Next Article in Journal
An Assessment and Spatial Modelling of Agricultural Land Abandonment in Spain (2015–2030)
Previous Article in Journal
Sustainability of Wine Production
Previous Article in Special Issue
Post-Mortem Analysis of Inhomogeneous Induced Pressure on Commercial Lithium-Ion Pouch Cells and Their Effects
Open AccessArticle

High-Precision Monitoring of Volume Change of Commercial Lithium-Ion Batteries by Using Strain Gauges

1
Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA), RWTH Aachen University, 52066 Aachen, Germany
2
Juelich Aachen Research Alliance, JARA-Energy, 52062 Aachen, Germany
3
Institute for Power Generation and Storage Systems (PGS), RWTH Aachen University, 52062 Aachen, Germany
4
Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, IEK-12, Helmholtz-Institut Münster, co ISEA of RWTH Aachen University, 52066 Aachen, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(2), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020557
Received: 17 December 2019 / Revised: 8 January 2020 / Accepted: 9 January 2020 / Published: 11 January 2020
This paper proposes a testing method that allows the monitoring of the development of volume expansion of lithium-ion batteries. The overall goal is to demonstrate the impact of the volume expansion on battery ageing. The following findings are achieved: First, the characteristic curve shape of the diameter change depended on the state-of-charge and the load direction of the battery. The characteristic curve shape consisted of three areas. Second, the characteristic curve shape of the diameter change changed over ageing. Whereas the state-of-charge dependent geometric alterations were of a reversible nature. An irreversible effect over the lifetime of the cell was observed. Third, an s-shaped course of the diameter change indicated two different ageing effects that led to the diameter change variation. Both reversible and irreversible expansion increased with ageing. Fourth, a direct correlation between the diameter change and the capacity loss of this particular lithium-ion battery was observed. Fifth, computer tomography (CT) measurements showed deformation of the jelly roll and post-mortem analysis showed the formation of a covering layer and the increase in the thickness of the anode. Sixth, reproducibility and temperature stability of the strain gauges were shown. Overall, this paper provides the basis for a stable and reproducible method for volume expansion analysis applied and established by the investigation of a state-of-the-art lithium-ion battery cell. This enables the study of volume expansion and its impact on capacity and cell death. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithium-ion batteries; ageing; mechanical fatigue; volume change; measurement technique; silicon anode lithium-ion batteries; ageing; mechanical fatigue; volume change; measurement technique; silicon anode
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Willenberg, L.K.; Dechent, P.; Fuchs, G.; Sauer, D.U.; Figgemeier, E. High-Precision Monitoring of Volume Change of Commercial Lithium-Ion Batteries by Using Strain Gauges. Sustainability 2020, 12, 557.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop