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Measurement, Determinants, and Implications of Energy Intake in Athletes

by 1,2 and 2,3,4,*
1
Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
2
Female Athlete Program, Division of Sports Medicine and Endocrinology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
3
Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
4
Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030665
Received: 3 February 2019 / Revised: 9 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Intake and Human Health)
Appropriate energy intake is important for the health and performance of athletes. When an athlete’s energy intake is not concordant with energy expenditure, short- and long-term performance can be compromised and negative health effects may arise. The energy intake patterns of athletes are subject to numerous effectors, including exercise response, time, and availability of food. To assess different determinants of energy intake in athletes, we reviewed recent literature regarding the response of appetite-regulating hormones to exercise, appetite perceptions following exercise, chronic exercise-induced adaptations regarding appetite, and social factors regarding energy intake. Additionally, we discussed consequences of aberrant energy intake. The purpose of this review is to clarify understanding about energy intake in athletes and provide insights into methods toward maintaining proper energy intake. View Full-Text
Keywords: exercise; appetite; ghrelin; leptin; PYY; GLP-1; energy availability; exercise-induced anorexia exercise; appetite; ghrelin; leptin; PYY; GLP-1; energy availability; exercise-induced anorexia
MDPI and ACS Style

Holtzman, B.; Ackerman, K.E. Measurement, Determinants, and Implications of Energy Intake in Athletes. Nutrients 2019, 11, 665. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030665

AMA Style

Holtzman B, Ackerman KE. Measurement, Determinants, and Implications of Energy Intake in Athletes. Nutrients. 2019; 11(3):665. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030665

Chicago/Turabian Style

Holtzman, Bryan, and Kathryn E. Ackerman 2019. "Measurement, Determinants, and Implications of Energy Intake in Athletes" Nutrients 11, no. 3: 665. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030665

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