and drinking behaviors have been largely restricted to student-only cohorts. Thus, it is not known whether evidence from these studies is applicable to non-student populations. This study examined alcohol consumption and involvement in negative alcohol-related consequences among AMED and alcohol-only (AO) users, with the aim of determining whether drinking behaviors differ according to student status. An online survey was conducted in Australia to assess alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences following AMED and AO consumption, according to student status. The final sample consisted of 1369 participants. Between-subjects analyses comparing AMED and AO users, confirmed previous findings in that, compared with AO users, AMED users consumed significantly more alcohol, consumed alcohol more frequently and were involved in a greater number of alcohol-related consequences. Within-subjects analyses of AMED users comparing AMED and AO drinking occasions revealed that significantly less alcohol was consumed and involvement in negative alcohol-related consequences was lower during AMED compared with AO drinking occasions. Regardless of drink type, compared with students, non-students consumed more alcohol, consumed alcohol more frequently and were involved in a greater number of negative alcohol-related consequences. These findings provide further evidence that AMED use is one manifestation of a risk-taking personality and suggest that non-students drink more alcohol, drink more frequently and are involved in a greater number of negative alcohol-related consequences than students. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy drink; alcohol; caffeine; AMED; alcohol consumption; consequences; student drinking energy drink; alcohol; caffeine; AMED; alcohol consumption; consequences; student drinking
MDPI and ACS Style

Benson, S.; Verster, J.C.; Scholey, A. Consumption Patterns of Alcohol and Alcohol mixed with Energy Drinks in Australian Students and Non-Students. Nutrients 2020, 12, 149.

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