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Combined Longitudinal Effect of Physical Activity and Screen Time on Food and Beverage Consumption in European Preschool Children: The ToyBox-Study

Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development (GENUD) Research Group, University of Zaragoza, C/Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
School of Health Science (EUCS), University of Zaragoza, C/Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Saragossa, Spain
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, 17671 Athens, Greece
Department of Movement and Sports Sciences, Ghent University, Watersportlaan 2, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Department of paediatrics. Medical University Varna, 55 Marin Drinov Str., 9002 Varna, Bulgaria
Dr von Hauner Children’s Hospital, University of Munich Medical Centre, 80337 Munich, Germany
The Children’s Memorial Health Institute, 04-730 Warsaw, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1048;
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Behavior and Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents)
PDF [576 KB, uploaded 10 May 2019]


Lifestyle behavioral habits such as excess screen time (ST), a lack of physical activity (PA), and high energy-dense food consumption are associated with an increased risk of children being overweight or obese. This study aimed to (1) track longitudinal adherence to PA and ST recommendations at baseline (T0) and follow-up (T1) and (2) assess the association between changes in adherence to PA and ST recommendations and food and beverage consumption at follow-up. The present study included 2321 preschool children (3.5 to 6) participating in the multicenter ToyBox-study. A lineal mixed effects model was used to examine the association between different types of food and beverages and their relationship with changes in adherence to PA and ST recommendations. Approximately half of the children (50.4%) did not meet the PA and ST recommendations at both baseline and follow-up. However, only 0.6% of the sample met both PA and ST recommendations. Preschool children who met both recommendations consumed fewer fizzy drinks, juices, sweets, desserts, and salty snacks and consumed more water, fruits and vegetables, and dairy products than did those not meeting both recommendations. In conclusion, the proportion of European preschool children adhering to both PA and ST recommendations was very low and was associated with a low consumption of energy-dense foods. View Full-Text
Keywords: screen time; physical activity; preschool children; food and beverage consumption screen time; physical activity; preschool children; food and beverage consumption

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Miguel-Berges, M.L.; Santaliestra-Pasias, A.M.; Mouratidou, T.; De Miguel-Etayo, P.; Androutsos, O.; De Craemer, M.; Galcheva, S.; Koletzko, B.; Kulaga, Z.; Manios, Y.; Moreno, L.A.; group, O.-S. Combined Longitudinal Effect of Physical Activity and Screen Time on Food and Beverage Consumption in European Preschool Children: The ToyBox-Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1048.

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