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Review

The Role of Phylogenetics in Discerning HIV-1 Mixing among Vulnerable Populations and Geographic Regions in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

1
Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, 205 02 Malmö, Sweden
2
Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI)-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi 80108, Kenya
3
Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Medicine, The University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors with equal contribution.
Academic Editor: Bluma G. Brenner
Viruses 2021, 13(6), 1174; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061174
Received: 25 May 2021 / Revised: 9 June 2021 / Accepted: 10 June 2021 / Published: 19 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Added Role of Phylogenetics in the HIV Prevention Toolbox)
To reduce global HIV-1 incidence, there is a need to understand and disentangle HIV-1 transmission dynamics and to determine the geographic areas and populations that act as hubs or drivers of HIV-1 spread. In Sub-Saharan Africa (sSA), the region with the highest HIV-1 burden, information about such transmission dynamics is sparse. Phylogenetic inference is a powerful method for the study of HIV-1 transmission networks and source attribution. In this review, we assessed available phylogenetic data on mixing between HIV-1 hotspots (geographic areas and populations with high HIV-1 incidence and prevalence) and areas or populations with lower HIV-1 burden in sSA. We searched PubMed and identified and reviewed 64 studies on HIV-1 transmission dynamics within and between risk groups and geographic locations in sSA (published 1995–2021). We describe HIV-1 transmission from both a geographic and a risk group perspective in sSA. Finally, we discuss the challenges facing phylogenetic inference in mixed epidemics in sSA and offer our perspectives and potential solutions to the identified challenges. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV-1; phylogenetics; mixed epidemics; Sub-Saharan Africa; transmission dynamics HIV-1; phylogenetics; mixed epidemics; Sub-Saharan Africa; transmission dynamics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nduva, G.M.; Nazziwa, J.; Hassan, A.S.; Sanders, E.J.; Esbjörnsson, J. The Role of Phylogenetics in Discerning HIV-1 Mixing among Vulnerable Populations and Geographic Regions in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review. Viruses 2021, 13, 1174. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061174

AMA Style

Nduva GM, Nazziwa J, Hassan AS, Sanders EJ, Esbjörnsson J. The Role of Phylogenetics in Discerning HIV-1 Mixing among Vulnerable Populations and Geographic Regions in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review. Viruses. 2021; 13(6):1174. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061174

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nduva, George M., Jamirah Nazziwa, Amin S. Hassan, Eduard J. Sanders, and Joakim Esbjörnsson. 2021. "The Role of Phylogenetics in Discerning HIV-1 Mixing among Vulnerable Populations and Geographic Regions in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review" Viruses 13, no. 6: 1174. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13061174

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