To improve the mode share of public transport and reduce the transition to private transport of passengers waiting at bus station, the mechanism of passengers’ decision-making procedure and influence factors of the travel mode choice were analyzed. Some latent variables such as safety, comfort, convenience, flexibility and economy were selected to reflect the satisfaction degree of passengers on the service level of public transport. Taking Jinan City as an example, the questionnaire of passengers’ travel choice behavior at bus station was designed and carried out. Based on the structure equation model (SEM), the relationship between the satisfaction degree and some latent variables such as safety and comfort was discussed. The SEM method analysis shows that, of the influence level of the latent variables to the service level of public transport, flexibility is the most significant variable affecting passenger’s satisfaction degree followed by safety, convenience, comfort and economy. Travel mode choice model of passengers waiting at bus station was established with an integration approach of SEM and nested logit (NL) model. The SEM-NL integration model results reveal that gender, monthly income, purpose of the trip, travel distance, safety and convenience service level have a significant effect on the choice of the upper model (public transport or private transport). Passenger’s age, vehicle ownership and bus ride frequency have great influence on the choice of the lower mode (ORB: original route bus; ARB: alternative route bus; Taxi; and Shared bike). Sensitivity analysis reveals that the transition probabilities from private transport to public transport can reach the highest point (respectively, 69.85%, 68.84% and 35.51%) when safety service reaches level 4, convenience service reaches level 3, or comfort service reaches level 2, indicating that the safety level equal to 4, convenience level equal to 3 and comfort level equal to 2 are the key threshold to increase the public transport mode share. Some proposals such as ensuring good accessibility of public transport, shortening the transfer distance of different routes, creating a comfortable travel environment and integrating bus ticket system have been put forward for the sustainable development of public transport system.
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