Next Article in Journal
Worldwide Variation in Human Milk Metabolome: Indicators of Breast Physiology and Maternal Lifestyle?
Next Article in Special Issue
Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Depression in a Middle-Aged Cohort: The SUN Project
Previous Article in Journal
Adequacy of Usual Intake of Japanese Children Aged 3–5 Years: A Nationwide Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Maternal and Paternal Caffeine Intake and ART Outcomes in Couples Referring to an Italian Fertility Clinic: A Prospective Cohort
Open AccessReview

Biases Inherent in Studies of Coffee Consumption in Early Pregnancy and the Risks of Subsequent Events

Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 1731 Beacon Street, Brookline, MA 02445, USA
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091152
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 18 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health)
Consumption of coffee by women early in their pregnancy has been viewed as potentially increasing the risk of miscarriage, low birth weight, and childhood leukemias. Many of these reports of epidemiologic studies have not acknowledged the potential biases inherent in studying the relationship between early-pregnancy-coffee consumption and subsequent events. I discuss five of these biases, recall bias, misclassification, residual confounding, reverse causation, and publication bias. Each might account for claims that attribute adversities to early-pregnancy-coffee consumption. To what extent these biases can be avoided remains to be determined. As a minimum, these biases need to be acknowledged wherever they might account for what is reported. View Full-Text
Keywords: epidemiology; bias; causation; coffee; pregnancy epidemiology; bias; causation; coffee; pregnancy
MDPI and ACS Style

Leviton, A. Biases Inherent in Studies of Coffee Consumption in Early Pregnancy and the Risks of Subsequent Events. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1152.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop