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Energies, Volume 10, Issue 5 (May 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Energy-optimal kinematic redundancy resolution is required for future robotic closed-loop [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
A Switching Frequency Optimized Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) Scheme for Cascaded Multilevel Inverters
Energies 2017, 10(5), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050725
Received: 21 March 2017 / Revised: 3 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 21 May 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1856 | PDF Full-text (8292 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a novel switching frequency optimized space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) scheme for cascaded multilevel inverters. The proposed SVPWM is developed in a α′β′ coordinate system, in which the voltage vectors have only integer entries and the absolute increment of [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel switching frequency optimized space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) scheme for cascaded multilevel inverters. The proposed SVPWM is developed in a α′β′ coordinate system, in which the voltage vectors have only integer entries and the absolute increment of coordinate values between adjacent vectors is equal to dc-bus voltage of power cells (1 pu). The new SVPWM scheme is built with three categories of switching paths. During each switching path, the change of one phase voltage is limited in 1 pu. This contributes to decrease the number of commutations of switches. The proposed SVPWM scheme is validated on a 7-level cascaded inverter and the results show that it significantly outperforms traditional SVPWM schemes in terms of decreasing the number of switch commutations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Fundamentals and Conversion)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Development Pattern of a Water-Flowing Fissure Zone in Shortwall Block Mining
Energies 2017, 10(5), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050734
Received: 19 April 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1495 | PDF Full-text (5353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to effectively recover the residual coal resources, such as coal pillars and irregular coal blocks induced by large-scale extensive mining, in this study, we proposed a shortwall block mining (SBM) technology and examined the development pattern of the water-flowing fissure zone [...] Read more.
In order to effectively recover the residual coal resources, such as coal pillars and irregular coal blocks induced by large-scale extensive mining, in this study, we proposed a shortwall block mining (SBM) technology and examined the development pattern of the water-flowing fissure zone (WFZ) in the overlying strata during the SBM process. By analyzing the overlying rocks’ movement rules in SBM, the main controlling factors affecting the development of the height of the water-flowing fissure zone (HWFZ) determined are as follows: mining height, block length, and the width of the protective coal pillar among the blocks. Moreover, based on the elastic foundation beam theory, the mechanical model for the calculation of HWFZ in SBM was established. Based on the first strength theory, the calculation formula of the development HWFZ was derived. Using this model, the calculated HWFZ after SBM was 50.3 m, whereas the measured heights of the leakage of drilling washing fluid were 47.98 and 50.06 m, respectively. The calculated values almost fit well with the field-measured data, verifying the reliability of the proposed mechanical model. The results of this study can provide a significant reference for enhancing the recovery ratio of coal resources and optimizing water protection mining theory. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling and Optimization of a CoolingTower-Assisted Heat Pump System
Energies 2017, 10(5), 733; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050733
Received: 15 April 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1765 | PDF Full-text (5345 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To minimize the total energy consumption of a cooling tower-assisted heat pump (CTAHP) system in cooling mode, a model-based control strategy with hybrid optimization algorithm for the system is presented in this paper. An existing experimental device, which mainly contains a closed wet [...] Read more.
To minimize the total energy consumption of a cooling tower-assisted heat pump (CTAHP) system in cooling mode, a model-based control strategy with hybrid optimization algorithm for the system is presented in this paper. An existing experimental device, which mainly contains a closed wet cooling tower with counter flow construction, a condenser water loop and a water-to-water heat pump unit, is selected as the study object. Theoretical and empirical models of the related components and their interactions are developed. The four variables, viz. desired cooling load, ambient wet-bulb temperature, temperature and flow rate of chilled water at the inlet of evaporator, are set to independent variables. The system power consumption can be minimized by optimizing input powers of cooling tower fan, spray water pump, condenser water pump and compressor. The optimal input power of spray water pump is determined experimentally. Implemented on MATLAB, a hybrid optimization algorithm, which combines the Limited memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (L-BFGS) algorithm with the greedy diffusion search (GDS) algorithm, is incorporated to solve the minimization problem of energy consumption and predict the system’s optimal set-points under quasi-steady-state conditions. The integrated simulation tool is validated against experimental data. The results obtained demonstrate the proposed operation strategy is reliable, and can save energy by 20.8% as compared to an uncontrolled system under certain testing conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Application in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Fast Calculation Model and Theoretical Analysis of Rotor Unbalanced Magnetic Pull for Inter-Turn Short Circuit of Field Windings of Non-Salient Pole Generators
Energies 2017, 10(5), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050732
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 14 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1780 | PDF Full-text (6579 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inter-turn short circuit of field windings (ISCFW) may cause the field current of a generator to increase, output reactive power to decrease, and unit vibration to intensify, seriously affecting its safe and stable operation. Full integration of mechanical and electrical characteristics can improve [...] Read more.
Inter-turn short circuit of field windings (ISCFW) may cause the field current of a generator to increase, output reactive power to decrease, and unit vibration to intensify, seriously affecting its safe and stable operation. Full integration of mechanical and electrical characteristics can improve the sensitivity of online monitoring, and detect the early embryonic period fault of small turns. This paper studies the calculations and variations of unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP), of which the excitation source of rotor vibration is the basis and key to online fault monitoring. In grid load operation, ISCFW are first calculated with the multi-loop method, so as to obtain the numerical solutions of the stator and the rotor currents during the fault. Next, the air-gap magnetic field of the ISCFW is analyzed according to the actual composition modes of the motor loops in the fault, so as to obtain the analytic expressions of the air-gap magnetic motive force (MMF) and magnetic density. The UMP of the rotor is obtained by solving the integral of the Maxwell stress. The correctness of the electric quantity calculation is verified by the ISCFW experiment, conducted in a one pair-pole non-salient pole model machine. On this basis, comparing the simulation analysis with the calculation results of the model in this paper not only verifies the accuracy of the electromagnetic force calculation, but also proves that the latter has the advantages of a short time consumption and high efficiency. Finally, the influencing factors and variation law of UMP are analyzed by means of an analytic model. This develops a base for the online monitoring of ISCFW with the integration of mechanical and electrical information. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Critical Review on Processes and Energy Profile of the Australian Meat Processing Industry
Energies 2017, 10(5), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050731
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1994 | PDF Full-text (2310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review article addresses wastewater treatment methods in the red meat processing industry. The focus is on conventional chemicals currently in use for abattoir wastewater treatment and energy related aspects. In addition, this article discusses the use of cleaning and sanitizing agents at [...] Read more.
This review article addresses wastewater treatment methods in the red meat processing industry. The focus is on conventional chemicals currently in use for abattoir wastewater treatment and energy related aspects. In addition, this article discusses the use of cleaning and sanitizing agents at the meat processing facilities and their effect on decision making in regard to selecting the treatment methods. This study shows that cleaning chemicals are currently used at a concentration of 2% to 3% which will further be diluted with the bulk wastewater. For example, for an abattoir that produces 3500 m3/day wastewater and uses around 200 L (3%) acid and alkaline chemicals, the final concentration of these chemical will be around 0.00017%. For this reason, the effects of these chemicals on the treatment method and the environment are very limited. Chemical treatment is highly efficient in removing soluble and colloidal particles from the red meat processing industry wastewater. Actually, it is shown that, if chemical treatment has been applied, then biological treatment can only be included for the treatment of the solid waste by-product and/or for production of bioenergy. Chemical treatment is recommended in all cases and especially when the wastewater is required to be reused or released to water streams. This study also shows that energy consumption for chemical treatment units is insignificant while efficient compared to other physical or biological units. A combination of a main (ferric chloride) and an aid coagulant has shown to be efficient and cost-effective in treating abattoir wastewater. The cost of using this combination per cubic meter wastewater treated is 0.055 USD/m3 compared to 0.11 USD/m3 for alum and the amount of sludge produced is 77% less than that produced by alum. In addition, the residues of these chemicals in the wastewater and the sludge have a positive or no impact on biological processes. Energy consumption from a small wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) installed to recycle wastewater for a meet facility can be around $500,000. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy and Water, Current and Future Crisis)
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Open AccessArticle
A New Methodology for Building-Up a Robust Model for Heliostat Field Flux Characterization
Energies 2017, 10(5), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050730
Received: 2 March 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1918 | PDF Full-text (1729 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The heliostat field of solar central receiver systems (SCRS) is formed by hundreds, even thousands, of working heliostats. Their adequate configuration and control define a currently active research line. For instance, automatic aiming methodologies of existing heliostat fields are being widely studied. In [...] Read more.
The heliostat field of solar central receiver systems (SCRS) is formed by hundreds, even thousands, of working heliostats. Their adequate configuration and control define a currently active research line. For instance, automatic aiming methodologies of existing heliostat fields are being widely studied. In general, control techniques require a model of the system to be controlled in order to obtain an estimation of its states. However, this kind of information may not be available or may be hard to obtain for every plant to be studied. In this work, an innovative methodology for data-based analytical heliostat field characterization is proposed and described. It formalizes the way in which the behavior of a whole field can be derived from the study of its more descriptive parts. By successfully applying this procedure, the instantaneous behavior of a field could be expressed by a reduced set of expressions that can be seen as a field descriptor. It is not intended to replace real experimentation but to enhance researchers’ autonomy to build their own reliable and portable synthetic datasets at preliminary stages of their work. The methodology proposed in this paper is successfully applied to a virtual field. Only 30 heliostats out of 541 were studied to characterize the whole field. For the validation set, the average difference in power between the flux maps directly fitted from the measured information and the estimated ones is only of 0.67% (just 0.10946 kW/m2 of root-mean-square error, on average, between them). According to these results, a consistent field descriptor can be built by applying the proposed methodology, which is hence ready for use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Open AccessArticle
Incorporating Charging/Discharging Strategy of Electric Vehicles into Security-Constrained Optimal Power Flow to Support High Renewable Penetration
Energies 2017, 10(5), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050729
Received: 18 January 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2302 | PDF Full-text (5532 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This research aims to improve the operational efficiency and security of electric power systems at high renewable penetration by exploiting the envisioned controllability or flexibility of electric vehicles (EVs); EVs interact with the grid through grid-to-vehicle (G2V) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services to ensure [...] Read more.
This research aims to improve the operational efficiency and security of electric power systems at high renewable penetration by exploiting the envisioned controllability or flexibility of electric vehicles (EVs); EVs interact with the grid through grid-to-vehicle (G2V) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services to ensure reliable and cost-effective grid operation. This research provides a computational framework for this decision-making process. Charging and discharging strategies of EV aggregators are incorporated into a security-constrained optimal power flow (SCOPF) problem such that overall energy cost is minimized and operation within acceptable reliability criteria is ensured. Particularly, this SCOPF problem has been formulated for Jeju Island in South Korea, in order to lower carbon emissions toward a zero-carbon island by, for example, integrating large-scale renewable energy and EVs. On top of conventional constraints on the generators and line flows, a unique constraint on the system inertia constant, interpreted as the minimum synchronous generation, is considered to ensure grid security at high renewable penetration. The available energy constraint of the participating EV associated with the state-of-charge (SOC) of the battery and market price-responsive behavior of the EV aggregators are also explored. Case studies for the Jeju electric power system in 2030 under various operational scenarios demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and improved operational flexibility via controllable EVs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Feasibility Study on Hydrate-Based Technology for Transporting CO2 from Industrial to Agricultural Areas
Energies 2017, 10(5), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050728
Received: 15 April 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1525 | PDF Full-text (1361 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Climate change caused by global warming has become a serious issue in recent years. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the above system to quantitatively supply CO2 or CO2 hydrate from industrial to agricultural areas. [...] Read more.
Climate change caused by global warming has become a serious issue in recent years. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the above system to quantitatively supply CO2 or CO2 hydrate from industrial to agricultural areas. In this analysis, several transportation methods, namely, truck, hydrate tank lorry, and pipeline, were considered. According to this analysis, the total CO2 supply costs including transportation ranged from 15 to 25 yen/kg-CO2 when the transportation distance was 50 km or less. The cost of the hydrate-based method increased with the transport distance in contrast to the liquefied CO2 approach. However, the technology of supplying CO2 hydrate had merit by using a local cooling technique for cooling specific parts of agricultural products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methane Hydrate Research and Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation Modeling Method and Experimental Investigation on the Uniflow Scavenging System of an Opposed-Piston Folded-Cranktrain Diesel Engine
Energies 2017, 10(5), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050727
Received: 20 December 2016 / Revised: 3 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1765 | PDF Full-text (6656 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The scavenging process for opposed-piston folded-cranktrain (OPFC) diesel engines can be described by the time evolution of the in-cylinder and exhaust chamber residual gas rates. The relation curve of in-cylinder and exhaust chamber residual gas rate is called scavenging profile, which is calculated [...] Read more.
The scavenging process for opposed-piston folded-cranktrain (OPFC) diesel engines can be described by the time evolution of the in-cylinder and exhaust chamber residual gas rates. The relation curve of in-cylinder and exhaust chamber residual gas rate is called scavenging profile, which is calculated through the changes of in-cylinder and exhaust chamber gas compositions determined by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The scavenging profile is used to calculate the scavenging process by mono-dimensional (1D) simulation. The tracer gas method (TGM) is employed to validate the accuracy of the scavenging profile. At the same time, the gas exchange performance under different intake and exhaust state parameters was examined based on the TGM. The results show that the scavenging process from 1D simulation and experiment match well, which means the scavenging model obtained by CFD simulation performs well and validation of its effectiveness by TGM is possible. The difference between intake and exhaust pressure has a significant positive effect on the gas exchange performance and trapped gas mass, but the pressure difference has little effect on the scavenging efficiency and the trapped air mass if the delivery ratio exceeds 1.4. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anomaly Detection in Gas Turbine Fuel Systems Using a Sequential Symbolic Method
Energies 2017, 10(5), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050724
Received: 12 April 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 14 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1347 | PDF Full-text (6370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Anomaly detection plays a significant role in helping gas turbines run reliably and economically. Considering the collective anomalous data and both sensitivity and robustness of the anomaly detection model, a sequential symbolic anomaly detection method is proposed and applied to the gas turbine [...] Read more.
Anomaly detection plays a significant role in helping gas turbines run reliably and economically. Considering the collective anomalous data and both sensitivity and robustness of the anomaly detection model, a sequential symbolic anomaly detection method is proposed and applied to the gas turbine fuel system. A structural Finite State Machine is used to evaluate posterior probabilities of observing symbolic sequences and the most probable state sequences they may locate. Hence an estimation-based model and a decoding-based model are used to identify anomalies in two different ways. Experimental results indicate that both models have both ideal performance overall, but the estimation-based model has a strong robustness ability, whereas the decoding-based model has a strong accuracy ability, particularly in a certain range of sequence lengths. Therefore, the proposed method can facilitate well existing symbolic dynamic analysis- based anomaly detection methods, especially in the gas turbine domain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Fundamentals and Conversion)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Support Structures in an LES Actuator Line Model of a Tidal Turbine with Contra-Rotating Rotors
Energies 2017, 10(5), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050726
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1526 | PDF Full-text (3889 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Computational fluid dynamics is used to study the impact of the support structure of a tidal turbine on performance and the downstream wake characteristics. A high-fidelity computational model of a dual rotor, contra-rotating tidal turbine in a large channel domain is presented, with [...] Read more.
Computational fluid dynamics is used to study the impact of the support structure of a tidal turbine on performance and the downstream wake characteristics. A high-fidelity computational model of a dual rotor, contra-rotating tidal turbine in a large channel domain is presented, with turbulence modelled using large eddy simulation. Actuator lines represent the turbine blades, permitting the analysis of transient flow features and turbine diagnostics. The following four cases are considered: the flow in an unexploited, empty channel; flow in a channel containing the rotors; flow in a channel containing the support structure; and flow in a channel with both rotors and support structure. The results indicate that the support structure contributes significantly to the behaviour of the turbine and to turbulence levels downstream, even when the rotors are upstream. This implies that inclusion of the turbine structure, or some parametrisation thereof, is a prerequisite for the realistic prediction of turbine performance and reliability, particularly for array layouts where wake effects become significant. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Study on the Conduction Mechanism and Evaluation of the Comprehensive Efficiency of Photovoltaic Power Generation in China
Energies 2017, 10(5), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050723
Received: 25 February 2017 / Revised: 26 March 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1571 | PDF Full-text (2291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the context of the global potential energy crisis and aggravating regional environmental pollution, Chinese photovoltaic power generation still faces the key problems of sustainable development, even given its favorable background in large-scale exploitation. Scientific evaluation of the comprehensive efficiency of photovoltaic power [...] Read more.
In the context of the global potential energy crisis and aggravating regional environmental pollution, Chinese photovoltaic power generation still faces the key problems of sustainable development, even given its favorable background in large-scale exploitation. Scientific evaluation of the comprehensive efficiency of photovoltaic power generation is of great significance because it will improve investment decision-making and enhance management level, evaluate the development conditions of photovoltaic power generation and then promote sustainable development capability. The concept of “comprehensive efficiency” is proposed in this paper on the basis of the resource development of solar energy and exploitation of photovoltaic power generation. A system dynamics model is used to study the conduction mechanism of the comprehensive efficiency of photovoltaic power generation. This paper collects data from 2005 to 2015 as research models, establishes the evaluation model of the comprehensive efficiency of photovoltaic power generation and conducts empirical analysis based on a super-efficient data envelopment analysis (SE-DEA) model. With the evaluation results, this paper puts forward political suggestions as to the optimization of the comprehensive efficiency of photovoltaic power generation. The research results may provide policy-oriented references on the sustainable development of photovoltaic power generation and give theoretical guidance on the scientific evaluation and diagnosis of photovoltaic power generation efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sources)
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Open AccessArticle
An Innovative Adaptive Control System to Regulate Microclimatic Conditions in a Greenhouse
Energies 2017, 10(5), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050722
Received: 13 March 2017 / Revised: 1 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1698 | PDF Full-text (4008 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the recent past home automation has been expanding its objectives towards new solutions both inside the smart home and in its outdoor spaces, where several new technologies are available. This work has developed an approach to integrate intelligent microclimatic greenhouse control into [...] Read more.
In the recent past home automation has been expanding its objectives towards new solutions both inside the smart home and in its outdoor spaces, where several new technologies are available. This work has developed an approach to integrate intelligent microclimatic greenhouse control into integrated home automation. Microclimatic control of greenhouses is a critical issue in agricultural practices, due to often common sudden daily variation of climatic conditions, and to its potentially detrimental effect on plant growth. A greenhouse is a complex thermodynamic system where indoor temperature and relative humidity have to be closely monitored to facilitate plant growth and production. This work shows an adaptive control system tailored to regulate microclimatic conditions in a greenhouse, by using an innovative combination of soft computing applications. In particular, a neural network solution has been proposed in order to forecast the climatic behavior of greenhouse, while a parallel fuzzy scheme approach is carried out in order to adjust the air speed of fan-coil and its temperature. The proposed combined approach provides a better control of greenhouse climatic conditions due to the system’s capability to base instantaneous solutions both on real measured variables and on forecasted climatic change. Several simulation campaigns were carried out to perform accurate neural network and fuzzy schemes, aimed at obtaining respectively a minimum forecasted error value and a more appropriate fuzzification and de-fuzzification process. A Matlab/Simulink solution implemented with a combined approach and its relevant obtained performance is also shown in present study, demonstrating that through controlled parameters it will be possible to maintain a better level of indoor climatic conditions. In the present work we prove how with a forecast of outside temperature at the next time-instant and rule-based controller monitoring of cooling or heating air temperatures and air velocities of devices that regulate the indoor micro-climate inside, a better adjustment of the conditions of comfort for crops is achievable. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Shearing Energy and Interfacial Gibbs Free Energy in the Emulsification Mechanism of Waxy Crude Oil
Energies 2017, 10(5), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050721
Received: 28 March 2017 / Revised: 6 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1873 | PDF Full-text (4324 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Crude oil is generally produced with water, and the water cut produced by oil wells is increasingly common over their lifetime, so it is inevitable to create emulsions during oil production. However, the formation of emulsions presents a costly problem in surface process [...] Read more.
Crude oil is generally produced with water, and the water cut produced by oil wells is increasingly common over their lifetime, so it is inevitable to create emulsions during oil production. However, the formation of emulsions presents a costly problem in surface process particularly, both in terms of transportation energy consumption and separation efficiency. To deal with the production and operational problems which are related to crude oil emulsions, especially to ensure the separation and transportation of crude oil-water systems, it is necessary to better understand the emulsification mechanism of crude oil under different conditions from the aspects of bulk and interfacial properties. The concept of shearing energy was introduced in this study to reveal the driving force for emulsification. The relationship between shearing stress in the flow field and interfacial tension (IFT) was established, and the correlation between shearing energy and interfacial Gibbs free energy was developed. The potential of the developed correlation model was validated using the experimental and field data on emulsification behavior. It was also shown how droplet deformation could be predicted from a random deformation degree and orientation angle. The results indicated that shearing energy as the energy produced by shearing stress working in the flow field is the driving force activating the emulsification behavior. The deformation degree and orientation angle of dispersed phase droplet are associated with the interfacial properties, rheological properties and the experienced turbulence degree. The correlation between shearing stress and IFT can be quantified if droplet deformation degree vs. droplet orientation angle data is available. When the water cut is close to the inversion point of waxy crude oil emulsion, the interfacial Gibbs free energy change decreased and the shearing energy increased. This feature is also presented in the special regions where the suddenly changed flow field can be formed. Hence, the shearing energy is an effective form that can show the contribution of kinetic energy for the oil-water mixtures to interfacial Gibbs free energy in emulsification process, and the emulsification mechanism of waxy crude oil-water emulsions was further explained from the theoretical level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oil and Gas Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Mapping Urban Heat Demand with the Use of GIS-Based Tools
Energies 2017, 10(5), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050720
Received: 21 March 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1495 | PDF Full-text (12140 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article presents a bottom-up approach for calculation of the useful heat demand for space heating and hot water preparation using geo-referenced datasets for buildings at the city level. This geographic information system (GIS) based approach was applied in the case study for [...] Read more.
This article presents a bottom-up approach for calculation of the useful heat demand for space heating and hot water preparation using geo-referenced datasets for buildings at the city level. This geographic information system (GIS) based approach was applied in the case study for the city of Krakow, where on the one hand the district heat network is well developed, while on the other hand there are still substantial number of buildings burning solid fuels in individual boilers and stoves, causing air pollution. The calculated heat demand was aggregated in the grid with 100 m × 100 m spatial resolution to deliver the heat map depicting the current situation for 21 buildings types. The results show that the residential buildings, in particular one- and multi-family buildings, have the highest share in overall demand for heat. By combining the results with location of the district heat (DH) network, the potential areas in its close vicinity that have sufficient heat demand density for developing the net were pointed out. Future evolution in heat demand for space heating in one-family houses was evaluated with the use of deterministic method employing building stock model. The study lays a foundation for planning the development of the heating system at the city level. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Multistage DC-DC Step-Up Self-Balanced and Magnetic Component-Free Converter for Photovoltaic Applications: Hardware Implementation
Energies 2017, 10(5), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050719
Received: 24 December 2016 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1931 | PDF Full-text (12899 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article presents a self-balanced multistage DC-DC step-up converter for photovoltaic applications. The proposed converter topology is designed for unidirectional power transfer and provides a doable solution for photovoltaic applications where voltage is required to be stepped up without magnetic components (transformer-less and [...] Read more.
This article presents a self-balanced multistage DC-DC step-up converter for photovoltaic applications. The proposed converter topology is designed for unidirectional power transfer and provides a doable solution for photovoltaic applications where voltage is required to be stepped up without magnetic components (transformer-less and inductor-less). The output voltage obtained from renewable sources will be low and must be stepped up by using a DC-DC converter for photovoltaic applications. 2 K diodes and 2 K capacitors along with two semiconductor control switch are used in the K-stage proposed converter to obtain an output voltage which is (K + 1) times the input voltage. The conspicuous features of proposed topology are: (i) magnetic component free (transformer-less and inductor-less); (ii) continuous input current; (iii) low voltage rating semiconductor devices and capacitors; (iv) modularity; (v) easy to add a higher number of levels to increase voltage gain; (vi) only two control switches with alternating operation and simple control. The proposed converter is compared with recently described existing transformer-less and inductor-less power converters in term of voltage gain, number of devices and cost. The application of the proposed circuit is discussed in detail. The proposed converter has been designed with a rated power of 60 W, input voltage is 24 V, output voltage is 100 V and switching frequency is 100 kHz. The performance of the converter is verified through experimental and simulation results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Waste Heat Recovery from Marine Gas Turbines and Diesel Engines
Energies 2017, 10(5), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050718
Received: 14 February 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2143 | PDF Full-text (3149 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper presents the main results of a research project directed to the development of mathematical models for the design and simulation of combined Gas Turbine-Steam or Diesel-Steam plants for marine applications. The goal is to increase the energy conversion efficiency of both [...] Read more.
The paper presents the main results of a research project directed to the development of mathematical models for the design and simulation of combined Gas Turbine-Steam or Diesel-Steam plants for marine applications. The goal is to increase the energy conversion efficiency of both gas turbines and diesel engines, adopted in ship propulsion systems, by recovering part of the thermal energy contained in the exhaust gases through Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) dedicated installations. The developed models are used to identify the best configuration of the combined plants in order to optimize, for the different applications, the steam plant layout and the performance of WHR plant components. This research activity has allowed to obtain significant improvements in terms of energy conversion efficiency, but also on other important issues: dimensions and weights of the installations, ship load capacity, environmental compatibility, investment and operating costs. In particular, the main results of the present study can be summarized as follows: (a) the quantitative assessment of the advantages (and limits) deriving by the application of a Combined Gas And Steam (COGAS) propulsion system to a large container ship, in substitution of the traditional two-stroke diesel engine; (b) the proposal of optimized WHR propulsion and power systems for an oil tanker, for which a quantitative evaluation is given of the attainable advantages, in terms of fuel consumption and emissions reduction, in comparison with more traditional solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Heat Recovery)
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Equivalent Thermal Conductivity of Window Spacers in Consideration of Condensation Prevention and Energy Saving Performance
Energies 2017, 10(5), 717; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050717
Received: 18 April 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2116 | PDF Full-text (13316 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated the impact of thermally improved spacers (TISs) on the condensation prevention and energy saving performances of residential windows. The temperature factor and total U-value were analyzed with the two-box model, by which the TISs are represented with the equivalent thermal [...] Read more.
This study investigated the impact of thermally improved spacers (TISs) on the condensation prevention and energy saving performances of residential windows. The temperature factor and total U-value were analyzed with the two-box model, by which the TISs are represented with the equivalent thermal conductivity. The results showed that the TISs could increase the temperature factor by up to 12%, and this significantly improved the condensation prevention performance. In addition, it was proved that the TIS enables the prevention of the condensation at an outdoor temperature that is 4.2 °C to 15.7 °C lower compared with the conventional spacer. Also, it was shown that the TISs reduce the total U-value by an amount from 0.07 W/m2K to 0.12 W/m2K, implying that the heat loss through the window is reduced by a rate from 2.8% to 8.2%. In addition, the results of the whole building energy simulation proved that the TISs can reduce the annual heating-energy consumption by a rate from 3.0% to 6.3%. The results were then used for the development of monographs to determine the equivalent thermal conductivity of a window spacer that can meet the performance criteria in terms of condensation prevention and energy saving. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Investigation of High Quality PEDOT:PSS Film by Multilayer-Processing and Acid Treatment
Energies 2017, 10(5), 716; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050716
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2769 | PDF Full-text (2820 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we have investigated the performance of multilayer films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) treated with one of the perfluorinated carboxylic acids, named trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). According to the increased density of the PEDOT chain under unit area conditions, the sheet resistance (R [...] Read more.
In this study, we have investigated the performance of multilayer films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) treated with one of the perfluorinated carboxylic acids, named trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). According to the increased density of the PEDOT chain under unit area conditions, the sheet resistance (Rsq) has improved from 300 to 65 Ω/sq through additional processing of PEDOT:PSS from single layer to multilayer. After the further treatment with TFA, however, the Rsq of the multilayer PEDOT:PSS was enhanced to 45 Ω/sq, leading to the decline of film thickness from 400 to 270 nm. Both conductivity and work function based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results have built a breakthrough by double-processing because of the higher density of conductive PEDOT chains and the increase of 0.4 eV alternatives to typical indium tin oxide substrate, respectively. This improvement is contributed to the development of more effective transparent electrodes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A SVPWM to Eliminate Common-Mode Voltage for Multilevel Inverters
Energies 2017, 10(5), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050715
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 25 April 2017 / Accepted: 2 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1529 | PDF Full-text (3133 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a new space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) to eliminate common-mode voltage (CMV) for multilevel inverters. The proposed SVPWM is performed in a new coordinate system, in which the converter voltage vectors have only integer entries and the absolute coordinate [...] Read more.
This paper presents a new space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) to eliminate common-mode voltage (CMV) for multilevel inverters. The proposed SVPWM is performed in a new coordinate system, in which the converter voltage vectors have only integer entries and the absolute coordinate increment between adjacent vectors is equal to 1. The location of the reference vector, detection of the nearest three CMV vectors, and duty cycles of the nearest three CMV vectors are all obtained by simple calculations, no lookup table is needed and the SVPWM is computationally fast. Compared with earlier pulse width modulations (PWMs), the realization of the CMV vectors is very simple, and the CMV of multilevel inverters are limited to zero with any modulation index. Because the SVPWM is independent of the level number of the inverter, the proposed SVPWM is suitable for any level of inverter. This paper also thoroughly compares the proposed SVPWM with prior PWMs. Experimental results are also given in the paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Fundamentals and Conversion)
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Open AccessArticle
Insulation Resistance Monitoring Algorithm for Battery Pack in Electric Vehicle Based on Extended Kalman Filtering
Energies 2017, 10(5), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050714
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 1 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1965 | PDF Full-text (4472 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To improve the accuracy of insulation monitoring between the battery pack and chassis of electric vehicles, we established a serial battery pack model composed of first-order resistor-capacitor (RC) circuit battery cells. We then designed a low-voltage, low-frequency insulation monitoring model based on this [...] Read more.
To improve the accuracy of insulation monitoring between the battery pack and chassis of electric vehicles, we established a serial battery pack model composed of first-order resistor-capacitor (RC) circuit battery cells. We then designed a low-voltage, low-frequency insulation monitoring model based on this serial battery pack model. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) was designed for this non-linear system to filter the measured results, thus mitigating the influence of noise. Experimental and simulation results show that the proposed monitoring model and extended Kalman filtering algorithm for insulation resistance monitoring present satisfactory estimation accuracy and robustness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Open AccessArticle
Improved Capacitor Voltage Feedforward for Three-Phase LCL-Type Grid-Connected Converter to Suppress Start-Up Inrush Current
Energies 2017, 10(5), 713; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050713
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1711 | PDF Full-text (26823 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three-phase active damping LCL-type grid-connected converters are usually used in distributed power generation systems. However, serious inrush current will be aroused when the grid-connected converter starts, especially in rectifier mode, if no effective control method is taken. The point of common coupling (PCC) [...] Read more.
Three-phase active damping LCL-type grid-connected converters are usually used in distributed power generation systems. However, serious inrush current will be aroused when the grid-connected converter starts, especially in rectifier mode, if no effective control method is taken. The point of common coupling (PCC) voltage feedforward is usually used to suppress start-up inrush current. Unfortunately, it will introduce a positive feedback loop related to the grid current and grid impedance under weak grid conditions, and therefore, the grid current will be distorted and the system stability margin will be significantly reduced. To solve the above problems, this paper proposes a simple method based on a d-axis fundamental positive-sequence component of filter capacitor voltage feedforward, without extra sensors and software resources. With the proposed method, it is possible to suppress the start-up inrush current and maintain the grid current quality and system stability under weak grid conditions. The mechanism of start-up inrush current and the effectiveness of the method for inrush current suppression are analyzed in detail. Then, the influences of different feedforward methods on system stability are analyzed under weak grid conditions by the impedance model of grid-connected converter. Finally, experimental results verify the validity of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrodynamic Investigation of an Oscillating Buoy Wave Energy Converter Integrated into a Pile-Restrained Floating Breakwater
Energies 2017, 10(5), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050712
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1929 | PDF Full-text (3997 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An analytical model is developed based on linear potential flow theory and matching eigenfunction expansion technique to investigate the hydrodynamics of a two-dimensional floating structure. This structure is an integration system consisting of a breakwater and an oscillating buoy wave energy converter (WEC). [...] Read more.
An analytical model is developed based on linear potential flow theory and matching eigenfunction expansion technique to investigate the hydrodynamics of a two-dimensional floating structure. This structure is an integration system consisting of a breakwater and an oscillating buoy wave energy converter (WEC). It is constrained to heave motion, and linear power take-off (PTO) damping is used to calculate the absorbed power. The proposed model is verified against the published results. The proposed integrated structure is compared with the fixed structure and free heave-motion structure, respectively. The hydrodynamic properties of the integrated structure with the optimal PTO damping i.e., the transmission coefficient, reflection coefficient, capture width ratio (CWR), and heave response amplitude operator (RAO), are investigated. The effect of the PTO damping on the performance of the integrated system is also evaluated. Results indicate that with the proper adjustment of the PTO damping, the proposed integrated system can produce power efficiently. Meanwhile, the function of coastal protection can be compared with that of the fixed structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sources)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Economic Assessment of Network-Constrained Transactive Energy for Managing Flexible Demand in Distribution Systems
Energies 2017, 10(5), 711; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050711
Received: 8 April 2017 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1596 | PDF Full-text (993 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increasing number of distributed energy resources such as electric vehicles and heat pumps connected to power systems raises operational challenges to the network operator, for example, introducing grid congestion and voltage deviations in the distribution network level if their operations are not [...] Read more.
The increasing number of distributed energy resources such as electric vehicles and heat pumps connected to power systems raises operational challenges to the network operator, for example, introducing grid congestion and voltage deviations in the distribution network level if their operations are not properly coordinated. Coordination and control of a large number of distributed energy resources requires innovative approaches. In this paper, we follow up on a recently proposed network-constrained transactive energy (NCTE) method for scheduling of electric vehicles and heat pumps within a retailer’s aggregation at distribution system level. We extend this method with: (1) a new modeling technique that allows the resulting congestion price to be directly interpreted as a locational marginal pricing in the system; (2) an explicit analysis of the benefits and costs of different actors when using the NCTE method in the system, given the high penetration of distributed energy resources. This paper firstly describes the NCTE-based distribution system that introduces a new interacting scheme for actors at the distribution system level. Then, technical modeling and economic interpretation of the NCTE-based distribution system are described. Finally, we show the benefits and costs of different actors within the NCTE-based distribution system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Open AccessArticle
Bifurcation Phenomena Studies of a Voltage Controlled Buck-Inverter Cascade System
Energies 2017, 10(5), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050708
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 14 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1261 | PDF Full-text (2334 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper studies the complex bifurcation phenomena of a voltage-controlled Buck-inverter cascade system. A state-flow chart is drawn to illustrate the complex relations among the linear operating modes. Combined with the state transition function of each mode, the time response of the system [...] Read more.
This paper studies the complex bifurcation phenomena of a voltage-controlled Buck-inverter cascade system. A state-flow chart is drawn to illustrate the complex relations among the linear operating modes. Combined with the state transition function of each mode, the time response of the system can be obtained. For period-one steady state, the periodic mapping function and its fixed point are further derived, on the basis of which the Jacobi matrix is developed and its maximum eigenvalue is analyzed to understand the bifurcation diagram. By globally analyzing the state space using this cell mapping method, the coexistence of attractors is revealed in the Buck-inverter system. All theoretical results have been verified experimentally on a prototype system. The results obtained can be used for guiding the design and analysis of the Buck-inverter system. The analyzing method can be helpful for studying other power electronics systems with compound topologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Analysis of a Four-Switch Three-Phase Grid-Side Converter with Modulation Simplification in a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator-Based Wind Turbine (DFIG-WT) with Different External Disturbances
Energies 2017, 10(5), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050706
Received: 9 March 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 14 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1820 | PDF Full-text (17018 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper investigates the performance of a fault-tolerant four-switch three-phase (FSTP) grid-side converter (GSC) in a doubly-fed induction generator-based wind turbine (DFIG-WT). The space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) technique is simplified and unified duty ratios are used for controlling the FSTP GSC. [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the performance of a fault-tolerant four-switch three-phase (FSTP) grid-side converter (GSC) in a doubly-fed induction generator-based wind turbine (DFIG-WT). The space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) technique is simplified and unified duty ratios are used for controlling the FSTP GSC. Steady DC-bus voltage, sinusoidal three-phase grid currents and unity power factor are obtained. In addition, the balance of capacitor voltages is accomplished based on the analysis of current flows at the midpoint of DC bus in different operational modes. Besides, external disturbances such as fluctuating wind speed and grid voltage sag are considered to test its fault-tolerant ability. Furthermore, the effects of fluctuating wind speed on the performance of DFIG-WT system are explained according to an approximate expression of the turbine torque. The performance of the proposed FSTP GSC is simulated in Matlab/Simulink 2016a based on a detailed 1.5 MW DFIG-WT Simulink model. Experiments are carried out on a 2 kW platform by using a discrete signal processor (DSP) TMS320F28335 controller to validate the reliability of DFIG-WT for the cases with step change of the stator active power and grid voltage sag, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Power and Energy System)
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Open AccessArticle
The Potential of Thermal Plasma Gasification of Olive Pomace Charcoal
Energies 2017, 10(5), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050710
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 17 May 2017
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1616 | PDF Full-text (2582 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Annually, the olive oil industry generates a significant amount of by-products, such as olive pomace, olive husks, tree prunings, leaves, pits, and branches. Therefore, the recovery of these residues has become a major challenge in Mediterranean countries. The utilization of olive industry residues [...] Read more.
Annually, the olive oil industry generates a significant amount of by-products, such as olive pomace, olive husks, tree prunings, leaves, pits, and branches. Therefore, the recovery of these residues has become a major challenge in Mediterranean countries. The utilization of olive industry residues has received much attention in recent years, especially for energy purposes. Accordingly, this primary experimental study aims at investigating the potential of olive biomass waste for energy recovery in terms of synthesis gas (or syngas) production using the thermal arc plasma gasification method. The olive charcoal made from the exhausted olive solid waste (olive pomace) was chosen as a reference material for primary experiments with known composition from the performed proximate and ultimate analysis. The experiments were carried out at various operational parameters: raw biomass and water vapour flow rates and the plasma generator power. The producer gas involved principally CO, H2, and CO2 with the highest concentrations of 41.17%, 13.06%, and 13.48%, respectively. The produced synthesis gas has a lower heating value of 6.09 MJ/nm3 at the H2O/C ratio of 3.15 and the plasma torch had a power of 52.2 kW. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Research on the Optimal Charging Strategy for Li-Ion Batteries Based on Multi-Objective Optimization
Energies 2017, 10(5), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050709
Received: 6 March 2017 / Revised: 21 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 17 May 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1619 | PDF Full-text (5193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Charging performance affects the commercial application of electric vehicles (EVs) significantly. This paper presents an optimal charging strategy for Li-ion batteries based on the voltage-based multistage constant current (VMCC) charging strategy. In order to satisfy the different charging demands of the EV users [...] Read more.
Charging performance affects the commercial application of electric vehicles (EVs) significantly. This paper presents an optimal charging strategy for Li-ion batteries based on the voltage-based multistage constant current (VMCC) charging strategy. In order to satisfy the different charging demands of the EV users for charging time, charged capacity and energy loss, the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm is employed and the influences of charging stage number, charging cut-off voltage and weight factors of different charging goals are analyzed. Comparison experiments of the proposed charging strategy and the traditional normal and fast charging strategies are carried out. The experimental results demonstrate that the traditional normal and fast charging strategies can only satisfy a small range of EV users’ charging demand well while the proposed charging strategy can satisfy the whole range of the charging demand well. The relative increase in charging performance of the proposed charging strategy can reach more than 80% when compared to the normal and fast charging dependently. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Collection)
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Open AccessArticle
ITO-Free Transparent Organic Solar Cell with Distributed Bragg Reflector for Solar Harvesting Windows
Energies 2017, 10(5), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050707
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 8 May 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 17 May 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2255 | PDF Full-text (5288 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We demonstrated an indium tin oxide (ITO)-free, highly transparent organic solar cell with the potential to be integrated into window panes for energy harvesting purposes. A transparent, conductive ZnO/Ag/ZnO multilayer electrode and a Ag:Ca thin film electrode were used in this transparent device [...] Read more.
We demonstrated an indium tin oxide (ITO)-free, highly transparent organic solar cell with the potential to be integrated into window panes for energy harvesting purposes. A transparent, conductive ZnO/Ag/ZnO multilayer electrode and a Ag:Ca thin film electrode were used in this transparent device as the bottom and top electrode, respectively. To further improve the transmittance of the solar cell, the thickness of the top ZnO layer was investigated both experimentally and with simulations. An average visible transmittance of >60% was reached, with a maximum transmittance of 73% at 556 nm. Both top and bottom illumination of the solar cell generated comparable power conversion efficiencies, which indicates the wide application of this solar cell structure. In addition, we fabricated distributed Bragg reflector mirrors with sputtered SiO2 and TiO2, which efficiently increased the power conversion efficiency over 20% for the solar cells on glass and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Application in Buildings)
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Open AccessArticle
Design of a Bearingless Outer Rotor Induction Motor
Energies 2017, 10(5), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10050705
Received: 16 December 2016 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 17 May 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1936 | PDF Full-text (6328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A bearingless induction (BI) motor with an outer rotor for flywheel energy storage systems is proposed due to the perceived advantages of simple rotor structure, non-contact support and high speed operation. Firstly, the configuration and operation principle of the proposed motor are described. [...] Read more.
A bearingless induction (BI) motor with an outer rotor for flywheel energy storage systems is proposed due to the perceived advantages of simple rotor structure, non-contact support and high speed operation. Firstly, the configuration and operation principle of the proposed motor are described. Then several leading dimensional parameters are optimally calculated for achieving the maximum average values and the minimum ripples of torque output and suspension force. Finally, by using the finite element method, the characteristics and performance of the proposed machine are analyzed and verified. Full article
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