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Open AccessArticle

Association between Vegetable Consumption and Blood Pressure, Stratified by BMI, among Chinese Adolescents Aged 13–17 Years: A National Cross-Sectional Study

1
Department of Preventive Medicine, Medical College of Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410013, China
2
Institute of Child and Adolescent Health, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040451
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 April 2018 / Published: 5 April 2018
The association between vegetable intake and blood pressure (BP) in adolescents is still inconsistent, and the description of the recommended daily vegetable consumption is abstract and nonfigurative. Here we aimed to investigate the association between vegetable consumption and BP and further look for a simple way to describe a satisfactory level of daily vegetable consumption for adolescents. We recruited 18,757 adolescents, aged 13–17 years, from seven provinces in China in 2013. A standard physical examination, including height, weight and BP was conducted. Information regarding vegetable intake was collected by questionnaire, and one serving of vegetables was defined as the size of an adult’s fist. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used for analysis after adjusting for covariates. Approximately 12.2%, 38.0%, 28.7%, and 21.1% of the adolescents reported daily vegetable consumption of <1, 1~2, 2~3, and ≥3 servings, respectively. Adolescents whose daily vegetable consumption was ≥3 servings showed a lower risk of high blood pressure (HBP) (OR = 0.74, 95%CI: 0.58~0.94, p = 0.013) compared to those with daily vegetable consumptions of < 1 serving. When stratified by body mass index (BMI), in overweight adolescents, participants with 2~3 or ≥3 servings/day had an OR of 0.66 (95%CI: 0.45~0.97) or 0.63 (95%CI: 0.42~0.95) compared with the reference group. Daily vegetable intake of at least three servings (three adult’s fists) is associated with a lower HBP risk in adolescents, which leads to a simple message: “consuming at least three fists of vegetables every day will improve your blood pressure profile”. View Full-Text
Keywords: blood pressure; obesity; adolescent; vegetables; body mass index blood pressure; obesity; adolescent; vegetables; body mass index
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Yang, Y.; Dong, B.; Zou, Z.; Wang, S.; Dong, Y.; Wang, Z.; Ma, J. Association between Vegetable Consumption and Blood Pressure, Stratified by BMI, among Chinese Adolescents Aged 13–17 Years: A National Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients 2018, 10, 451.

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