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Anti-Cancer Potential of Homemade Fresh Garlic Extract Is Related to Increased Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

1
Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway
2
Department of Biotechnology and Food Science, Faculty of Natural Sciences, NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway
3
MR core facility, Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work.
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040450
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 5 April 2018
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Abstract

The use of garlic and garlic-based extracts has been linked to decreased incidence of cancer in epidemiological studies. Here we examine the molecular and cellular activities of a simple homemade ethanol-based garlic extract (GE). We show that GE inhibits growth of several different cancer cells in vitro, as well as cancer growth in vivo in a syngeneic orthotopic breast cancer model. Multiple myeloma cells were found to be especially sensitive to GE. The GE was fractionated using solid-phase extractions, and we identified allicin in one GE fraction; however, growth inhibitory activities were found in several additional fractions. These activities were lost during freeze or vacuum drying, suggesting that the main anti-cancer compounds in GE are volatile. The anti-cancer activity was stable for more than six months in −20 °C. We found that GE enhanced the activities of chemotherapeutics, as well as MAPK and PI3K inhibitors. Furthermore, GE affected hundreds of proteins involved in cellular signalling, including changes in vital cell signalling cascades regulating proliferation, apoptosis, and the cellular redox balance. Our data indicate that the reduced proliferation of the cancer cells treated by GE is at least partly mediated by increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: apoptosis; ER stress; allicin; Organo Sulfur Compounds (OSCs); kinome; cancer apoptosis; ER stress; allicin; Organo Sulfur Compounds (OSCs); kinome; cancer
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Petrovic, V.; Nepal, A.; Olaisen, C.; Bachke, S.; Hira, J.; Søgaard, C.K.; Røst, L.M.; Misund, K.; Andreassen, T.; Melø, T.M.; Bartsova, Z.; Bruheim, P.; Otterlei, M. Anti-Cancer Potential of Homemade Fresh Garlic Extract Is Related to Increased Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress. Nutrients 2018, 10, 450.

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