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Sustainability, Volume 10, Issue 3 (March 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Manufacturing industries face the critical challenges to accommodate sustainability issues. To [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Integrated Supply Network Maturity Model: Water Scarcity Perspective
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 896; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030896
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 11 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1167 | PDF Full-text (1428 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Today’s supply chains (SCs) are more than ever prone to disruptions caused by natural and man-made events with water scarcity identified as one of the highest impact events among these. Leading businesses, understanding that natural resource scarcity (NRS) has become a critical supply
[...] Read more.
Today’s supply chains (SCs) are more than ever prone to disruptions caused by natural and man-made events with water scarcity identified as one of the highest impact events among these. Leading businesses, understanding that natural resource scarcity (NRS) has become a critical supply chain risk factor, extensively incorporate sustainable water management programmes into their corporate social responsibility and environmental management agenda. The question of how industries can efficiently evaluate the progress of these water scarcity mitigation practices, however, remains open. In order to address this question, the present study proposes a conceptual maturity model. The model is rooted in strategies for water scarcity mitigation using a framework developed by Yatskovskaya and Srai and develops an extensive literature review of recent publications on maturity frameworks in the fields of sustainability and operations management. In order to test the proposed proposed, model an exploratory case study with a leading pharmaceutical company was conducted. The proposed maturity model presents an evaluation tool that allows systematic assessment and visualisation of organisational routines and practices relevant to sustainable manufacturing in the context of water scarcity. This model was designed to help illustrate mitigation capabilities evolution over time, where future state desired capabilities were considered through alternative supply network (SN) configurations, network structure, process flow, product architecture, and supply partnerships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Footprint in Supply Chain Management)
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Open AccessArticle Cost-Sharing Contracts for Energy Saving and Emissions Reduction of a Supply Chain under the Conditions of Government Subsidies and a Carbon Tax
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 895; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030895
Received: 18 February 2018 / Revised: 10 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 858 | PDF Full-text (7589 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To study the cooperation of upstream and downstream enterprises of a supply chain in energy saving and emissions reduction, we establish a Stackelberg game model. The retailer moves first to decide a cost-sharing contract, then the manufacturer determines the energy-saving level, carbon-emission level,
[...] Read more.
To study the cooperation of upstream and downstream enterprises of a supply chain in energy saving and emissions reduction, we establish a Stackelberg game model. The retailer moves first to decide a cost-sharing contract, then the manufacturer determines the energy-saving level, carbon-emission level, and wholesale price successively. In the end, the retailer determines the retail price. As a regulation, the government provides subsidies for energy-saving products, while imposing a carbon tax on the carbon emitted. The results show that (1) both the energy-saving cost-sharing (ECS) and the carbon emissions reduction cost-sharing (CCS) contracts are not the dominant strategy of the two parties by which they can facilitate energy savings and emissions reductions; (2) compared with single cost-sharing contracts, the bivariate cost-sharing (BCS) contract for energy saving and emissions reduction is superior, although it still cannot realise prefect coordination of the supply chain; (3) government subsidy and carbon tax policies can promote the cooperation of both the upstream and downstream enterprises of the supply chain—a subsidy policy can always drive energy saving and emissions reductions, while a carbon tax policy does not always exert positive effects, as it depends on the initial level of pollution and the level of carbon tax; and (4) the subsidy policy reduces the coordination efficiency of the supply chain, while the influences of carbon tax policy upon the coordination efficiency relies on the initial carbon-emission level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toward Sustainability: Supply Chain Collaboration and Governance)
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Open AccessArticle Migrants’ Role in Enhancing the Economic Development of Host Countries: Empirical Evidence from Europe
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030894
Received: 24 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 835 | PDF Full-text (2491 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This research examines several modellers of immigration flows deployed within the European Union (EU), as well as their economic consequences upon the most targeted ten migrant receiving countries. The paper’s aim is to identify specific ways in which migrants can contribute to host
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This research examines several modellers of immigration flows deployed within the European Union (EU), as well as their economic consequences upon the most targeted ten migrant receiving countries. The paper’s aim is to identify specific ways in which migrants can contribute to host countries’ sustainable development through positive spillover upon natives, labour market performance, and the overall economic activity. A set of methods and macro-econometric models, based on country fixed effects, spatial analysis, and structural equations modelling, was applied on a balanced panel formed by ten EU host economies. We analysed distinctly the labour and humanitarian (asylum seekers) migration flows, considered throughout two separate time periods, namely 2000–2015 and 2000–2019 (2019 being the deadline for Brexit negotiations). The results highlight that the immigration flows were mainly shaped by labour market outcomes, while the primary positive immigration impact was induced upon the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and employment levels, both for natives and the foreign population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Biophysical and Socioeconomic State and Links of Deltaic Areas Vulnerable to Climate Change: Volta (Ghana), Mahanadi (India) and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (India and Bangladesh)
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030893
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1373 | PDF Full-text (2063 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We examine the similarities and differences of specific deltaic areas in parallel, under the project DEltas, vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation (DECCMA). The main reason for studying Deltas is their potential vulnerability to climate change and sea level rise, which generates
[...] Read more.
We examine the similarities and differences of specific deltaic areas in parallel, under the project DEltas, vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation (DECCMA). The main reason for studying Deltas is their potential vulnerability to climate change and sea level rise, which generates important challenges for livelihoods. We provide insights into the current socioeconomic and biophysical states of the Volta Delta (Ghana), Mahanadi Delta (India) and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (India and Bangladesh). Hybrid methods of input-output (IO) construction are used to develop environmentally extended IO models for comparing the economic characteristics of these delta regions with the rest of the country. The main sources of data for regionalization were country level census data, statistics and economic surveys and data on consumption, trade, agricultural production and fishing harvests. The Leontief demand-driven model is used to analyze land use in the agricultural sector of the Delta and to track the links with final demand. In addition, the Hypothetical Extraction Method is used to evaluate the importance of the hypothetical disappearance of a sector (e.g., agriculture). The results show that, in the case of the Indian deltas, more than 60% of the cropland and pasture land is devoted to satisfying demands from regions outside the delta. While in the case of the Bangladeshi and Ghanaian deltas, close to 70% of the area harvested is linked to internal demand. The results also indicate that the services, trade and transportation sectors represent 50% of the GDP in the deltas. Still, agriculture, an activity directly exposed to climate change, plays a relevant role in the deltas’ economies—we have estimated that the complete disappearance of this activity would entail GDP losses ranging from 18 to 32%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Economic Impact of Government Policy on Market Prices of Low-Fat Pork in South Korea: A Quasi-Experimental Hedonic Price Approach
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030892
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
The implementation of government policy can have an influence on market environment and market prices of pork in consequence. In South Korea, consumers prefer high-fat pork cuts due to the prevalence of roosting pork over a hot grill. This paper examines the impact
[...] Read more.
The implementation of government policy can have an influence on market environment and market prices of pork in consequence. In South Korea, consumers prefer high-fat pork cuts due to the prevalence of roosting pork over a hot grill. This paper examines the impact of the government policy which aims to increase the consumption of low-fat pork cuts because of the concerns regarding asymmetric consumption between high-fat and low-fat pork cuts. Using hedonic price methods combined with quasi-experimental approaches we estimate the subsequent impact of food policy on the price of low-fat pork cuts using a time series of sales data. This study utilized an effective approach which has been widely employed for policy evaluation to produce plausible estimates of the economic values generated by the government policy. We find the existence of market segmentation and different impacts of the policy between markets. While the market price for high-fat pork cuts has remained stable, the price for low-fat pork cuts has slightly increased since the policy has been implemented. This paper illustrates that government’s policy can be a good strategy to maintain sustainability of the food industry by improving the balance in pork consumption and the management of stocks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
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Open AccessArticle Innovative Financial Approach for Agricultural Sustainability: A Case Study of Alibaba
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030891
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 931 | PDF Full-text (1364 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sustainability and agricultural finance are two important issues attracting attention from industry and academia. This research adopts an in-depth case study methodology to investigate the agricultural finance initiatives of Alibaba Group, and explores how the agricultural finance practices of an e-commerce platform facilitate
[...] Read more.
Sustainability and agricultural finance are two important issues attracting attention from industry and academia. This research adopts an in-depth case study methodology to investigate the agricultural finance initiatives of Alibaba Group, and explores how the agricultural finance practices of an e-commerce platform facilitate its sustainability goal. A reference framework is proposed to prove the adoption of agricultural finance. The influence of three moderating variables, namely, IT support, financial attractiveness, and cooperation with other entities, is analyzed. We find that advanced IT support and financial attractiveness are two indispensable enablers for agricultural finance initiatives, and collaboration with other entities is necessary in adopting agricultural supply chain finance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Using the Ecosystem Services Framework for Policy Impact Analysis: An Application to the Assessment of the Common Agricultural Policy 2014–2020 in the Province of Ferrara (Italy)
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 890; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030890
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
The objective of this study is to test a methodology for the classification of areas according to the provision of ecosystem services and for the evaluation of the effects of different agricultural policy scenarios. The evaluation focuses on the different categories of Ecosystem
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to test a methodology for the classification of areas according to the provision of ecosystem services and for the evaluation of the effects of different agricultural policy scenarios. The evaluation focuses on the different categories of Ecosystem Services (ES) and applies a set of indicators available from secondary data sources. Two scenarios were compared, represented by the pre-2014 CAP and the CAP 2014–2020, based on the measures of the RDP 2014–2020 focused on enhancing ecosystems. The approach was implemented under two weighting solutions. First, we assumed that all indicators have equal weight. As a further step, the framework was integrated with a weighting procedure in order to account for the different importance of the various ES indicators. All municipalities offer a significant number of provisioning and cultural services, mainly connected to recreational opportunities. The indicators with higher importance in the area represent provisioning, supporting and regulating services, while cultural services have received less attention. Comparing the results of the simulation of different policy scenarios, there are no significant differences since the CAP 2014–2020 does not provide for measures likely to affect substantially the overall production of ecosystem services. While this result is plausible, the study confirms the limitations of available secondary data in providing a full account of ecosystem services provision and of their variations as a result of policy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Multi-Response Optimization of Thrust Forces, Torques, and the Power of Tapping Operations by Cooling Air in Reinforced and Unreinforced Polyamide PA66
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030889
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
The use of cooling air during machining is an environmentally conscious procedure, and its applicability to different processes is a research priority. We studied tapping operations, an important operation in the assembly process, using cooling air with unreinforced polyamide (PA66) and polyamide reinforced
[...] Read more.
The use of cooling air during machining is an environmentally conscious procedure, and its applicability to different processes is a research priority. We studied tapping operations, an important operation in the assembly process, using cooling air with unreinforced polyamide (PA66) and polyamide reinforced with glass fiber (PA66-GF30). These materials are widely used in industry, but their behavior with respect to tapping has not been studied. We analyze the outcomes regarding the thrust force, torque, and power at cutting speeds between 15 and 60 m/min. The experimental tests were executed using cooling air at 22 °C, 2 °C, and −18 °C in dry conditions. The M12 × 1.75 mm taps were high-speed steel, with cobalt as the base material and coatings of TiN and AlCrN. To identify the more influential factors, an analysis of variance was performed, along with multi-response optimization to identify the desirability values. This optimization shows that the optimum for PA66can be found in environments close to 3 °C, while the optimum for PA66-GF30 is found at the minimal temperature studied (−18 °C). Thus, cooling air can be considered an adequate procedure for tapping operations, to increase the sustainability of the manufacturing processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Materials and Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle A Comparative Analysis of the Environmental Benefits of Drone-Based Delivery Services in Urban and Rural Areas
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 888; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030888
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1310 | PDF Full-text (1844 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV, drones) used as delivery vehicles have received increasing attention due to their mobility and accessibility to remote areas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the environmental impacts of drone versus motorcycle delivery and to compare the expected
[...] Read more.
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV, drones) used as delivery vehicles have received increasing attention due to their mobility and accessibility to remote areas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the environmental impacts of drone versus motorcycle delivery and to compare the expected environmental improvements due to drone delivery in urban and rural areas. In addition, the potential environmental contributions of electric motorcycles were assessed to determine the effects of introducing this new type of vehicle. Changes in the national electricity generation plan were also examined. The results showed that global warming potential (GWP) per 1 km delivery by drone was one-sixth that of motorcycle delivery, and the particulates produced by drone delivery were half that of motorcycle delivery. The actual environmental impact reduction in consideration of the delivery distance was 13 times higher in a rural area than in an urban area. Increasing the use of environmentally friendly electricity systems, such as solar and wind power, would further enhance the environmental effects of a drone delivery system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Transportation)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluating the Collaborative Ecosystem for an Innovation-Driven Economy: A Systems Analysis and Case Study of Science Parks
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 887; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030887
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1100 | PDF Full-text (1101 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
National policies for science parks and innovation have been identified as one of the major driving forces for the innovation-driven economy, especially for publicly funded science parks. To investigate this collaborative ecosystem (government-academia-industry) for growth and sustainable development, this paper proposes a nation-wide
[...] Read more.
National policies for science parks and innovation have been identified as one of the major driving forces for the innovation-driven economy, especially for publicly funded science parks. To investigate this collaborative ecosystem (government-academia-industry) for growth and sustainable development, this paper proposes a nation-wide economic impact analysis of science parks and innovation policy based on historical data drawn from one of the globally recognized high-technology industrial clusters in Taiwan. Systems thinking with causal loop analysis are adopted to improve our understanding of the collaborative ecosystem with science park policies. First, from a holistic viewpoint, the role of government in a science parks and innovation ecosystem is reviewed. A systems analysis of an innovation-driven economy with a science park policy is presented as a strategy map for policy implementers. Second, the added economic value and employment of the benchmarked science parks is evaluated from a long range perspective. Third, the concepts of government-academia-industry collaboration and policies to innovation ecosystem are introduced while addressing the measures and performance of innovation and applied R&D in the science parks. We conclude with a discussion of lessons learned and the policy implications of science park development and an innovation ecosystem. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Flexible Acceleration Mechanism of China’s Capital Adjustment with the Goal of Consumption-Driven Sustainable Growth
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030886
Received: 10 February 2018 / Revised: 11 March 2018 / Accepted: 18 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
China has had an investment-led growth pattern that is unsustainable. It is struggling to shift to a consumption-driven economy, and capital adjustment is crucial to the transition. In response, the principal objective of this study is to analyze the internal market mechanism of
[...] Read more.
China has had an investment-led growth pattern that is unsustainable. It is struggling to shift to a consumption-driven economy, and capital adjustment is crucial to the transition. In response, the principal objective of this study is to analyze the internal market mechanism of China’s capital adjustment. Due to the imperfections of the market, we use the flexible acceleration model, which we put in an IS (Investment – Saving equation)–LM (Liquidity preference – Money supply equation) framework in order to reflect the guiding role of demand. The results show that the flexible acceleration model fits China’s investment well, and the demand-oriented market mechanism of capital adjustment has been formed; however, China’s market adjustment ability is not strong. The adjustment coefficient is only 0.22, and shows a decreasing trend. So, in the capital optimization process, relying on the market alone is not realistic. Furthermore, the calculated replacement rate is up to 0.429, which indicates that China’s capital is less efficient, and there are duplicated assets, idle assets, and wasted investments. The error correction model’s results show that the impact of the interest rate on the investments is not significant in the short term, so the existence of invalid capital is more likely to stem from the soft budget constraints, which require attention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Change of the Extractability of Cadmium Added to Different Soils: Aging Effect and Modeling
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 885; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030885
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 624 | PDF Full-text (1502 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is known to be a chelating agent and has been widely used for estimating the total extractable metals in soil. The effect of aging on EDTA-extractable cadmium (Cd) was investigated in five different soils at three Cd concentrations incubated for
[...] Read more.
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is known to be a chelating agent and has been widely used for estimating the total extractable metals in soil. The effect of aging on EDTA-extractable cadmium (Cd) was investigated in five different soils at three Cd concentrations incubated for 180 days. The EDTA-extractable Cd rapidly decreased after incubated during 30–60 days, followed by slow processes, and for 90 days the EDTA-extractable Cd tended to be stable. The decrease in EDTA-extractable Cd may be due to precipitation/nucleation processes, diffusion of Cd into the micropores/mesopores, and occlusion within organic matter in soils. A semi-mechanistic model to predict the extractability of Cd during incubation, based on processes of Cd precipitation/nucleation, diffusion, and occlusion within organic matter, was developed and calibrated. The results showed that the processes of micropore/mesopore diffusion were predominant processes affecting the extractability of Cd added to soils, and were slow. However, the proportions of the processes of precipitation/nucleation and occlusion within organic matter to the non-EDTA-extractable Cd added to soils were only 0.03–21.0% and 0.41–6.95%, respectively. The measured EDTA-extractable Cd from incubated soils were in good agreement with those predicted by the semi-mechanistic model (R2 = 0.829). The results also indicated that soil pH, organic matter, and incubation time were the most important factors affecting Cd aging. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Land-Acquisition and Resettlement (LAR) Conflicts: A Perspective of Spatial Injustice of Urban Public Resources Allocation
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 884; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030884
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 4 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
Land acquisition and resettlement (LAR) is an important step in urban development. As one of the ‘externalities of development’, LAR conflicts have affected social stability and development in rural areas of China. With social conflict research shifting from value identity to resource allocation,
[...] Read more.
Land acquisition and resettlement (LAR) is an important step in urban development. As one of the ‘externalities of development’, LAR conflicts have affected social stability and development in rural areas of China. With social conflict research shifting from value identity to resource allocation, few studies have examined the relationship between the spatial injustice of urban public resources and LAR conflict. To mitigate this research gap and formulate effective policies, this study aims to reinterpret the obstacles of LAR conflicts from the perspective of the spatial injustice of urban public facilities allocation in Hangzhou City by examining 195 administrative litigation cases. Spatial accessibility was used for estimating the spatial justice of urban public resources allocation. A classification and regression tree (CART) model was applied to identify the advantage and disadvantage factors behind LAR conflict, and explored the logical and structural relationships among these factors. Results showed that a spatial mismatch between the spatial behavior preferences of human activity and the spatial injustice of urban public resources allocation had significantly accelerated LAR conflicts. When the spatial behavior preferences of human activity and spatial distribution of urban public resources correspond to each other pre- and after LAR, basic rights to social space are safeguarded and various groups can equitably share spatial resources. There are no conflicts. Conversely, respondents expressed a high level of dissatisfaction in comparison to their pre-LAR conditions, and LAR conflict undeniably occurs. This approach also proposes some good LAR policies by regulating the spatial injustice of urban public resources allocation associated with LAR with the aim of long-term urban sustainable development for Hangzhou. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Alternative Use of Extracts of Chipilín Leaves (Crotalaria longirostrata Hook. & Arn) as Antimicrobial
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 883; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030883
Received: 24 December 2017 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 18 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
The genus Crotalaria comprises about 600 species that are distributed throughout the tropics and subtropical regions of the world; they are antagonistic to nematodes in sustainable crop production systems, and have also shown antimicrobial capacity. Chipilín (C. longirostrata), which belongs to
[...] Read more.
The genus Crotalaria comprises about 600 species that are distributed throughout the tropics and subtropical regions of the world; they are antagonistic to nematodes in sustainable crop production systems, and have also shown antimicrobial capacity. Chipilín (C. longirostrata), which belongs to this genus, is a wild plant that grows in the state of Chiapas (Mexico) and is traditionally is used as food. Its leaves also have medicinal properties and are used as hypnotics and narcotics; however, the plant has received little research attention to date. In the experimental part of this study, dried leaves were macerated by ethanol. The extract obtained was fractionated with ethyl ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, 2-propanone, and water. The extracts were evaluated against three bacteria—namely, Escherichia coli (Ec), Citrobacter freundii (Cf), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Se)—and three fungi—Fusarium oxysporum A. comiteca (FoC), Fusarium oxysporum A. tequilana (FoT), and Fusarium solani A. comiteca (FSC). During this preliminary study, a statistical analysis of the data showed that there is a significant difference between the control ciprofloxacin (antibacterial), the antifungal activity experiments (water was used as a negative control), and the fractions used. The aqueous fraction (WF) was the most active against FoC, FsC, and FoT (30.65, 20.61, and 27.36% at 96 h, respectively) and the ethyl ether fraction (EEF) was the most active against Se (26.62% at 48 h). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Foodshed as an Example of Preliminary Research for Conducting Environmental Carrying Capacity Analysis
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 882; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030882
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 720 | PDF Full-text (7124 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the 1960s, we have had to face challenging problems in relation to uncontrolled urban development, the destruction of farmlands, and the need to protect natural resources. These challenges are still valid, particularly since dynamic increases in population, especially in cities, have created
[...] Read more.
Since the 1960s, we have had to face challenging problems in relation to uncontrolled urban development, the destruction of farmlands, and the need to protect natural resources. These challenges are still valid, particularly since dynamic increases in population, especially in cities, have created an increasing need for natural resources. Therefore, the spatial management of the city should take into account the actual use of resources by its inhabitants, as well as the availability of resources within a city and its surrounding suburban areas. Such surveys could be conducted in order to ensure that the basic needs and safety of the residents are met, i.e., in the context of food security. Thus, we recommend a tool that allows specifying the geographical area of food supply: the foodshed. We determined the foodshed based on the relationship between the places of food production and its consumption. Therefore, we delimitated the extent of foodshed area for the city of Wrocław, which reached ca. 56 km. Our work expanded the determination of foodshed boundaries by the delimitation of the city’s foodshed zones, and provided a more detailed analysis of the obtained product data. We obtained data about 98 places of food origin, 448 products, and 115 types of products. This analysis was conducted using Tableau Software (Seattle, WA, USA) and Dell Statistica Software (Round Rock, TX, USA), and the food zone was mapped using ArcGIS Software (Redlands, CA, USA). The main goal of the study was to present a framework for foodshed assessment that could be integrated into other analyses of a city’s sustainability in the context of environmental carrying capacity, and the development of the spatial management of a city in a more sustainable way. This preliminary analysis was carried out in order to emphasize the need for conducting an environmental carrying capacity analysis for the city. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Short-Term Wind Electric Power Forecasting Using a Novel Multi-Stage Intelligent Algorithm
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 881; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030881
Received: 18 February 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 615 | PDF Full-text (1957 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the most efficient renewable energy source for generating electricity in a modern electricity network, wind power has the potential to realize sustainable energy supply. However, owing to its random and intermittent instincts, a high permeability of wind power into a power network
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As the most efficient renewable energy source for generating electricity in a modern electricity network, wind power has the potential to realize sustainable energy supply. However, owing to its random and intermittent instincts, a high permeability of wind power into a power network demands accurate and effective wind energy prediction models. This study proposes a multi-stage intelligent algorithm for wind electric power prediction, which combines the Beveridge–Nelson (B-N) decomposition approach, the Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM), and a newly proposed intelligent optimization approach called the Grasshopper Optimization Algorithm (GOA). For data preprocessing, the B-N decomposition approach was employed to disintegrate the hourly wind electric power data into a deterministic trend, a cyclic term, and a random component. Then, the LSSVM optimized by the GOA (denoted GOA-LSSVM) was applied to forecast the future 168 h of the deterministic trend, the cyclic term, and the stochastic component, respectively. Finally, the future hourly wind electric power values can be obtained by multiplying the forecasted values of these three trends. Through comparing the forecasting performance of this proposed method with the LSSVM, the LSSVM optimized by the Fruit-fly Optimization Algorithm (FOA-LSSVM), and the LSSVM optimized by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO-LSSVM), it is verified that the established multi-stage approach is superior to other models and can increase the precision of wind electric power prediction effectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Case Study Analysing Potentials to Improve Material Efficiency in Manufacturing Supply Chains, Considering Circular Economy Aspects
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 880; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030880
Received: 1 January 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 749 | PDF Full-text (1451 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In order to decouple economic growth from global material consumption it is necessary to implement material efficiency strategies at the level of single enterprises and their supply chains, and to implement circular economy aspects. Manufacturing firms face multiple implementation challenges like cost limitations,
[...] Read more.
In order to decouple economic growth from global material consumption it is necessary to implement material efficiency strategies at the level of single enterprises and their supply chains, and to implement circular economy aspects. Manufacturing firms face multiple implementation challenges like cost limitations, competition, innovation and stakeholder pressure, and supplier and customer relationships, among others. Taking as an example a case of a medium-sized manufacturing company, opportunities to realise material efficiency improvements within the company borders—on the supply chain and by using circular economy measures—are assessed. Deterministic calculations and simulations, performed for the supply chain of this company, show that measures to increase material efficiency in the supply chain are important. However, they need to be complemented by efforts to return waste and used products to the economic cycle, which requires rethinking the traditional linear economic system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Supply Chains)
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Open AccessArticle Unpacking the Formation of Favourable Environments for Urban Experimentation: The Case of the Bristol Energy Scene
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 879; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030879
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
Urban experimentation with sustainability has been gaining prominence in policy and academic discourses about urban transformations, spurring the creation of urban living laboratories and transition arenas. However, the academic literature has only begun examining why experimentation flourishes in particular cities, and why it
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Urban experimentation with sustainability has been gaining prominence in policy and academic discourses about urban transformations, spurring the creation of urban living laboratories and transition arenas. However, the academic literature has only begun examining why experimentation flourishes in particular cities, and why it conforms to place-specific styles. Meanwhile, the strategic niche management (SNM) tradition has extensively explored how protective spaces for experimentation emerge but has dealt only tangentially with why this happens in particular places. In this paper, we develop an approach for unpacking the formation of favourable environments for experimentation in specific places. We adopt an abductive research design to create a dialogue between distinct theoretical positions and one in-depth case study. Our case examines the formation of the Bristol energy scene, which hosts a variety of experimental initiatives concerning civic energy alternatives. Based on our findings, we refine the understanding of the processes shaping this experimental setting. There is value in characterising the ‘genealogy’ of experimental spaces and acknowledging their antecedents, path-dependencies and place-specificities. Efforts to foster urban transformation demand nuanced accounts of how places become experimental because they are not static backgrounds for experimentation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparing the Sustainable Development Potential of Industries: A Role for Sustainability Disclosures?
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030878
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
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Abstract
Governments often seek to facilitate sustainable growth through the targeted support of specific industries that are deemed to have considerable sustainable development potential. However, the selection of appropriate sectors generally relies on resource-intensive assessment processes. With the recent flood of sustainability information into
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Governments often seek to facilitate sustainable growth through the targeted support of specific industries that are deemed to have considerable sustainable development potential. However, the selection of appropriate sectors generally relies on resource-intensive assessment processes. With the recent flood of sustainability information into the public domain, there appears to exist an opportunity to use this information to improve the efficiency of the initial stages of evaluating target industries. This work investigated the development of a framework that makes use of public sustainability disclosures to rapidly compare industries in terms of their sustainable development potential. The goal was to evaluate whether such a framework could usefully provide a way to prioritize the execution of more in-depth feasibility studies on industries showing superior sustainable development potential. The developed framework was based on the Global Reporting Initiative’s G4 Sustainability Reporting Guidelines and makes use of 18 indicators to compare industries in terms of various triple bottom line considerations. The framework was applied to a case study of the platinum industry in South Africa to establish its usefulness, potential and limitations. The framework facilitated a reasonably holistic, transparent and easily interpretable comparison of industries. However, its consideration of industry fit in the local economy, expected development trends and quantification of indirect economic impacts were found to be areas that could be improved. Some of these concerns might be overcome by the improved availability of public information in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle An Assessment of Technological Innovation Capabilities of Carbon Capture and Storage Technology Based on Patent Analysis: A Comparative Study between China and the United States
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 877; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030877
Received: 21 January 2018 / Revised: 27 February 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
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Abstract
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology is an effective technical means for addressing climate change. The patent documents related to CCS technology filed in China and the United States (U.S.) were searched from INNOGRAPHY, a business database of intellectual property and the technological
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Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology is an effective technical means for addressing climate change. The patent documents related to CCS technology filed in China and the United States (U.S.) were searched from INNOGRAPHY, a business database of intellectual property and the technological innovation capabilities of CCS technology were investigated from the perspectives of the lifespan of a patent, the number of claims, the number of forward citations, patent strength and competitive position based on a comparative study between China and the U.S. The results showed that the U.S. has an obvious advantage over the technological innovation capabilities compared to China in the field of CCS technology. The global total number of granted patents in the field of CCS technology was 2325 by the end of 2015, there were 703 and 468 granted patents in U.S. and China respectively. CCS technology in the U.S. has arrived at the stage of growth, or even maturity but is still at the research and development stage in China. Although the number of patents for Chinese CCS technologies is very close to that of the U.S. and is ranked second, China should be focused on enhancing its technological capabilities and patent quality. The policy implications of these research findings and the research limitations are also noted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Extended Model for Tracking Accumulation Pathways of Materials Using Input–Output Tables: Application to Copper Flows in Japan
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030876
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
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Abstract
Recycling has become increasingly important as a means to mitigate not only waste issues but also problems related to primary resource use, such as a decrease in resource availability. In order to promote and plan future recycling efficiently, detailed information on the material
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Recycling has become increasingly important as a means to mitigate not only waste issues but also problems related to primary resource use, such as a decrease in resource availability. In order to promote and plan future recycling efficiently, detailed information on the material stock in society is important. For a detailed analysis of material stocks, quantitative information on flows of a material, such as its accumulation pathways, final destinations, and its processing forms, are required. This paper develops a model for tracking accumulation pathways of materials using input–output tables (IOTs). The main characteristics of the proposed model are as follows: (1) accumulations in sectors other than the final demand sectors (i.e., endogenous sectors) are explicitly evaluated, (2) accumulations as accompaniments to products, such as containers and packaging, are distinguished from the products, and (3) processing forms of materials are considered. The developed model is applied to analyze copper flows in Japan using the Japanese IOTs for the year 2011. The results show that accumulations of copper in endogenous sectors were not negligibly small (9.24% of the overall flow). Although accumulations of copper as accompaniments were very small, they may be larger for other materials that are largely used as containers or packaging. It was found that the destinations of copper showed different characteristics depending on the processing forms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of the Farmer’s Livelihood Assets on Livelihood Strategies in the Western Mountainous Area, China
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 875; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030875
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 579 | PDF Full-text (651 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The livelihood strategies of farm households depend on the conditions of their assets, and farm households cope with risks and shocks through portfolios consisting of different types of assets. Thus, discussing the relationship between the livelihood assets and the livelihood strategies of farm
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The livelihood strategies of farm households depend on the conditions of their assets, and farm households cope with risks and shocks through portfolios consisting of different types of assets. Thus, discussing the relationship between the livelihood assets and the livelihood strategies of farm households helps in understanding their livelihood conditions and in formulating reasonable poverty reduction policies. Taking Zunyi City, which is located in a western, mountainous area of China, as the study region and using the framework of sustainability analysis, this study first tries to establish the mechanism of the influence of farm household livelihood assets on livelihood strategies, then evaluates different farm household livelihood assets by establishing an evaluation index system for them, and finally conducts an empirical analysis on the influence of farm household livelihood assets on livelihood strategies using a multinomial logit model. The research results indicate the following: (1) natural assets and material assets have a significant negative influence on farm households’ choice of livelihood strategies, that is, the more natural assets and material assets that farm households own, the more likely they are to choose livelihood strategies involving engaging in agricultural production; (2) Manpower assets and financial assets have a significant positive influence on farm households’ choice of livelihood strategy, namely, the more manpower assets and financial assets that farm households own, the more likely they are to choose livelihood strategies involving engaging in non-agricultural production; (3) Social assets have no significant influence on farm households’ choice of livelihood strategy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Plain and Ultrafine Fly Ashes Mortars for Environmentally Friendly Construction Materials
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030874
Received: 8 January 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 693 | PDF Full-text (4271 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper is aimed to study the rheological and physical performance of mortars manufactured replacing Portland-based cements with low calcium siliceous fly ash (FA) or ultrafine fly ash (UFFA). Five different types of cement (CEM I, CEM II/A-LL, CEM III/A, CEM III/B, and
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This paper is aimed to study the rheological and physical performance of mortars manufactured replacing Portland-based cements with low calcium siliceous fly ash (FA) or ultrafine fly ash (UFFA). Five different types of cement (CEM I, CEM II/A-LL, CEM III/A, CEM III/B, and CEM IV according to EN 197-1) were used. Mortars were manufactured with FA or UFFA replacing 5%, 15%, 25%, 35%, and 50% of cement mass. Results indicate that compressive strength of mortars with UFFA is considerably higher than that of mixtures containing traditional FA, both at early and long ages. Moreover, experimental data reveal that replacement of cement with up to 25% of UFFA determines higher compressive strength at 7, 28, and 84 days than plain mortars (containing cement only), regardless of the type of cement used. Mortars manufactured with 35% or 50% of UFFA show slightly lower or similar compressive strength compared to the reference mortar (containing cement only). In addition, the results show values of the strength activity index of mortars made with FA 25%, 23%, and 20% lower than the reference corresponding mortars (cement only) at 7, 28, and 84 days, respectively. The grinding of FA, despite resulting in an increase in production energy and CO2 emissions compared to unmilled FA, allows a wide use of these SCM (Supplementary Cementitious Materials) in place of cement, reducing the environmental impact of mortars up to 40% at the 28-day strength class. The use of UFFA ensures better resistance in CaCl2-rich environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Buildings and Indoor Air Quality)
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Open AccessArticle Promoting the Use of Reusable Coffee Cups through Environmental Messaging, the Provision of Alternatives and Financial Incentives
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 873; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030873
Received: 14 February 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
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Abstract
It is estimated that 2.5–10 bn disposable coffee cups are used every year in the U.K. Most of these cups end up in landfill or as litter, as the majority of poly-coated paper cups are not recyclable or not recycled. Here, we report
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It is estimated that 2.5–10 bn disposable coffee cups are used every year in the U.K. Most of these cups end up in landfill or as litter, as the majority of poly-coated paper cups are not recyclable or not recycled. Here, we report on a field experiment that was conducted at twelve university and business sites to examine whether the use of reusable cups can be promoted through easily implementable measures. The study found that both environmental messaging and the provision of alternatives increased the use of reusable cups. While a charge on disposable cups increased their use as well, a discount on reusable cups did not. The effects for the individual measures were modest, but additive, meaning that the greatest behavioural change was achieved with a combination of measures. None of the measures negatively impacted the total number of hot drink sales. One university continued with the charge after the experiment had finished and distributed more reusable cups for free among their students. This boosted the use of reusable cups up to 33.7% across three cafés. This shows that a charge in combination with the provision of alternatives can increase the use of reusable cups substantially in the long term. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Study on the Interrelations of Decision-Making Factors of Information System (IS) Upgrades for Sustainable Business Using Interpretive Structural Modeling and MICMAC Analysis
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030872
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
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Abstract
An information system (IS) upgrade is an essential way to enhance the competitiveness of an organization. Specifically, the decision making processes surrounding IS upgrades is one of the most important parts of an organization’s competitiveness in regard to business sustainability. Previous research studies
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An information system (IS) upgrade is an essential way to enhance the competitiveness of an organization. Specifically, the decision making processes surrounding IS upgrades is one of the most important parts of an organization’s competitiveness in regard to business sustainability. Previous research studies on IS upgrade decisions have focused on implementing a more efficient decision-making system by determining when IS upgrades should be performed based on the cost factor, from the perspective of both users and experts. However, if the decision making of an IS upgrade is delayed or not performed accurately due to the limitations of a specific business environment, such as a job, position, or cost, an organization can lose its business competitiveness. In this context, the present study determines the main factors involved in decision making processes surrounding IS upgrades, and analyzes the interrelations among these factors in an organization with regard to users, managers, and experts. The interpretive structural modeling (ISM) method is used as an analytical tool to analyze the characteristics and interrelations of factors based on a real system model called the User-Centered Training System (UCTS). Based on the results, the present study provides a deeper insight into decision-making factors and directional models, and allows for a more efficient management of the decision-making problem of an IS upgrade caused by differences in the business environment between each layer (i.e., users, managers, and experts). Specifically, according to our results, users are more likely to think about the positive effects and benefits they could have on their work, rather than about organizational benefits. By contrast, managers reason that IS upgrades should have a positive impact on the overall organizational goals and benefits. Finally, experts think that an IS upgrade should benefit both the organization and users. Taken together, the results of the present study are meaningful in that they clearly show the interrelationships between the decision-making factors on each of the levels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Trend Analysis of Droughts during Crop Growing Seasons of Nigeria
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030871
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1198 | PDF Full-text (1990 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study assesses the impacts of recent climate changes on drought-affected areas and the occurrence of droughts during different cropping seasons of Nigeria using the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI). The crop growing seasons are considered because the droughts for those periods are
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This study assesses the impacts of recent climate changes on drought-affected areas and the occurrence of droughts during different cropping seasons of Nigeria using the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI). The crop growing seasons are considered because the droughts for those periods are more destructive to national agricultural production. The Mann–Kendall test and binary logistic regression were used to quantify the trends in drought-affected areas and the occurrence of crop droughts with different areal extents, respectively. Gauge-based gridded rainfall and temperature data for the period 1961–2010 with spatial resolutions of 0.5° were used. Results showed an increase in the areal extent of droughts during some of the cropping seasons. The occurrences of droughts, particularly moderate droughts with smaller areal extents, were found to increase for all of the seasons. The SPEI values calculated decreased mostly in the regions where rainfall was decreasing. That is, the recent changes in climate were responsible for the increase in the occurrences of droughts with smaller areal extents. These trends in climate indicate that the occurrence of larger areal extent droughts may happen more frequently in Nigeria in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Climate Change on Hydrology, Water Quality and Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle Community Based Programs Sustainability. A Multidimensional Analysis of Sustainability Factors
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030870
Received: 17 February 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 721 | PDF Full-text (295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ensuring community based program sustainability is critical for the targeted communities. When such a program is no longer sustainable, its impact decreases, leading to unmet expectations, affecting the community as a whole. As such, scrutinizing sustainability factors for community based programs proves essential.
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Ensuring community based program sustainability is critical for the targeted communities. When such a program is no longer sustainable, its impact decreases, leading to unmet expectations, affecting the community as a whole. As such, scrutinizing sustainability factors for community based programs proves essential. This paper analyses those factors by reviewing the literature, questioning 188 individuals from community based organizations and other non-profits and providing a ranking for the most important of them. The factors were divided into 3 categories: related to program itself, related to host (implementing) organisation and related to the community where the program is operationalized. For data analysis several statistical tests were used, leading to a ranking of the most important 22 factors for community based programs sustainability. Full article
Open AccessReview Phytoplankton as Key Mediators of the Biological Carbon Pump: Their Responses to a Changing Climate
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 869; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030869
Received: 7 January 2018 / Revised: 26 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
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Abstract
The world’s oceans are a major sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). The biological carbon pump plays a vital role in the net transfer of CO2 from the atmosphere to the oceans and then to the sediments, subsequently maintaining atmospheric
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The world’s oceans are a major sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). The biological carbon pump plays a vital role in the net transfer of CO2 from the atmosphere to the oceans and then to the sediments, subsequently maintaining atmospheric CO2 at significantly lower levels than would be the case if it did not exist. The efficiency of the biological pump is a function of phytoplankton physiology and community structure, which are in turn governed by the physical and chemical conditions of the ocean. However, only a few studies have focused on the importance of phytoplankton community structure to the biological pump. Because global change is expected to influence carbon and nutrient availability, temperature and light (via stratification), an improved understanding of how phytoplankton community size structure will respond in the future is required to gain insight into the biological pump and the ability of the ocean to act as a long-term sink for atmospheric CO2. This review article aims to explore the potential impacts of predicted changes in global temperature and the carbonate system on phytoplankton cell size, species and elemental composition, so as to shed light on the ability of the biological pump to sequester carbon in the future ocean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carbon Cycles)
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Open AccessArticle A Hybrid of Multi-Objective Optimization and System Dynamics Simulation for Straw-to-Electricity Supply Chain Management under the Belt and Road Initiatives
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 868; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030868
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
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Abstract
The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) provides immense opportunities for agro-waste utilization among countries situated along the routes. However, there is a lack of design of motivational mechanisms to put it into managerial practice. This study uses agro-straw as the typical agro-waste to
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The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) provides immense opportunities for agro-waste utilization among countries situated along the routes. However, there is a lack of design of motivational mechanisms to put it into managerial practice. This study uses agro-straw as the typical agro-waste to structure a hybrid of multi-objective optimization and system dynamics simulation for optimizing the structure of straw-to-electricity supply chain and designing motivational mechanisms to enhance its sustainability. Since existing studies on the design of motivation mechanisms mainly stressed static motivation, two different dynamic subsidy mechanisms are devised in this study to facilitate the stable collaboration among stakeholders involved in the supply chain. A case study is provided to demonstrate the hybrid method. Discussion about the limitations of the study lays the foundation for further improvement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Research into the Eutrophication of an Artificial Playground Lake near the Yangtze River
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 867; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030867
Received: 5 January 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 650 | PDF Full-text (5814 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water pollution in urban rivers is serious in China. Eutrophication and other issues are prominent. Taking the artificial Playground Lake in Zhenjiang as an example, a numerical model combining particle tracing, hydrodynamics, water quality and eutrophication was constructed to simulate the water quality
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Water pollution in urban rivers is serious in China. Eutrophication and other issues are prominent. Taking the artificial Playground Lake in Zhenjiang as an example, a numerical model combining particle tracing, hydrodynamics, water quality and eutrophication was constructed to simulate the water quality improvement in Playground Lake with or without water diversion by pump and sluice. Simulation results using particle tracking showed that the water residence time depended on wind direction: east wind, 125 h; southeast wind, 115 h; south wind, 95 h. With no water diversion, the lower the flow velocity of Playground Lake under three wind fields, the more serious the eutrophication. Under pump diversion, the water body in Playground Lake can be entirely replaced by water diversion for 30 h. When the temperature is lower than 15 °C, from 15 °C to 25 °C and higher than 25 °C, the water quality can be maintained for 15 d, 10 d and 7 d, respectively. During high tide periods of spring tides in the Yangtze River from June to August, the water can be diverted into the lake through sluices. The greater the Δh (the water head between the Yangtze River and Playground Lake), the more the water quality will improve. Overall, the good-to-bad order of water quality improvements for Playground Lake is as follows: pumping 30 h > sluice diversion > no water diversion. This article is relevant for the environmental management of the artificial Playground Lake, and similar lakes elsewhere. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Eutrophication and Sustainable Management of Water)
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