Next Article in Journal
PHAGE Study: Effects of Supplemental Bacteriophage Intake on Inflammation and Gut Microbiota in Healthy Adults
Next Article in Special Issue
Associations of ADIPOQ and LEP Gene Variants with Energy Intake: A Systematic Review
Previous Article in Journal
Procyanidin—Cell Wall Interactions within Apple Matrices Decrease the Metabolization of Procyanidins by the Human Gut Microbiota and the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of the Resulting Microbial Metabolome In Vitro
Previous Article in Special Issue
Oral Glutamine Supplementation Reduces Obesity, Pro-Inflammatory Markers, and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in DIO Wistar Rats and Reduces Waist Circumference in Overweight and Obese Humans
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Measurement, Determinants, and Implications of Energy Intake in Athletes

Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Female Athlete Program, Division of Sports Medicine and Endocrinology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 665;
Received: 3 February 2019 / Revised: 9 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Intake and Human Health)
PDF [242 KB, uploaded 19 March 2019]


Appropriate energy intake is important for the health and performance of athletes. When an athlete’s energy intake is not concordant with energy expenditure, short- and long-term performance can be compromised and negative health effects may arise. The energy intake patterns of athletes are subject to numerous effectors, including exercise response, time, and availability of food. To assess different determinants of energy intake in athletes, we reviewed recent literature regarding the response of appetite-regulating hormones to exercise, appetite perceptions following exercise, chronic exercise-induced adaptations regarding appetite, and social factors regarding energy intake. Additionally, we discussed consequences of aberrant energy intake. The purpose of this review is to clarify understanding about energy intake in athletes and provide insights into methods toward maintaining proper energy intake. View Full-Text
Keywords: exercise; appetite; ghrelin; leptin; PYY; GLP-1; energy availability; exercise-induced anorexia exercise; appetite; ghrelin; leptin; PYY; GLP-1; energy availability; exercise-induced anorexia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Holtzman, B.; Ackerman, K.E. Measurement, Determinants, and Implications of Energy Intake in Athletes. Nutrients 2019, 11, 665.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top