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Open AccessArticle

Beverage Consumption among Adults in the Balearic Islands: Association with Total Water and Energy Intake

1
Department of Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, Reha Midilli Foça Faculty of Tourism, Dokuz Eylül University, Foça-Izmir 35680, Turkey
2
Research Group on Community Nutrition and Oxidative Stress, University of the Balearic Islands & CIBEROBN, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091149
Received: 7 July 2018 / Revised: 18 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior)
The paper seeks to describe beverage consumption and examine the association between beverage consumption and total water intake and total energy intake of the adult population in the Balearic Islands. Beverage consumption, total water intake, and total energy intake were obtained by using two 24-h diet recalls from a cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the Balearic Islands (n = 1386). The contribution of beverages to total water intake and total energy intake were also assessed. Beverages accounted for 65–71% of total water intake and 29–35% of it provided by drinking water. Food moisture contributed 31–37% of total water intake. The mean daily total water intake from all sources was around 2.2 L for men and 1.9 L for women and slightly lower than the proposed adequate intake (AI) recommendations of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The mean total energy intake was 2222 kcal/day and beverages contributed 10.3% of total energy intake for men and 9.5% for women. Energy intake from beverages varied with age. In both sexes, milk was the main beverage contributed to total energy intake. The energy contribution of caloric soft drinks was 1.8% for men and 1.2% for women and energy intake from these beverages was significantly higher among younger adults. Water was the main beverage in the diet, followed by milk and hot beverages. Beverages were mainly consumed in the main meal times (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) in both sexes. The main findings of this study indicate that consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (caloric soft drinks and commercial fruit juice) is higher among young adults, consumption of alcoholic beverages is higher among males aged 26 and older, and TWI (total water intake) is lower than the EFSA recommendations. These findings may be used to develop effective, healthy eating and drinking policies and campaigns. View Full-Text
Keywords: beverage consumption; water consumption; total water intake; total energy intake; adults; Balearic Islands beverage consumption; water consumption; total water intake; total energy intake; adults; Balearic Islands
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Özen, A.E.; Bibiloni, M.D.M.; Bouzas, C.; Pons, A.; Tur, J.A. Beverage Consumption among Adults in the Balearic Islands: Association with Total Water and Energy Intake. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1149.

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