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Analysis of Heme and Non-Heme Iron Intake and Iron Dietary Sources in Adolescent Menstruating Females in a National Polish Sample

Department of Dietetics, Faculty of Human Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW-WULS), 159c Nowoursynowska Street, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
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Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1049; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051049
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 27 April 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
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Abstract

Iron intake and heme/non-heme iron proportions are crucial for iron deficiency anemia prevention. Women of childbearing age are indicated by World Health Organization as the primary target group, but maintaining iron balance is particularly challenging for adolescents. The aim of the presented study was to analyze heme and non-heme iron intake and dietary sources in adolescent menstruating females in a national Polish sample. The study was conducted in a representative sample of adolescents (aged 15–20) who were recruited from all regions of Poland based on secondary school sampling (random quota sampling), with 1385 female adolescents being included in the sample. The iron intake was assessed using the previously validated IRONIC-FFQ (IRON Intake Calculation–Food Frequency Questionnaire). The intakes of iron, heme iron, non-heme iron, and iron from food product groups were assessed and compared with those of male adolescents (n = 1025) who were recruited from the same schools, as well as between sub-groups stratified by age, body mass index, anemia history, following vegetarian diet, applying iron supplementation and school type. Compared with male individuals, females were characterized by a lower intake of all forms of iron. It was stated that non-heme iron intake was highest in younger ones, overweight ones, vegetarian ones, and comprehensive school students. Female adolescents with anemia history were characterized by similar iron intake as others. For the target group, there is inadequate nutritional education and a necessity to broaden the knowledge about specific sources of iron. View Full-Text
Keywords: iron intake; heme iron; non-heme iron; animal products; plant products; sources of iron; risk of anemia; female adolescents iron intake; heme iron; non-heme iron; animal products; plant products; sources of iron; risk of anemia; female adolescents
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Skolmowska, D.; Głąbska, D. Analysis of Heme and Non-Heme Iron Intake and Iron Dietary Sources in Adolescent Menstruating Females in a National Polish Sample. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1049.

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