ijerph-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Groundwater: Pollution Prevention and Remediation, Purification and Utilization

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 24063

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Key Laboratory of Water Quality Science and Water Environment Recovery Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China
Interests: groundwater treatment; adsorption; catalysis; arsenic removal; water treatment residuals; functional materials for water treatment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 11, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, China
Interests: regional water resources planning and management; water resources optimal allocation; assessment of water resources safety and risk
School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Qingdao University of Technology, No. 777, Jialingjiang East Road, Huangdao District, Qingdao 266520, China
Interests: water and groundwater treatment; iron and manganese removal; manganese oxidizing bacteria; biofilter; reclaimed water; reclaimed water ecology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Groundwater is an important water resource and an indispensable part of the water system and ecosystem. In addition to the pollution of groundwater caused by geological factors, in recent years, due to the increase in the number of human engineering activities taking place, the levels of agricultural, industrial, and domestic pollution have increased, contributing to the destruction of groundwater resources. Groundwater pollution not only has a huge impact on the safe use of groundwater resources, but also poses a serious threat to the quality of surface water, which in turn affects the safety of the entire water system. Therefore, it is particularly important to strengthen the monitoring, protection, pollution restoration, and purification of groundwater resources. With the current development and progress of society, the demand for water resources has also increased and the problem of groundwater over-exploitation has become more and more serious, causing a series of disastrous events, such as land subsidence and seawater intrusion. Therefore, the rational exploitation and utilization of groundwater resources must be maintained. For this, it is especially important to promote the sustainable development of society and economy.

This Special Issue focuses on groundwater pollution prevention, exploitation, and utilization. We aim to publish papers on the following (not exhaustive) list of topics: groundwater resources and circulation; groundwater models; groundwater pollution identification, monitoring, and early warning systems; groundwater pollution prevention and in situ restoration; sustainable management risk analysis and response strategies for groundwater resources; principles, technologies, and engineering practices of groundwater purification for potable water, including the removal of iron, manganese, fluorine, arsenic, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate, organics, etc. from contaminated groundwater. In particular, papers related to engineering practices are welcome.

Dr. Huiping Zeng
Dr. Yan Han
Dr. Yanan Cai
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • groundwater
  • circulation
  • pollution
  • remediation
  • purification
  • utilization
  • sustainable management
  • iron
  • manganese
  • fluorine
  • arsenic
  • ammonia nitrogen
  • nitrate
  • organics

Published Papers (10 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

13 pages, 3736 KiB  
Article
Adsorption of Fluoride onto Acid-Modified Low-Cost Pyrolusite Ore: Adsorption Characteristics and Efficiencies
by Phacharapol Induvesa, Radamanee Rattanakom, Sornsiri Sriboonnak, Chayakorn Pumas, Kritsana Duangjan, Pharkphum Rakruam, Saoharit Nitayavardhana, Prattakorn Sittisom and Aunnop Wongrueng
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(24), 17103; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192417103 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1933
Abstract
Fluoride concentrations in the groundwater continue to be a major cause for concern in Thailand, particularly in the country’s north and west. The process of removing fluoride through adsorption has captured the attention of the abundance of ore in the mining industry. For [...] Read more.
Fluoride concentrations in the groundwater continue to be a major cause for concern in Thailand, particularly in the country’s north and west. The process of removing fluoride through adsorption has captured the attention of the abundance of ore in the mining industry. For the purpose of this investigation, the utilization of the adsorbent pyrolusite, which is a manganese mineral largely composed of MnO2, was a major component. Lab-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the efficacy of original pyrolusite ore (PA-1) and acid-modification PA (PA-2) created as low-cost adsorption materials for fluoride removal. The results of the adsorption rate in both PAs showed a fast rate of adsorption within 60 min of reaching equilibrium. According to the results of the adsorption capacity (qe) tests, PA that had been treated with an acid solution (PA-2) had the capacity to contain more fluoride (qe = 0.58 mg/g) than the PA that had been used initially (PA-1) (qe = 0.11 mg/g). According to the findings of an isotherm, primary adsorption behavior is determined by the effect that surface components and chemical composition have on porous materials. This is the first current study that provides a comparison between pyrolusite from Thailand’s mining industry and basic modified pyrolusite regarding their ability to remove a fluoride contaminant in synthetic groundwater by an adsorption process. Such an approach will be able to be used in the future to protect the community from excessive fluoride concentrations in household and drinking water treatment technology. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 7970 KiB  
Article
Predicting Groundwater Indicator Concentration Based on Long Short-Term Memory Neural Network: A Case Study
by Chao Liu, Mingshuang Xu, Yufeng Liu, Xuefei Li, Zonglin Pang and Sheng Miao
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 15612; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192315612 - 24 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1427
Abstract
Prediction of groundwater quality is an essential step for sustainable utilization of water resources. Most of the related research in the study area focuses on water distribution and rational utilization of resources but lacks results on groundwater quality prediction. Therefore, this paper introduces [...] Read more.
Prediction of groundwater quality is an essential step for sustainable utilization of water resources. Most of the related research in the study area focuses on water distribution and rational utilization of resources but lacks results on groundwater quality prediction. Therefore, this paper introduces a prediction model of groundwater quality based on a long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network. Based on groundwater monitoring data from October 2000 to October 2014, five indicators were screened as research objects: TDS, fluoride, nitrate, phosphate, and metasilicate. Considering the seasonality of water quality time series data, the LSTM neural network model was used to predict the groundwater index concentrations in the dry and rainy periods. The results suggest the model has high accuracy and can be used to predict groundwater quality. The mean absolute errors (MAEs) of these parameters are, respectively, 0.21, 0.20, 0.17, 0.17, and 0.20. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) are 0.31, 0.29, 0.28, 0.27, and 0.31, respectively. People can be given early warnings and take measures according to the forecast situation. It provides a reference for groundwater management and sustainable utilization in the study area in the future and also provides a new idea for coastal cities with similar hydrogeological conditions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 6398 KiB  
Article
Deep Groundwater Flow Patterns Induced by Mine Water Injection Activity
by Ge Chen, Zhimin Xu, Dmytro Rudakov, Yajun Sun and Xin Li
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 15438; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192315438 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1630
Abstract
Mine water injection into deep formations is one of the effective approaches for reducing the drainage from coal mines in the arid and semi-arid region of the Ordos basin, China. Many coal mines are attempting to execute the related projects. Under the influence [...] Read more.
Mine water injection into deep formations is one of the effective approaches for reducing the drainage from coal mines in the arid and semi-arid region of the Ordos basin, China. Many coal mines are attempting to execute the related projects. Under the influence of groundwater protection, the understanding of regional groundwater flow is becoming highly important to the mine water monitoring, whereas quite few academic research teams focus on the deep groundwater flow pattern by mine water injection. This paper reveals the spatial distribution of Liujiagou Formation that is in positive correlation with the terrain, and its local thickness is influenced by the dominant W-E and NE-SW directions of geological structures. Only a part of sandstone rocks consists of aquifers, the rest 61.9% of relatively dry rock provide the enhanced storage space and partial mudstone aquicludes decrease the possibility of the vertical leakage for mine water. The dynamic storage capacity is evaluated at 2.36 Mm3 per 1 km2 and over 25.10 billion m3 in this study area. Two hydrogeologic cross-sections of basin-scale identify the W-E and N-S regional groundwater flow directions, with the lower Yellow River catchment becoming the discharged region. The hierarchically and steadily nested flow systems containing coal mining claims are influenced by coal mining activity. The groundwater depression cone in a shallow coal measure aquifer is caused by mine water drainage whereas the groundwater mound in Liujiagou Formation is generated by mine water injection activity. The numerical simulation revealed that the groundwater head rebound is slightly decreased and will not recover to its initial baseline within 500 years due to its low porosity and permeability. This study elucidates the deep groundwater flow patterns induced by mine water injection and provides a practical methodology for the management and pollution monitoring of mine water injection activity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 4683 KiB  
Article
Enrichment of High Arsenic Groundwater Controlled by Hydrogeochemical and Physical Processes in the Hetao Basin, China
by Wengeng Cao, Yu Ren, Qiuyao Dong, Zeyan Li and Shunyu Xiao
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(20), 13489; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192013489 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
Based on 447 samples collected from a shallow aquifer (depths from 0 to 150 m) in the Hetao Basin, Northern China, an integrated hydrogeochemical approach was used in this study to conceptualize the enrichment of high arsenic groundwater in the Hetao Basin. An [...] Read more.
Based on 447 samples collected from a shallow aquifer (depths from 0 to 150 m) in the Hetao Basin, Northern China, an integrated hydrogeochemical approach was used in this study to conceptualize the enrichment of high arsenic groundwater in the Hetao Basin. An unconventional method of distinguishing hydrogeochemical and physical processes from a dataset was tested by investigating the cumulative frequency distribution of ionic ratios expressed on a probability scale. By applying cumulative frequency distribution curves to characterize the distribution of ionic ratios throughout the Hetao Basin, hydrogeochemical indicators were obtained that distinguish the series of hydrogeochemical processes that govern groundwater composition. All hydrogeochemical processes can basically be classified as recharge intensity of groundwater, evaporation concentration intensity, and reductive degree controlling the spatial distribution of arsenic. By considering the three processes, we found that the concentration of arsenic was more than 10 μg/L when the (HCO3+CO32−)/SO42− ratio was over 4.1 (strong reductive area). As the evaporation concentration intensity increased, the median value of arsenic increased from 10.74 to 382.7 μg/L in the median reductive area and rapidly increased from 89.11 to 461.45 μg/L in the strong reductive area. As the river recharge intensity increased (with the intensity index increasing from 0 to 5), the median value of arsenic dropped from 40.2 to 6.8 μg/L in the median reductive area and decreased more markedly from 219.85 to 23.73 μg/L in the strong reductive area. The results provide a new insight into the mechanism of As enrichment in groundwater. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 5348 KiB  
Article
Predicting Heavy Metal Concentrations in Shallow Aquifer Systems Based on Low-Cost Physiochemical Parameters Using Machine Learning Techniques
by Thi-Minh-Trang Huynh, Chuen-Fa Ni, Yu-Sheng Su, Vo-Chau-Ngan Nguyen, I-Hsien Lee, Chi-Ping Lin and Hoang-Hiep Nguyen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(19), 12180; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191912180 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1929
Abstract
Monitoring ex-situ water parameters, namely heavy metals, needs time and laboratory work for water sampling and analytical processes, which can retard the response to ongoing pollution events. Previous studies have successfully applied fast modeling techniques such as artificial intelligence algorithms to predict heavy [...] Read more.
Monitoring ex-situ water parameters, namely heavy metals, needs time and laboratory work for water sampling and analytical processes, which can retard the response to ongoing pollution events. Previous studies have successfully applied fast modeling techniques such as artificial intelligence algorithms to predict heavy metals. However, neither low-cost feature predictability nor explainability assessments have been considered in the modeling process. This study proposes a reliable and explainable framework to find an effective model and feature set to predict heavy metals in groundwater. The integrated assessment framework has four steps: model selection uncertainty, feature selection uncertainty, predictive uncertainty, and model interpretability. The results show that Random Forest is the most suitable model, and quick-measure parameters can be used as predictors for arsenic (As), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn). Although the model performance is auspicious, it likely produces significant uncertainties. The findings also demonstrate that arsenic is related to nutrients and spatial distribution, while Fe and Mn are affected by spatial distribution and salinity. Some limitations and suggestions are also discussed to improve the prediction accuracy and interpretability. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 9176 KiB  
Article
The Recent Progress China Has Made in Green Mine Construction, Part II: Typical Examples of Green Mines
by Haoxuan Yu, Shuai Li, Lifeng Yu and Xinmin Wang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 8166; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19138166 - 3 Jul 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2611
Abstract
This paper (Part II), right after the Part I, also as an information article, introduces the recent progress of “green mine construction” in China. China is a big country in resource exploitation, but there are serious problems such as hidden danger, environmental pollution [...] Read more.
This paper (Part II), right after the Part I, also as an information article, introduces the recent progress of “green mine construction” in China. China is a big country in resource exploitation, but there are serious problems such as hidden danger, environmental pollution and resource waste in the exploitation of mineral resources in China. Therefore, the promotion of “green” mining technology, the implementation of “green mine construction” and the promotion of small- and medium-sized mines to green non-waste mining mode transformation and upgrading are crucial measures on the road of China’s mining development, with very important practical significance. Therefore, this information paper of our Chinese mining research mainly reviews the key progress in the construction and development of green mines and introduces four typical green mine examples in China: (1) the mine with the best green environment in China: Jinhui Mining Co., Ltd., Jiuquan, Gansu Province; (2) the most advanced mine in China: Jinchuan Group Company, Jinchang, Gansu Province; (3) the oldest green mine in China: the Suichang gold mine, Lishui, Zhejiang Province; and (4) the most mechanized mine in China: the Pingshuo Coal Co., Ltd., Shuozhou, Shanxi Province. In the abstract, we claim that Part II serves as a guide to begin a conversation and to encourage experts and scholars to engage in the research of this field. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1366 KiB  
Article
Non-Ionic Surfactant Recovery in Surfactant Enhancement Aquifer Remediation Effluent with Chlorobenzenes by Semivolatile Chlorinated Organic Compounds Volatilization
by Patricia Sáez, Aurora Santos, Raúl García-Cervilla, Arturo Romero and David Lorenzo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(12), 7547; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127547 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1570
Abstract
Surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation is a common treatment to remediate polluted sites with the inconvenience that the effluent generated must be treated. In this work, a complex mixture of chlorobenzene and dichlorobenzenes in a non-ionic surfactant emulsion has been carried out by volatilization. [...] Read more.
Surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation is a common treatment to remediate polluted sites with the inconvenience that the effluent generated must be treated. In this work, a complex mixture of chlorobenzene and dichlorobenzenes in a non-ionic surfactant emulsion has been carried out by volatilization. Since this techhnique is strongly affected by the presence of the surfactant, modifying the vapour pressure, Pv0, and activity coefficient, γ, a correlation between Pvj0γj and surfactant concentration and temperature was proposed for each compound, employing the Surface Response Methodology (RSM). Volatilization experiments were carried out at different temperatures and gas flow rates. A good agreement between experimental and predicted remaining SVCOCs during the air stripping process was obtained, validating the thermodynamic parameters obtained with RSM. Regarding the results of volatilization, at 60 °C 80% of SVCOCs were removed after 6 h, and the surfactant capacity was almost completely recovered so the solution can be recycled in soil flushing. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

19 pages, 1977 KiB  
Article
The Recent Progress China Has Made in Green Mine Construction, Part I: Mining Groundwater Pollution and Sustainable Mining
by Shuai Li, Lifeng Yu, Wanjun Jiang, Haoxuan Yu and Xinmin Wang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5673; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095673 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3831
Abstract
With the development of technology, the concepts of “green” and “sustainable” have gradually been popularized in all walks of life. With the continuous development of the world mining industry, the efficiency of resource development in various countries has been improved, but mining activities [...] Read more.
With the development of technology, the concepts of “green” and “sustainable” have gradually been popularized in all walks of life. With the continuous development of the world mining industry, the efficiency of resource development in various countries has been improved, but mining activities and production will undoubtedly bring many environmental pollution problems. As a mining power, China is one of the first countries to put forward the concept of “green mining”. Over the years, as people emphasize safety and environmental protection, green mining technology has become the hot topic. At the same time, groundwater pollution caused by mining has become the focus of China’s “green mine construction”: with the continuous development of mining, mining activities and production will also undoubtedly bring significant environmental pollution. The environmental pollution of the mined area has a vital influence on the surrounding environment. The pollutants mainly come from mining operations and production of the mineral processing industry, including process wastewater, gas waste, smelting slag, etc., which are all acidic. Acid mine drainage (AMD) occurs in the process of mining production, due to the structure of minerals and the complex reactions between oxygen and minerals, and results in heavy metal ions leaching into groundwater. Once the groundwater is polluted, it will slowly flow to the surrounding area, resulting in the migration and diffusion of pollutants in the groundwater, affecting the surrounding rivers, farmland, and drinking water for residents. In recent years, environmental damage caused by groundwater pollution from underground mines in Shijiazhuang, China, and Selangor, Malaysia, has had a negative impact on rivers, farmland, and human health. At the same time, the paper introduces many key technologies of green mine construction, such as the backfill mining method. In cooperation with China Road & Bridge Corporation, this paper also introduces the progress in the reuse of mining waste, especially the use of mining waste as aggregate to prepare concrete materials for road and bridge construction. This information article introduces the development status of green mine construction in China and briefly reviews the key technologies of green mine construction in China. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

14 pages, 2503 KiB  
Review
A Review of Manganese-Oxidizing Bacteria (MnOB): Applications, Future Concerns, and Challenges
by Yanan Cai, Kun Yang, Chaochao Qiu, Yunze Bi, Bowen Tian and Xuejun Bi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(2), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20021272 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2512
Abstract
Groundwater serving as a drinking water resource usually contains manganese ions (Mn2+) that exceed drinking standards. Based on the Mn biogeochemical cycle at the hydrosphere scale, bioprocesses consisting of aeration, biofiltration, and disinfection are well known as a cost-effective and environmentally [...] Read more.
Groundwater serving as a drinking water resource usually contains manganese ions (Mn2+) that exceed drinking standards. Based on the Mn biogeochemical cycle at the hydrosphere scale, bioprocesses consisting of aeration, biofiltration, and disinfection are well known as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly ecotechnology for removing Mn2+. The design of aeration and biofiltration units, which are critical components, is significantly influenced by coexisting iron and ammonia in groundwater; however, there is no unified standard for optimizing bioprocess operation. In addition to the groundwater purification, it was also found that manganese-oxidizing bacteria (MnOB)-derived biogenic Mn oxides (bioMnOx), a by-product, have a low crystallinity and a relatively high specific surface area; the MnOB supplied with Mn2+ can be developed for contaminated water remediation. As a result, according to previous studies, this paper summarized and provided operational suggestions for the removal of Mn2+ from groundwater. This review also anticipated challenges and future concerns, as well as opportunities for bioMnOx applications. These could improve our understanding of the MnOB group and its practical applications. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 1419 KiB  
Review
The Current Status and Prevention of Antibiotic Pollution in Groundwater in China
by Huiping Zeng, Jianxue Li, Weihua Zhao, Jiaxin Xu, He Xu, Dong Li and Jie Zhang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(18), 11256; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191811256 - 7 Sep 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4049
Abstract
The problem of environmental pollution caused by the abuse of antibiotics has received increasing attention. However, only in recent years have antibiotic pollution and its risk assessment to the environment been deeply studied. Although there has been a large number of reports about [...] Read more.
The problem of environmental pollution caused by the abuse of antibiotics has received increasing attention. However, only in recent years have antibiotic pollution and its risk assessment to the environment been deeply studied. Although there has been a large number of reports about the input, occurrence, destination, and influence of antibiotics in the past 10 years, systemic knowledge of antibiotics in the groundwater environment is still lacking. This review systematically expounds the sources, migration and transformation, pollution status, and potential risks to the ecological environment of antibiotics in groundwater systems, by integrating 10 years of existing research results. The results showed that 47 kinds of antibiotics in four categories, mainly sulfonamides and fluoroquinolones, have been detected; antibiotics in groundwater species will induce the production of resistance genes and cause ecological harm. In view of the entire process of antibiotics entering groundwater, the current antibiotic control methods at various levels are listed, including the control of the discharge of antibiotics at source, the removal of antibiotics in water treatment plants, and the treatment of existing antibiotic contamination in groundwater. Additionally, the future research direction of antibiotics in groundwater is pointed out, and suggestions and prospects for antibiotic control are put forward. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop