Considerable efforts have been devoted to extending the range of the elemental composition of mesoporous materials since the pioneering work of the M41S family of ordered mesoporous silica by Mobil researchers. The synthesis of transition metal-containing mesostructured materials with large surface area and high porosity has drawn great attention for its potential applications in acid and redox catalysis, photocatalysis, proton conducting devices, environmental restoration and so on. Thus, various transition metals-containing mesoporous materials, including transition metal-substituted mesoporous silicates, mesostructured transition metal oxides and transition metal phosphates (TMP), have been documented in the literature. Among these, mesostructured TMP materials are less studied, but possess some unique features, partly because of the easy and facile functionalization of PO4
and/or P–OH groups, rendering them interesting functional materials. This review first introduced the general synthesis strategies for manufacturing mesostructured TMP materials, as well as advantages and disadvantages of the respective method; then, we surveyed the ongoing developments of fabrication and application of the TMP materials in three groups on the basis of their components and application fields. Future perspectives on existing problems related to the present synthesis routes and further modifying of the functional groups for the purpose of tailoring special physical-chemical properties to meet wide application requirements were also provided in the last part.