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World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 9, Issue 4 (December 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) With the exponential growth of EV charging infrastructure, one tends to forget the lessons that can [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Reducing Mobile Air Conditioner (MAC) Power Consumption Using Active Cabin-Air-Recirculation in A Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9040051
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Air conditioner power consumption accounts for a large fraction of the total power used by hybrid and electric vehicles. This study examined the effects of three different cabin air ventilation settings on mobile air conditioner (MAC) power consumption, such as fresh mode with
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Air conditioner power consumption accounts for a large fraction of the total power used by hybrid and electric vehicles. This study examined the effects of three different cabin air ventilation settings on mobile air conditioner (MAC) power consumption, such as fresh mode with air conditioner on (ACF), fresh mode with air conditioner off (ACO), and air recirculation mode with air conditioner on (ACR). Tests were carried out for both indoor chassis dynamometer and on-road tests using a 2012 Toyota Prius plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. Real-time power consumption and fuel economy were calculated from On-Board Diagnostic-II (OBD-II) data and compared with results from the carbon balance method. MAC consumed 28.4% of the total vehicle power in ACR mode when tested with the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP) SC03 driving cycle on the dynamometer, which was 6.1% less than in ACF mode. On the other hand, ACR and ACF mode did not show significant differences for the less aggressive on-road tests. This is likely due to the significantly lower driving loads experienced in the local driving route compared to the SC03 driving cycle. On-road and SC03 test results suggested that more aggressive driving tends to magnify the effects of the vehicle HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system settings. ACR conditions improved relative fuel economy (or vehicle energy efficiency) to that of ACO conditions by ~20% and ~8% compared to ACF conditions for SC03 and on-road tests, respectively. Furthermore, vehicle cabin air quality was measured and analyzed for the on-road tests. ACR conditions significantly reduced in-cabin particle concentrations, in terms of aerosol diffusion charger signal, by 92% compared to outside ambient conditions. These results indicate that cabin air recirculation is a promising method to improve vehicle fuel economy and improve cabin air quality. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Advancing E-Roaming in Europe: Towards a Single “Language” for the European Charging Infrastructure
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9040050
Received: 13 May 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
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Abstract
The E.U. market for electric vehicles (EVs) is growing significantly, but the absence of widely adopted protocols and interoperability standards for charging hinders the development of cross-border EV travel (“e-roaming”). In this paper, we present our vision on what should be the basic
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The E.U. market for electric vehicles (EVs) is growing significantly, but the absence of widely adopted protocols and interoperability standards for charging hinders the development of cross-border EV travel (“e-roaming”). In this paper, we present our vision on what should be the basic functionalities of e-roaming. Furthermore, we describe the best practices of 6 years of e-roaming in the Netherlands, and analyze what can be learned from other sectors that were successful in introducing roaming mechanisms in the past. We translate these into proposed next steps, such as the need for piloting e-roaming on a European level using open standards, such as Open Charge Point Interface (OCPI). We conclude with a proposal for a comparative study of protocols to pave the way for future convergence, and, thus, facilitate a European market for EV products and services. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Shell Analysis and Optimisation of a Pure Electric Vehicle Power Train Based on Multiple Software
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9040049
Received: 17 October 2018 / Revised: 14 November 2018 / Accepted: 22 November 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
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Abstract
Motor end cover mounting fracture is a problem recently encountered by novel pure electric vehicles. Regarding the study of the traditional vehicle engine mount bracket and on the basis of the methods of design and optimisation available, we have analysed and optimised the
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Motor end cover mounting fracture is a problem recently encountered by novel pure electric vehicles. Regarding the study of the traditional vehicle engine mount bracket and on the basis of the methods of design and optimisation available, we have analysed and optimised the pure electric vehicle end cover mount system. Multi-body dynamic software and finite element software have been combined. First, we highlight the motor end cover mount bracket fracture engineering problems, analyse the factors that may produce fracture, and propose solutions. By using CATIA software to establish a 3D model of the power train mount system, we imported it into ADAMS multi-body dynamic software, conducted 26 condition analysis, obtained five ultimate load conditions, and laid the foundations for subsequent analysis. Next, a mount and shell system was established by the ANSYS finite element method, and modal, strength, and fatigue analyses were performed on the end cover mount. We found that the reason for fracture lies in the intensity of the end cover mount joint, which leads to the safety factor too small and the fatigue life not being up to standard. The main goal was to increase the strength of the cover mount junction, stiffness, safety coefficient, and fatigue life. With this aim, a topology optimisation was conducted to improve the motor end cover. A 3D prototype was designed accordingly. Finally, stiffness, strength, modal, and fatigue were simulated. Our simulation results were as follows. The motor end cover suspension stiffness increases by 20%, the modal frequency increases by 2.3%, the quality increases by 3%, the biggest deformation decreases by 52%, the maximum stress decreases by 28%, the minimum safety factor increases by 40%, and life expectancy increases 50-fold. The results from sample and vehicle tests highlight that the component fracture problem has been successfully solved and the fatigue life dramatically improved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Scube—Concept and Implementation of a Self-balancing, Autonomous Mobility Device for Personal Transport
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9040048
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
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Abstract
Public transportation (PT) systems suffer from disutility compared to private transportation due to the inability to provide passengers with a door-to-door service, referred to as the first/last mile problem. Personal mobility devices (PMDs) are thought to improve PT service quality by closing this
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Public transportation (PT) systems suffer from disutility compared to private transportation due to the inability to provide passengers with a door-to-door service, referred to as the first/last mile problem. Personal mobility devices (PMDs) are thought to improve PT service quality by closing this first/last mile gap. However, current PMDs are generally driven manually by the rider and require a learning phase for safe vehicle operation. Additionally, most PMDs require a standing riding position and are not easily accessible to elderly people or persons with disabilities. In this paper, the concept of an autonomously operating mobility device is introduced. The visionary concept is designed as an on-demand transportation service which transports people for short to medium distances and increases the accessibility to public transport. The device is envisioned to be operated as a larger fleet and does not belong to an individual person. The vehicle features an electric powertrain and a one-axle self-balancing design with a small footprint. It provides one seat for a passenger and a tilt mechanism that is designed to improve the ride comfort and safety at horizontal curves. An affordable 3D-camera system is used for autonomous localization and navigation. For the evaluation and demonstration of the concept, a functional prototype is implemented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Combination of LiCs and EDLCs with Batteries: A New Paradigm of Hybrid Energy Storage for Application in EVs
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(4), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9040047
Received: 9 October 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
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Abstract
The research presented in this paper proposes a hybrid energy storage system that combines both electrolytic double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) also known as supercapacitors (SCs) and lithium-ion capacitors (LiCs) also known as hybrid capacitors (HCs) with a battery through a multiple input converter. The
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The research presented in this paper proposes a hybrid energy storage system that combines both electrolytic double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) also known as supercapacitors (SCs) and lithium-ion capacitors (LiCs) also known as hybrid capacitors (HCs) with a battery through a multiple input converter. The proposal was verified in simulation and validated by implementing a laboratory prototype. A new hybridisation topology, which reduces the amount of resource requirement when compared to the conventional hybridisation topology, is introduced. An electric vehicle (EV) current profile from previous research was used to test the performance of the proposed topology. From the results obtained, the hybridisation topology proposed in this research had the lowest cost per unit power at 14.81 $/kW, the lowest cost per unit power to energy, and available power to energy ratio, both at 1:1.3, thus making it a more attractive hybridisation topology than the two conventional alternatives. The multiple input converter built had efficiency values in excess of 80%. The key take away from this paper is that using the proposed hybridisation topology, the battery is less often required to supply energy to the electric vehicle, and so, its cycle life is preserved. Furthermore, since the battery is not used for the repeated acceleration and deceleration in the entire driving cycle, the battery’s cycle life is further preserved. Furthermore, since the battery is not the only storage device in the energy storage system, it can be further downsized to best fit the required base load; therefore, leading to a more optimized energy storage system by reducing the weight and volume of space occupied by the energy storage system, while also achieving better efficiencies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Scaling Trends of Electric Vehicle Performance: Driving Range, Fuel Economy, Peak Power Output, and Temperature Effect
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9040046
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
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Abstract
This study investigated scaling trends of commercially available light-duty battery electric vehicles (BEVs) ranging from model year 2011 to 2018. The motivation of this study is to characterize the status of BEV technology with respect to BEV performance parameters to better understand the
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This study investigated scaling trends of commercially available light-duty battery electric vehicles (BEVs) ranging from model year 2011 to 2018. The motivation of this study is to characterize the status of BEV technology with respect to BEV performance parameters to better understand the limitations and potentials of BEV. The raw data was extracted from three main sources: INL (Idaho National Laboratory) website, EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Fuel Economy website, and the websites BEV manufacturers and internet in general. Excellent scaling trends were found between the EPA driving range per full charge of a battery and the battery capacity normalized by vehicle weight. In addition, a relatively strong correlation was found between EPA city fuel economy and vehicle curb weight, while a weak correlation was found between EPA highway fuel economy and vehicle curb weight. An inverse power correlation was found between 0–60 mph acceleration time and peak power output from battery divided by vehicle curb weight for 10 BEVs investigated at INL. Tests done on the environmentally controlled chamber chassis dynamometer at INL show that fuel economy drops by 19 ± 5% for the summer driving condition with air conditioner on and 47 ± 7% for the winter driving condition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sensitivity Analysis of the Battery Model for Model Predictive Control: Implementable to a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle
World Electr. Veh. J. 2018, 9(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj9040045
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
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Abstract
Developing an efficient online predictive modeling system (PMS) is a major issue in the field of electrified vehicles as it can help reduce fuel consumption, greenhouse gasses (GHG) emission, but also the aging of power-train components, such as the battery. For this manuscript,
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Developing an efficient online predictive modeling system (PMS) is a major issue in the field of electrified vehicles as it can help reduce fuel consumption, greenhouse gasses (GHG) emission, but also the aging of power-train components, such as the battery. For this manuscript, a model predictive control (MPC) has been considered as PMS. This control design has been defined as an optimization problem that uses the projected system behaviors over a finite prediction horizon to determine the optimal control solution for the current time instant. In this manuscript, the MPC controller intents to diminish simultaneously the battery aging and the equivalent fuel consumption. The main contribution of this manuscript is to evaluate numerically the impacts of the vehicle battery model on the MPC optimal control solution when the plug hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is in the battery charge sustaining mode. Results show that the higher fidelity model improves the capability of accurately predicting the battery aging. Full article
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World Electr. Veh. J. EISSN 2032-6653 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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