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Volume 17, March-2

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 17, Issue 7 (April-1 2020) – 321 articles

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Open AccessReview
Caffeine Consumption in Children: Innocuous or Deleterious? A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2489; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072489 (registering DOI) - 05 Apr 2020
Abstract
Caffeine is the most consumed psychostimulant worldwide. Its use among children is controversial. Although it produces an increase in brain activity, it could hamper growth and development in young consumers. Therefore, the aim of this review was to recognize changes produced by caffeine [...] Read more.
Caffeine is the most consumed psychostimulant worldwide. Its use among children is controversial. Although it produces an increase in brain activity, it could hamper growth and development in young consumers. Therefore, the aim of this review was to recognize changes produced by caffeine in children under 12 years of age and to identify the relevant alterations and the conditions of their occurrence. A systematic review of the literature was carried out using PRISMA. Initially, 5468 articles were found from the EBSCO, ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Clarivate Analytics databases. In this review, were retained 24 published articles that met the inclusion criteria. The results obtained showed that caffeine consumption hampers children’s growth and development. In contrast, it supports the activation of the central nervous system and brain energy management. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Association between Reallocation Behaviors and Subjective Health and Stress in South Korean Adults: An Isotemporal Substitution Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2488; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072488 (registering DOI) - 05 Apr 2020
Abstract
This study used an isotemporal substitution (IS) model to determine the potential reallocation effects of sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) on subjective health and stress in South Koreans with data from the Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2015. [...] Read more.
This study used an isotemporal substitution (IS) model to determine the potential reallocation effects of sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) on subjective health and stress in South Koreans with data from the Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2015. The analysis included 791 participants whose accelerometer-measured PA was available, divided into three age groups (young adults = 151; mid-age adults = 334; older adults = 306). We adopted SB, light PA (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) to determine how time was allocated to each activity level, then examined the effects of reallocation on subjective health and stress across age groups. The analyses were performed in three steps: single-activity, partition, and IS model. An additional ANCOVA was conducted on statistically significant outcomes (i.e., subjective health of young and older adults). We found that among young adults, reallocating 30 min/week of SB to LPA and to MVPA was linked to high levels of subjective health. In older adults, reallocating 30 min/week of SB and LPA to MVPA was associated with high subjective health. However, this relationship was not observed in mid-age adults. None of the age groups showed a relationship between any activity reallocation and stress. Our findings provide the first insight on the development of interventions aimed at promoting active, healthier lifestyles on the basis of behavior reallocation in South Koreans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Exercise and Sports on Health)
Open AccessArticle
Relationship between School Backpacks and Musculoskeletal Pain in Children 8 to 10 Years of Age: An Observational, Cross-Sectional and Analytical Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2487; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072487 (registering DOI) - 05 Apr 2020
Abstract
Back pain in children is a reality and various factors are involved in its etiology. The study’s aim was to analyze the relationship between the use and type of backpack and pain in children. An analytical observational cross-sectional study was conducted among 123 [...] Read more.
Back pain in children is a reality and various factors are involved in its etiology. The study’s aim was to analyze the relationship between the use and type of backpack and pain in children. An analytical observational cross-sectional study was conducted among 123 schoolchildren between 8–10 years. Data on the participants’ weight and height and their backpacks were collected, as well as the way of travel to school and their physical activity during the week. The results indicated that all backpacks were large because the backpack’s height is longer than torso length. Participants who studied in a traditional educational system (62.60%) carried backpacks that exceeded 10% of their body weight. Additionally, 31.7% of the students presented pain. There is no significant correlation between the weight or type of backpack and the pressure pain threshold collected from shoulders muscles. Participants who carried backpacks heavier than 10% of their body weight did not have more musculoskeletal pain or a lower pressure pain threshold than the others, although they did report greater fatigue. All these topics should be debated considering the student’s social environment and the backpack’s discomfort to the children, even though no relationship was found between musculoskeletal pain and backpack weight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adolescent and Young People's Health Issues and Challenges)
Open AccessArticle
Unemployment Trajectories and the Early Risk of Disability Pension among Young People with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Nationwide Study in Sweden
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2486; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072486 (registering DOI) - 05 Apr 2020
Abstract
Depression and anxiety are associated with unemployment and disability pension, while autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is less studied. We aimed to first identify unemployment trajectories among young adults with and without ASD, and then to examine their social determinants. Finally, we used the [...] Read more.
Depression and anxiety are associated with unemployment and disability pension, while autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is less studied. We aimed to first identify unemployment trajectories among young adults with and without ASD, and then to examine their social determinants. Finally, we used the trajectories as determinants for subsequent disability pension. We used a population-based cohort, including 814 people who were 19–35 years old, not on disability pension, and who had their ASD diagnosis between 2001 and 2009. A matched reference population included 22,013 people with no record of mental disorders. Unemployment follow-up was the inclusion year and four years after. Disability pension follow-up started after the unemployment follow-up and continued through 2013. We identified three distinctive trajectories of unemployment during the follow-up: (1) low, then sharply increasing (9%,) (2) low (reference, 67%), and 3) high then slowly decreasing (24%). People with ASD had higher odds of belonging belong to the trajectory groups 1 (OR 2.53, 95% CI 2.02–3.18) and 3 (OR 3.60, 95% CI 3.08–4.19). However, the mean number of unemployment days was relatively low in all groups. A disability pension was a rare event in the cohort, although memberships to groups 1 and 3 were associated with the risk of a future disability pension. More knowledge is needed about factors facilitating participation in paid employment among people with ASD. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Humor Styles as New Resources in a Primary Preventive Perspective: Reducing Resistance to Change for Negotiation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2485; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072485 (registering DOI) - 05 Apr 2020
Abstract
Reducing resistance to change is fundamental to dealing with the rapid and continuous changes of the 21st century labor market. Personality traits have been widely studied in relation to resistance to change. However, personality is not completely suitable for primary prevention intervention, since [...] Read more.
Reducing resistance to change is fundamental to dealing with the rapid and continuous changes of the 21st century labor market. Personality traits have been widely studied in relation to resistance to change. However, personality is not completely suitable for primary prevention intervention, since it does not change over time. Instead, humor styles appear to be a promising preventive resource to facilitate the negotiation process by enabling individuals to cope with the current work environment. Using a sample of 149 university students, this study analyzed the relationship between personality traits, such as extraversion and emotionality, humor styles, and resistance to change. The mediation analysis highlighted that both affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles could promote integrative negotiations within organizations in relation to change, due to their negative relationships with resistance to change. Thus, implementing dedicated interventions to increase the usage of affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles could help in lowering the failure risk in negotiation processes, supporting changes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
‘Get a Fish’ vs. ‘Get a Fishing Skill’: Farmers’ Preferred Compensation Methods to Control Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2484; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072484 (registering DOI) - 05 Apr 2020
Abstract
Ecological compensation is an important means for controlling agricultural nonpoint source pollution, and compensation methods comprise an essential part of the compensation policy for mitigating this form of pollution. Farmers’ choice of compensation methods affects their response to compensation policies as well as [...] Read more.
Ecological compensation is an important means for controlling agricultural nonpoint source pollution, and compensation methods comprise an essential part of the compensation policy for mitigating this form of pollution. Farmers’ choice of compensation methods affects their response to compensation policies as well as the effects of pollution control and ecological compensation efficiency. This study divides ecological compensation methods into two distinct philosophies—the “get a fish” method (GFM) and “get a fishing skill” method (GFSM)—based on policy objectives, to determine farmers’ choice between the two methods and the factors influencing this choice. Furthermore, by analyzing survey data of 632 farmers in the Ankang and Hanzhong cities in China and using the multivariate probit model, the study determines farmers’ preferred option among four specific compensation modes of GFM and GFSM. The three main results are as follows. (1) The probability of farmers choosing GFM is 82%, while that of choosing GFSM is 51%. Therefore, GFM should receive more attention in compensation policies relating to agricultural nonpoint source pollution control. (2) Of the four compensation modes, the study finds a substitution effect between farmers’ choice of capital and technology compensations, capital and project compensations, material and project compensations, while there is a complementary relationship between the choice of material and technology compensations. Therefore, when constructing the compensation policy basket, attention should be given to achieving an organic combination of different compensation methods. (3) Highly educated, young, and male farmers with lower part-time employment, large cultivated land, and a high level of eco-friendly technology adoption and policy understanding are more likely to choose GFSM. Hence, the government should prioritize promoting GFSM for farmers with these characteristics, thereby creating a demonstration effect to encourage transition from GFM to GFSM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecology and the Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
Occupational Hazards and Risks Associated with Phthalates among Slovakian Firefighters
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2483; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072483 (registering DOI) - 05 Apr 2020
Abstract
Despite increasing attention to the occupational risk of firefighters, little is known about phthalate exposure. In our study, we detected mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-buthyl phthalate (MnBP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (5cx-MECPP), and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP) in each urine sample. We detected positive [...] Read more.
Despite increasing attention to the occupational risk of firefighters, little is known about phthalate exposure. In our study, we detected mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-buthyl phthalate (MnBP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (5cx-MECPP), and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP) in each urine sample. We detected positive association between MnBP, MiBP, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), 5OH-MEHP, 5oxo-MEHP, 5cx-MECPP, mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP), the sum of low (∑LMWP) and high molecular-weight phthalates (∑HMWP). and Tiffeneau–Pinelli index (the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1/ forced vital capacity; FEV1/FVC; p = 0.001−0.04) and the percent predicted value (%PV) of FEV1/FVC (p = 0.005−0.05) and negative association between MiNP and peak expiratory flow (PEF; r = −0.31; p = 0.084). We observed a positive association between phthalate metabolites (MnBP, 5OH-MEHP, 5oxo-MEHP, 5cx-MECPP, 2cx-MMHP, ∑LMWP, and ∑HMWP) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR; p = 0.003−0.09) and body shape index (ABSI; p = 0.039−0.09) and a negative association between MnBP, ∑LMWP, and hip circumference (p = 0.005−0.02). We detected association between concentrations of 5OH-MEHP, 5cx-MECPP, 5oxo-MEHP, and MnBP and consumption of food heating in plastic material in microwave (p = 0.02−0.04) and between probands who ate margarines and vegetable fat packed in plastic containers and concentration of MMP (p = 0.03). Results of multivariate regression indicated that exposure to phthalates could be linked with changing body structure, which subsequently affects values of pulmonary functions in firefighters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Occupational Safety and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles on the Chemical Speciation of Heavy Metals and Micronutrient Bioavailability in Paddy Soil
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2482; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072482 (registering DOI) - 05 Apr 2020
Abstract
The effects of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) on heavy metal fate and biotoxicity in farmland soil are mostly unknown. A flooding–drying simulation experiment was conducted to study the effects of three typical metal oxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs, ZnO-NPs and CuO-NPs) on the chemical [...] Read more.
The effects of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) on heavy metal fate and biotoxicity in farmland soil are mostly unknown. A flooding–drying simulation experiment was conducted to study the effects of three typical metal oxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs, ZnO-NPs and CuO-NPs) on the chemical speciation of heavy metals and micronutrient bioavailability in paddy soil. The results showed that the addition of ZnO-NPs and CuO-NPs caused significant increases in soil pH, Eh and EC after a 90-d flooding–drying process. ZnO-NPs and CuO-NPs addition caused clearly increase in the Zn and Cu concentrations in the acid-soluble fraction, Fe/Mn oxides-bound fraction and organic-bound fraction, leading to higher bioavailability in the soil. DTPA-extractable Zn and Cu increased to 184.6 mg kg−1 and 145.3 mg kg−1 in the maximum ZnO-NPs and CuO-NPs concentration treatments (500 mg kg−1). TiO2-NPs promoted the transformation of Mn from a Fe/Mn oxides-bound fraction to an acid-soluble fraction. Soil Cd bioavailability obviously decreased in the TiO2-NPs treatment but increased in the ZnO-NPs and CuO-NPs treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Behavior of Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Correlation Analysis of the Quality of Family Functioning and Subjective Quality of Life in Rehabilitation Patients Living with Schizophrenia in the Community
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2481; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072481 (registering DOI) - 05 Apr 2020
Abstract
Background: Recently, the community rehabilitation model for schizophrenia patients has become increasingly popular, and the Shanghai Pudong New Area has developed a relatively complete community rehabilitation model. This study analyzed the correlation between family function and subjective quality of life in the rehabilitation [...] Read more.
Background: Recently, the community rehabilitation model for schizophrenia patients has become increasingly popular, and the Shanghai Pudong New Area has developed a relatively complete community rehabilitation model. This study analyzed the correlation between family function and subjective quality of life in the rehabilitation of patients living with schizophrenia in the community. Methods: This study evaluated persons living with schizophrenia using the Family Assessment Device and the Subjective Quality of Life Scale. A convenient sampling method was used to select 281 rehabilitation patients living with schizophrenia in the community and 166 hospitalized persons living with schizophrenia. Results: There was a significant difference in the Family Assessment Device scores between rehabilitation patients living with schizophrenia in the community and hospitalized persons living with schizophrenia (p < 0.0001). The difference in the scores of the subjective quality of life assessment between rehabilitation patients living with schizophrenia in the community and hospitalized persons living with schizophrenia was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The regression analysis showed that quality of family function had a significant effect on the subjective quality of life in rehabilitation patients living with schizophrenia in the community and hospitalized persons living with schizophrenia. (F = 10.770 p < 0.001), (F = 2.960 p < 0.01). Conclusions: The quality of family function plays an important role in improving the subjective quality of life in rehabilitation patients living with schizophrenia in the community. It may be beneficial to add some methods to improve family function in the current model of rehabilitation in the community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
Open AccessArticle
Economic Crisis and Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Comparison Between Native and Immigrant Populations in a Specialised Centre in Granada, Spain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2480; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072480 (registering DOI) - 05 Apr 2020
Abstract
This study aimed to analyse the influence of the economic crisis on the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the immigrant population compared to the native population. A cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing 441 clinical records (329 Spanish nationals and 112 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to analyse the influence of the economic crisis on the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the immigrant population compared to the native population. A cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing 441 clinical records (329 Spanish nationals and 112 non-Spanish nationals) of individuals who, between 2000 and 2014, visited an STI clinic in Granada and tested positive for an infection. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed, and infection rates, odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The mean age was 28.06 years (SD = 8.30; range = 16–70). During the period 2000–2014, the risk of being diagnosed with an STI was higher among non-Spanish nationals than among Spanish nationals (odds ratio (OR) = 5.33; 95% CI = 4.78–6.60). Differences between both populations were less marked during the crisis period (2008–2014: OR = 2.73; 95% CI = 2.32–3.73) than during the non-crisis period (2000–2007: OR = 12.02; 95% CI = 10.33–16.17). This may be due to underreporting of diagnoses in the immigrant population. Immigrants visiting the STI clinic in Granada are especially vulnerable to positive STI diagnoses compared to the native population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Policies and Strategies in Sexual and Reproductive Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on the Influence of Social Capital on Farmers’ Participation in Rural Domestic Sewage Treatment in Nanjing, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2479; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072479 (registering DOI) - 05 Apr 2020
Abstract
Rural domestic sewage treatment is not only an important part of the renovation of rural human settlements, but also a major measure to revitalize those areas. In the absence of extensive participation by farmers, it is difficult to achieve desired results. From the [...] Read more.
Rural domestic sewage treatment is not only an important part of the renovation of rural human settlements, but also a major measure to revitalize those areas. In the absence of extensive participation by farmers, it is difficult to achieve desired results. From the theoretical analysis of the influence of social capital on farmers’ participation, and based on the survey data of farmers in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, this study used a logistic model to analyze the influence of social capital and personal, family, and awareness characteristics of farmers on their participation levels. Social capital plays a significant role in promoting farmers’ participation, and the contribution of its core variables is in the following order: social norms > social trust > social networks. Among the control variables, the need for domestic sewage treatment, participation in environmental training, educational level, and participation in a village cadre significantly enhance farmers’ participation levels. Consequently, promotion of rural domestic sewage treatment should include improvement of farmers’ social trust, social norms, and social networks, to enhance social capital. Publicity and education should be reinforced, and environmental training should be carried out to improve farmers’ awareness and sense of responsibility, leading them to active participation. Full article
Open AccessReview
Xerostomia and Aalivary Flow in Patients Taking Antihypertensive Drugs
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2478; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072478 (registering DOI) - 05 Apr 2020
Abstract
The aims of this systematic review are (1) to compare the prevalence of xerostomia and hyposalivation between patients taking antihypertensive drugs with a control group (CG), (2) to compare salivary flow rate between patients treated with a CG, and (3) to identify which [...] Read more.
The aims of this systematic review are (1) to compare the prevalence of xerostomia and hyposalivation between patients taking antihypertensive drugs with a control group (CG), (2) to compare salivary flow rate between patients treated with a CG, and (3) to identify which antihypertensives produce xerostomia. This systematic review was carried out according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. To evaluate methodological quality of the eligible studies Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing the risk of bias for clinical trials and the modified Newcastle–Ottawa scale case-control studies were used. The databases were searched for studies up to November 19th 2019. The search strategy yielded 6201 results and 13 publications were finally included (five clinical trials and eight case-control studies). The results of the included studies did not provide evidence to state that patients taking antihypertensives suffer more xerostomia or hyposalivation than patients not taking them. With regard to salivary flow, only two clinical studies showed a significant decrease in salivary flow and even one showed a significant increase after treatment. The case–control studies showed great variability in salivary flow, but in this case most studies showed how salivary flow is lower in patients medicated with antihypertensive drugs. The great variability of antihypertensive drugs included, the types of studies and the outcomes collected made it impossible to study which antihypertensive drug produces more salivary alterations. The quality assessment showed how each of the studies was of low methodological quality. Therefore, future studies about this topic are necessary to confirm whether antihypertensive drugs produce salivary alterations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Diseases and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of the Direct Participation of Workers on the Rates of Absenteeism in the Spanish Labor Environment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2477; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072477 (registering DOI) - 05 Apr 2020
Abstract
The aim of this research was to study the relationship between the different levels of direct participation of workers (passive, consultative or active-delegated) in risk prevention management with the levels of absenteeism in Spain. To this end, a transversal study was carried out [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to study the relationship between the different levels of direct participation of workers (passive, consultative or active-delegated) in risk prevention management with the levels of absenteeism in Spain. To this end, a transversal study was carried out using microdata from the Second European Survey of Companies on New and Emerging Risks (ESENER-2-Spain, 2014) with a master population of 3162 work centres. A multinomial logistic regression model was carried out, with the dependent variable being the levels of absenteeism and the independent variables, the participation indicators and preventive management, calculating the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) between all the independent and control variables, with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% IC). The results obtained showed how the active-delegative participation of workers in the design and adoption of psychosocial risk prevention measures reported 2.33 less probabilities of having a very high or fairly high level of absenteeism (aOR = 0.43; 95%IC:0.27–0.69). However, having documented aspects of preventive management (plan, risk assessment, planning measures) did not have any impact on absenteeism levels, which shows that we can fall into an unrealistic institutional mirage of security with active policies of co-education or co-management being necessary to reduce absenteeism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Interventions)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Red Arch-Support Insoles on Subjective Comfort and Movement Biomechanics in Various Landing Heights
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2476; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072476 (registering DOI) - 05 Apr 2020
Abstract
Red is perceived as a “winning color”, which may influence actual and perceived performances in sports, but little effort has been done to assess the added value on colored foot insoles in basketball movements. This study examined if colored foot insole would influence [...] Read more.
Red is perceived as a “winning color”, which may influence actual and perceived performances in sports, but little effort has been done to assess the added value on colored foot insoles in basketball movements. This study examined if colored foot insole would influence perceived comfort and lower extremity biomechanics during drop landing. Nineteen male basketball players performed drop landing trials with different insoles (red arch-support, white arch-support, and white-flat) and landing heights (0.45 and 0.61 m). Two-way (Insole x Height) ANOVAs with repeated measures were performed on each of the knee and ankle angles and moments variables. Wearing red arch-support insoles induced better perception of forefoot and rearfoot cushioning and overall comfort but smaller plantarflexion moment than the white-flat insoles (p < 0.05). Increased landing height was related to higher ground reaction loading, sagittal flexion angles, range of motion, and joint moments but smaller ankle eversion (p < 0.05). Findings indicate that foot insoles might have influenced comfort perception and joint kinetics, but not joint kinematics. The use of red color in foot insoles could potentially maximize the effectiveness of foot insoles in a way that alters comfort perception and motor control during landing, with implications for risk of injury. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Schisandra Chinensis Extract Supplementation on Quadriceps Muscle Strength and Fatigue in Adult Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2475; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072475 (registering DOI) - 04 Apr 2020
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Abstract
The fruit of Schisandra chinensis (SC) is a well-known traditional herb used for pharmacological purposes in Asian countries (e.g., Korea, China, and Japan). In animal studies, SC extract supplementation had beneficial effects on muscle strength and lactate level. However, the effect of SC [...] Read more.
The fruit of Schisandra chinensis (SC) is a well-known traditional herb used for pharmacological purposes in Asian countries (e.g., Korea, China, and Japan). In animal studies, SC extract supplementation had beneficial effects on muscle strength and lactate level. However, the effect of SC extract supplementation on skeletal muscle strength and lactate at rest in humans remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of SC extract supplementation on quadriceps muscle strength (QMS) and lactate at rest in adult women. Forty five healthy post-menopausal middle-aged women (61.9 ± 8.4 years) were randomly divided into the SC (n = 24) or the placebo group (n = 21). The SC group consumed 1000 mg of SC extract per day, whereas the placebo group consumed 1000 mg of starch per day for 12 weeks. The difference in muscle mass, physical function, and biomarkers and the relative changes between baseline and 12 weeks were evaluated. We used two-factor repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine interaction (group × time) effects for variables. Statistical significance was accepted at p < 0.05. In ANOVA results, QMS (p = 0.001) and lactate level (p = 0.038) showed significant interactions. With paired t-tests, QMS was significantly increased (p < 0.001) and lactate level at rest was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) after 12 weeks in the SC group. However, no interactions were found between the other variables. Supplementation of SC extract may help to improve QMS as well as decrease lactate level at rest in adult women. We believe that SC extract is a health supplement that can support healthy life in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Medicine in Health and Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Incidence of Respiratory Symptoms for Residents Living Near a Petrochemical Industrial Complex: A Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2474; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072474 (registering DOI) - 04 Apr 2020
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Abstract
The air pollution emitted by petrochemical industrial complexes (PICs) may affect the respiratory health of surrounding residents. Previous meta-analyses have indicated a higher risk of lung cancer mortality and incidence among residents near a PIC. Therefore, in this study, a meta-analysis was conducted [...] Read more.
The air pollution emitted by petrochemical industrial complexes (PICs) may affect the respiratory health of surrounding residents. Previous meta-analyses have indicated a higher risk of lung cancer mortality and incidence among residents near a PIC. Therefore, in this study, a meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the degree to which PIC exposure increases the risk of the development of nonmalignant respiratory symptoms among residents. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to systematically identify, select, and critically appraise relevant research. Finally, we identified 16 study groups reporting 5 types of respiratory symptoms: asthma, bronchitis, cough, rhinitis, and wheezing. We estimated pooled odds ratios (ORs) using random-effect models and investigated the robustness of pooled estimates in subgroup analyses by location, observation period, and age group. We determined that residential exposure to a PIC was significantly associated with a higher incidence of cough (OR = 1.35), wheezing (OR = 1.28), bronchitis (OR = 1.26), rhinitis (OR = 1.17), and asthma (OR = 1.15), although the latter two associations did not reach statistical significance. Subgroup analyses suggested that the association remained robust across different groups for cough and bronchitis. We identified high heterogeneity for asthma, rhinitis, and wheezing, which could be due to higher ORs in South America. Our meta-analysis indicates that residential exposure to a PIC is associated with an increased risk of nonmalignant respiratory symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
Open AccessArticle
Groundwater Potential Mapping Combining Artificial Neural Network and Real AdaBoost Ensemble Technique: The DakNong Province Case-study, Vietnam
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2473; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072473 (registering DOI) - 04 Apr 2020
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Abstract
: The main aim of this study is to assess groundwater potential of the DakNong province, Vietnam, using an advanced ensemble machine learning model (RABANN) that integrates Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) with RealAdaBoost (RAB) ensemble technique. For this study, twelve conditioning factors and [...] Read more.
: The main aim of this study is to assess groundwater potential of the DakNong province, Vietnam, using an advanced ensemble machine learning model (RABANN) that integrates Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) with RealAdaBoost (RAB) ensemble technique. For this study, twelve conditioning factors and wells yield data was used to create the training and testing datasets for the development and validation of the ensemble RABANN model. Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) and several statistical performance measures were used to validate and compare performance of the ensemble RABANN model with the single ANN model. Results of the model studies showed that both models performed well in the training phase of assessing groundwater potential (AUC ≥ 0.7), whereas the ensemble model (AUC = 0.776) outperformed the single ANN model (AUC = 0.699) in the validation phase. This demonstrated that the RAB ensemble technique was successful in improving the performance of the single ANN model. By making minor adjustment in the input data, the ensemble developed model can be adapted for groundwater potential mapping of other regions and countries toward more efficient water resource management. The present study would be helpful in improving the groundwater condition of the area thus in solving water borne disease related health problem of the population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Hydro-Ecology)
Open AccessArticle
An Evolutionary Game Model for the Multi-agent Co-Governance of Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Control under Intensive Management Pattern in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2472; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072472 (registering DOI) - 04 Apr 2020
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Abstract
This paper focuses on the sustainable development dilemma of agricultural production in China under the pattern of intensive management, which is seriously challenged by agricultural non-point source pollution. The key to effectively break through the dilemma is to promote the co-governance of agricultural [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the sustainable development dilemma of agricultural production in China under the pattern of intensive management, which is seriously challenged by agricultural non-point source pollution. The key to effectively break through the dilemma is to promote the co-governance of agricultural non-point source pollution control by stakeholders including local governments, new agricultural operators and traditional farmers. Accordingly, this paper discusses the interactive decision-making relationships between new agricultural operators and traditional farmers under the guidance of local governments, by constructing a trilateral evolutionary game model, as well as analyzing evolutionary cooperative stability strategies and realizing the simulation of evolution processes in different scenarios by MATLAB. The results show that new agricultural operators play a leading role in agricultural non-point source pollution control, whose strategies have effects such as technology spillover. The rewards from the superior government will support local governments in taking proactive action in the co-governance of agricultural non-point source pollution control, and then local governments can offer technical support and subsidies to new agricultural operators and traditional farmers for reducing their costs. Furthermore, this paper also finds that there are green synergy effects among the groups, where the variations of parameters and strategies by one group would affect the two others. Additionally, agricultural land operation rights transfers would cause traditional farmers to take more time to cooperate in the co-governance of agricultural non-point source pollution control. In order to promote the multi-agent co-governance of agricultural non-point source pollution control under intensive management pattern, this paper suggests that it should be necessary to reduce their costs and improve incentives, as well as to increase the common interests among groups and enhance their green synergy effects. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Marketing Approach to a Psychological Problem: Problematic Smartphone Use on Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2471; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072471 (registering DOI) - 04 Apr 2020
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Abstract
: Background: Smartphones have become an indispensable part of the daily lives of adolescents in the 21st century, which is characterized by a highly digitized modern world. Besides their many advantages, smartphones might pave the way to compulsive usage and addictive experiences. To [...] Read more.
: Background: Smartphones have become an indispensable part of the daily lives of adolescents in the 21st century, which is characterized by a highly digitized modern world. Besides their many advantages, smartphones might pave the way to compulsive usage and addictive experiences. To remedy this problem, this study proposes an authentic approach which integrates consumer behavior theories and techniques such as unhook and gamification. An education program has been designed based on these approaches to decrease the problematic smartphone use. Method: The participants of the education program consisted of 305 students (48.2% girls and 51.8% boys) with a mean age of 14.57 (SD = 0.74). The Demographic Form and Smartphone Addiction Scale for Adolescents (SASA) were conducted before the education program and three weeks after the education. Results: The results of the paired sample t-test analysis before and after the education program revealed that the SASA total scores decreased significantly (p < 0.01). There are significant differences in terms of gender, mothers’ education and class levels. Conclusion: This research emphasizes the role of an interdisciplinary approach to the addiction problem. The content used in the education program includes strategies that originally aimed at increasing consumption. The effectiveness of the program can be enhanced further in the future along with self-regulatory additions. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Multi-Objective Human Resource Allocation Approach for Sustainable Traffic Management
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2470; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072470 (registering DOI) - 04 Apr 2020
Viewed by 144
Abstract
Efficient human resource deployment is one of the key aspects of road traffic management for maintaining the lifelines of any metropolitan city. The problem becomes relevant when collaboration between human resources with different skills in day-to-day operations is necessary to maintain public and [...] Read more.
Efficient human resource deployment is one of the key aspects of road traffic management for maintaining the lifelines of any metropolitan city. The problem becomes relevant when collaboration between human resources with different skills in day-to-day operations is necessary to maintain public and commercial transport, manage various social events and emergency situations, and hence reduce congestion, injuries, emissions, etc. This study proposes a two-phase fuzzy multi-objective binary programming model for optimal allocation of five different categories of human resources to minimize the overall operational cost, maximize the allocation to accident-prone road segments, minimize the number of volunteer personnel and maximize the direct contact to reduce emissions and road traffic violations, simultaneously. A binary programming model is formulated to provide an efficient individual manpower allocation schedule for multiple road segments at different shifts. A case study is proposed for model evaluation and to derive managerial implications. The proposed model can be used to draw insights into human resource allocation planning in traffic management to reduce road traffic congestion, injuries and vehicular emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traffic Accident Control and Prevention)
Open AccessArticle
A Survey on Salt Content Labeling of the Processed Food Available in Malaysia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2469; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072469 (registering DOI) - 04 Apr 2020
Viewed by 128
Abstract
Salt content in processed foods is high, and it is usually used as preservatives, stabilizers, and color enhancers in the products. Increased consumption of processed foods in the modern world has contributed to a high salt intake and thus increased the prevalence of [...] Read more.
Salt content in processed foods is high, and it is usually used as preservatives, stabilizers, and color enhancers in the products. Increased consumption of processed foods in the modern world has contributed to a high salt intake and thus increased the prevalence of hypertension among Malaysian populations. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and compare salt content in processed food products available in supermarkets and determine the percentage of processed food products exceeding the reference value stated in International Product Criteria (2016). The percentage of processed food products without salt and sodium labeling was determined in this study, in which 76.5% of unlabeled processed food products were made in Malaysia, while 23.5% were imported products. The food group with the highest average salt content was gravy and sauce (3.97 g/100 g), followed by soup (2.95 g/100 g), cheese (2.14 g/100 g), meat (1.37 g/100 g), fish (1.25 g/100 g), chicken (1.20 g/100 g), vegetables (1.18 g/100 g), butter and margarine (1.13 g/100 g), breakfast cereal (0.94 g/100 g), savory snacks (0.90 g/100 g), flatbread (0.86 g/100 g), sweet snacks (0.30 g/100 g), and potato (0.29 g/100 g). In addition, 79.5% of butter and margarine products had an average salt content above the reference value stated in the International Product Criteria, followed by gravy and sauce (79.3%), vegetables (72%), soup (50%), fish (49.2%), breakfast cereal (41%), cheese (36.6%), potato (36%), savory and sweet snacks (29.1), meat (12.5%) and chicken products (2.3%). Most processed food products available in local supermarkets were high in salt content. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Association between Weight Status and Physical Fitness in Chinese Mainland Children and Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2468; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072468 (registering DOI) - 04 Apr 2020
Viewed by 137
Abstract
Background: The increasing prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents is a major public health challenge worldwide. This study examined the relationship between physical fitness and BMI spanning the range from underweight to obese among Chinese mainland children and adolescents. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: The increasing prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents is a major public health challenge worldwide. This study examined the relationship between physical fitness and BMI spanning the range from underweight to obese among Chinese mainland children and adolescents. Methods: Participants were 22,681 children and adolescents (11,300 boys and 11,381 girls) aged 10–18 years from the Chinese mainland. Weight status was classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese using WHO 2007 standards. Physical fitness parameters such as cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), lower body explosive strength (standing broad jump), upper body explosive strength (handgrip strength), abdominal muscular endurance (sit-ups in 30 s), flexibility (sit-and-reach), and agility (repeat bestride (20 s)) were assessed. Results: There was a significant association between weight status categories and physical fitness in all age groups and sex (plinear < 0.001, pquadratic < 0.001). Underweight adolescents performed better in lower limb strength, flexibility, agility, and cardiorespiratory fitness than their obese peers, but worse in upper limb strength. Underweight boys aged 10–11 and 12–13 years and girls aged 10–11 years showed significantly (p < 0.05) high odds of meeting a low physical fitness index. Obese adolescents have high odds of meeting a low physical fitness index with age. Conclusion: The present study showed a nonlinear relationship between weight status and physical fitness. Children and adolescents who were classified as underweight or obese had poorer physical fitness than their normal-weight peers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fitness, Physical Activity, and Health in Youth)
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Open AccessArticle
Classification System of the Sagittal Integral Morphotype in Children from the ISQUIOS Programme (Spain)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2467; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072467 (registering DOI) - 04 Apr 2020
Viewed by 153
Abstract
The sagittal spinal morphology presents 4 physiological curvatures that increase endurance to axial compression forces and allow adequate postural balance. These curves must remain within normal ranges to achieve a static and dynamic balance, a correct functioning of the muscles and an adequate [...] Read more.
The sagittal spinal morphology presents 4 physiological curvatures that increase endurance to axial compression forces and allow adequate postural balance. These curves must remain within normal ranges to achieve a static and dynamic balance, a correct functioning of the muscles and an adequate distribution of the loads, and thus minimize the injury risk. The purpose of this study was to categorize the sagittal spinal alignment according to the different morphotypes obtained for each curve in standing, slump sitting, and trunk forward bending positions in schoolchildren. It was a cross-sectional study. Sagittal spinal curvatures were assessed in 731 students from 16 elementary schools. In the sagittal standing position assessment, 70.45% and 89.06% of schoolchildren presented a “normal” morphotype for both dorsal and lumbar curves, respectively. After the application of the “Sagittal Integral Morphotype” protocol according to the morphotypes obtained in the three positions assessment (standing, slump sitting, and trunk forward bending), it was observed how the frequency of normal morphotypes for the dorsal and lumbar curve decreased considerably (only 32% and 6.6% of children obtained a “normal sagittal integral morphotype” for the thoracic and lumbar curvatures, respectively). These results show how it is necessary to include the slump sitting and trunk forward bending assessment as part of the protocol to define the “integral” sagittal alignment of the spine and establish a correct diagnosis. The use of the diagnostic classification presented in this study will allow early detection of misalignment not identified with the assessment of standing position. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
Open AccessArticle
Sources of Potentially Toxic Metals in Sediments of the Mussulo Lagoon (Angola) and Implications for Human Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2466; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072466 (registering DOI) - 04 Apr 2020
Viewed by 200
Abstract
The Mussulo lagoon is a coastal environment located near Luanda, one of the SW African cities that has been growing more rapidly during the last decades. Geochemical, mineralogical, and grain-size data obtained for the lagoon sediments are analyzed together, in order to establish [...] Read more.
The Mussulo lagoon is a coastal environment located near Luanda, one of the SW African cities that has been growing more rapidly during the last decades. Geochemical, mineralogical, and grain-size data obtained for the lagoon sediments are analyzed together, in order to establish the factors that control the distribution of some potentially toxic elements (PTEs). Sediments from northern location tend to be enriched in feldspar and, despite some variability in grain-size distributions, in fine-grained detrital minerals; southern lagoon sediments display very homogenous grain-size distribution and are enriched in minerals associated with salt precipitation (halite and gypsum). Multivariate statistics reveal a close link between some PTEs, namely Co, Hg, Ni, and Pb, for which an anthropogenic source can be postulated. On the other end, As seems to be associated with natural authigenic precipitation in southern lagoon sectors. Sediments enriched in clay also tend to yield more Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu, but it is unclear whether their sources are natural or anthropogenic. Hazard indexes calculated for children are higher than 1 for As and Co, indicating potential non-carcinogenic risk. For the other elements, and for adults, there is no potential carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Geology)
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Open AccessReply
Reply to Comment on Hardacker, C.T.; Baccellieri, A.; Mueller, E.R.; Brubaker, L.; Hutchins, G.; Zhang, J.L.Y.; Hebert-Beirne, J. Bladder Health Experiences, Perceptions and Knowledge of Sexual and Gender Minorities. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3170
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2458; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072458 (registering DOI) - 04 Apr 2020
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Abstract
We appreciate your comments and concerns about our manuscript in IJERPH on Bladder Health Experiences, Perceptions and Knowledge of Sexual and Gender Minorities [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bladder Health in Women)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Monopolar Dielectric Radiofrequency Signals on the Symptoms of Fibromyalgia: A Single-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2465; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072465 (registering DOI) - 03 Apr 2020
Viewed by 239
Abstract
Monopolar dielectric radiofrequency (MDR) is a non-invasive treatment for pain based on the local application of electromagnetic signals. The study’s goal was to analyze the effects of MDR on the symptoms of fibromyalgia. For this aim, a randomized controlled trial was conducted on [...] Read more.
Monopolar dielectric radiofrequency (MDR) is a non-invasive treatment for pain based on the local application of electromagnetic signals. The study’s goal was to analyze the effects of MDR on the symptoms of fibromyalgia. For this aim, a randomized controlled trial was conducted on 66 female participants (aged 47 17.7) diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Participants were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (n = 23), which received eight 20-minute sessions of MDR; a sham group, which received the same number of sessions of a sham MDR therapy (n = 22); or a control group (n = 21), which received usual care. The outcome variables included pain measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS), score on the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) and quality of life measured by the combined index of fibromyalgia severity (ICAF). A large effect size was observed for the local pain (R2 = 0.46), total ICAF (R2 = 0.42) and ICAF physical factor scores (R2 = 0.38). Significant mean differences were found for the local pain (p = 0.025) and ICAF physical factor (p = 0.031) scores of the experimental group in comparison with the sham group. No statistically significant differences between groups were found in HADS. In conclusion, MDR is more effective than either sham treatment or usual care in the short-term improvement of pain and the physical wellbeing of participants with fibromyalgia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sedentary Behaviour and Women’s Health)
Open AccessReview
Oncological-Therapy Related Oral Mucositis as an Interdisciplinary Problem—Literature Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2464; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072464 (registering DOI) - 03 Apr 2020
Viewed by 225
Abstract
Oral mucositis is a toxic side effect of non-surgical cancer treatments: chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which strongly impair quality of life and can not only cause strong pain, but also lead to problems with basic physiological needs as eating and swallowing. Development of oral [...] Read more.
Oral mucositis is a toxic side effect of non-surgical cancer treatments: chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which strongly impair quality of life and can not only cause strong pain, but also lead to problems with basic physiological needs as eating and swallowing. Development of oral mucositis is associated with type, dosage, and schedule of radiation or chemotherapy and other factors related to patients. Management of oral mucositis is a valid problem, requiring topical application of anesthetics, coating agents, cryotherapy, low level laser therapy, pharmacological methods as usage of keratinocyte growth factors, supplementation of vitamins, and a proper diet. Another approach to oral mucositis measurement includesphotobiomodulation, which brings analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.Although oral mucositis is a general health issues, the role of proper dental care is essential. It should include elimination of all potential sources of mucosal injury and microorganisms inhabiting theoral cavity through oral hygiene education,professional management ofdental plaque,and treatment of the caries and periodontium, which are necessary to reduce the risk of inflammation in the oral cavity. This paper describes the possibilities of monitoring oral mucositis,taking into account the latest therapeutic achievements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Health)
Open AccessReview
Smart and Regenerative Urban Growth: A Literature Network Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2463; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072463 (registering DOI) - 03 Apr 2020
Viewed by 223
Abstract
"Smart city", "sustainable city", "ubiquitous city", "smart sustainable city", "eco-city", "regenerative city" are fuzzy concepts; they are established to mitigate the negative impact on urban growth while achieving economic, social, and environmental sustainability. This study presents the result of the literature network analysis [...] Read more.
"Smart city", "sustainable city", "ubiquitous city", "smart sustainable city", "eco-city", "regenerative city" are fuzzy concepts; they are established to mitigate the negative impact on urban growth while achieving economic, social, and environmental sustainability. This study presents the result of the literature network analysis exploring the state of the art in the concepts of smart and regenerative urban growth under urban metabolism framework. Heat-maps of impact citations, cutting-edge research on the topic, tip-top ideas, concepts, and theories are highlighted and revealed through VOSviewer bibliometrics based on a selection of 1686 documents acquired from Web of Science, for a timespan between 2010 and 2019. This study discloses that urban growth is a complex phenomenon that covers social, economic, and environmental aspects, and the overlaps between them, leading to a diverse range of concepts on urban development. In regards to our concepts of interest, smart, and regenerative urban growth, we see that there is an absence of conceptual contiguity since both concepts have been approached on an individual basis. This fact unveils the need to adopt a more holistic and interdisciplinary approach to urban planning and design, integrating these concepts to improve the quality of life and public health in urban areas. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Sexually Transmitted Infection Knowledge among Older Adults: Psychometrics and Test–Retest Reliability
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2462; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072462 (registering DOI) - 03 Apr 2020
Viewed by 210
Abstract
Sexually transmitted infections (STI) among older adults have dramatically increased in recent years, especially among those who are widowed and divorced. The purposes of this study were to: (1) identify STI-related knowledge among older adults; (2) report the psychometric properties of a tool [...] Read more.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI) among older adults have dramatically increased in recent years, especially among those who are widowed and divorced. The purposes of this study were to: (1) identify STI-related knowledge among older adults; (2) report the psychometric properties of a tool commonly used to assess STI-related knowledge among younger populations using data from adults 65 years and older; and (3) determine test-retest reliability of the tool. Data were analyzed from 43 adults, aged 65–94 years, using the 27-item Sexually Transmitted Disease Knowledge Questionnaire (STD-KQ). Participants completed identical instruments on two separate days with approximately two weeks between. After responses were coded for correctness, composite scores were created. Cronbach’s reliability coefficients were calculated to determine response consistency, and Pearson’s r coefficients were used to assess test–retest reliability. Of 27 possible correct answers, participants reported an average of 11.47 (±6.88) correct responses on Day 1 and 11.67 (±7.33) correct responses on Day 2. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the 27-item composite scale were high for both days (0.905 and 0.917, respectively), which indicates strong response consistency. Pearson’s r coefficients were high between responses for the 27-item composite scale on Days 1 and 2 (r = 0.882, P < 0.01), which indicates strong test–retest reliability. Pearson’s r coefficients were high between responses for all but three of the 27 items when assessed separately. Findings suggest the utility of the STD-KQ to assess STI knowledge among older adults. However, the consistently low knowledge scores highlight the need for educational interventions among this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Aging and Public Health)
Open AccessReview
Biosensors in Occupational Safety and Health Management: A Narrative Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2461; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072461 (registering DOI) - 03 Apr 2020
Viewed by 231
Abstract
A sensor is a device used to gather information registered by some biological, physical or chemical change, and then convert the information into a measurable signal. The first biosensor prototype was conceived more than a century ago, in 1906, but a properly defined [...] Read more.
A sensor is a device used to gather information registered by some biological, physical or chemical change, and then convert the information into a measurable signal. The first biosensor prototype was conceived more than a century ago, in 1906, but a properly defined biosensor was only developed later in 1956. Some of them have reached the commercial stage and are routinely used in environmental and agricultural applications, and especially, in clinical laboratory and industrial analysis, mostly because it is an economical, simple and efficient instrument for the in situ detection of the bioavailability of a broad range of environmental pollutants. We propose a narrative review, that found 32 papers and aims to discuss the possible uses of biosensors, focusing on their use in the area of occupational safety and health (OSH). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Technology and Health)
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