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Open AccessArticle

Adequacy of Usual Intake of Japanese Children Aged 3–5 Years: A Nationwide Study

1
Department of Social and Preventive Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
2
Department of Health Promotion, National Institute of Public Health, Saitama 351-0197, Japan
3
Nutrition Innovation Centre for Food and Health (NICHE), School of Biomedical Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine BT52 1SA, UK
4
Department of Social and Preventive Epidemiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
5
School of Medicine, Toho University, Tokyo 143-8540, Japan
6
Faculty of Health Science, Toho University, Chiba 274-8510, Japan
7
Ikurien-Naka, Ibaraki 311-0105, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1150; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091150
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns and Human Health)
We assessed the adequacy of nutrient intakes of Japanese children aged 3–5 years. Dietary information was collected using a 3-nonconsective-day weighed dietary record among 143 boys and 143 girls. Estimates of usual nutrient intakes from foods and beverages were obtained using the best-power method. The proportions of children with intakes below and above the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) were estimated. The estimated usual intakes of boys and girls were adequate for most nutrients, given the low proportion (≤2%) of children consuming diets that fell below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or the mean usual intakes higher than the Adequate Intake. However, a high percentage of boys and girls had usual intakes below the EAR for calcium (64% and 54%, respectively), vitamin A (20% and 11%, respectively), thiamin (15% and 41%, respectively), and iron (27% and 10%, respectively). Additionally, 62% of boys and 66% of girls had diets that exceeded the recommended range for total fat (20%–30% energy). Further, 92% for boys and 85% for girls consumed diets that exceeded the recommended limit for sodium (4.0 and 4.5 g NaCl equivalent/day, respectively). In conclusion, the estimated usual intakes were adequate for most nutrients in this sample of 3–5-year-old Japanese children. View Full-Text
Keywords: children; nutrient adequacy; recommended intakes; usual nutrient intake children; nutrient adequacy; recommended intakes; usual nutrient intake
MDPI and ACS Style

Murakami, K.; Okubo, H.; Livingstone, M.B.E.; Fujiwara, A.; Asakura, K.; Uechi, K.; Sugimoto, M.; Wang, H.-C.; Masayasu, S.; Sasaki, S. Adequacy of Usual Intake of Japanese Children Aged 3–5 Years: A Nationwide Study. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1150.

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