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Special Issue "Advances in Community Nutrition and Physical Exercise"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Alejandro Martínez-Rodríguez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Science, University of Alicante, San Vicente del Raspeig (Alicante), 03690, Spain
Interests: sport science; nutrition and dietetics; health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Assoc. Prof. Thomas P. Gunnarsson
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Copenhagen Uninversity, 2100, Copenhagen, Denmark
Interests: sport science; health
Prof. Dr. Jacobo A. Rubio-Arias
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
LFE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, School of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences-INEF, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: women’s health; physical activity and health in postmenopausal women; active aging; physiology of the neuro-muscular system; exercise and physical activity; strength training; whole-body vibration training, sleep quality, and sarcopenia
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

For this Special Issue on “Advances in Community Nutrition and Physical Exercise”, we are interested in original research and all kinds of review articles studying or summarizing the effects and importance of nutrition and physical exercise on human health.  The focus lies on human studies, with basic science investigations only welcomed if they are part of a human/clinical study. The topics we are interested in are broad and include food, macronutrients or micronutrients and human health, the relationship between physical exercise and diet or nutrition and efforts to improve healthy eating, nutritional assessments of food and nutrient intakes, human obesity, nutrition in the different populations, and, of course, highly up-to-date topics like training, body composition, supplementation, and health.

We also welcome high-quality systematic reviews related to these matters. I would be very happy if this Special Issue serves as a trigger for considering more effective ways of community nutrition and physical exercise improvements in the future.

Prof. Dr. Alejandro Martínez Rodríguez
Prof. Dr. Thomas P. Gunnarson
Prof. Dr. Jacobo A. Rubio-Arias
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nutrition
  • Diet
  • Body composition
  • Supplements
  • Nutrients
  • Food
  • Eating disorders
  • Health promotion
  • Obesity
  • Exercise
  • Training

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Article
Mediterranean Diet Adherence, Body Composition and Performance in Beach Handball Players: A Cross Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 2837; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062837 - 10 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1139
Abstract
Background: Beach handball (BH) is a sport in which sporting performance is influenced, together with team interaction, by individual performance in terms of strength. Body composition is one of the main factors for sports performance and eating habits can condition this variable. The [...] Read more.
Background: Beach handball (BH) is a sport in which sporting performance is influenced, together with team interaction, by individual performance in terms of strength. Body composition is one of the main factors for sports performance and eating habits can condition this variable. The Mediterranean diet (MD) can significantly reduce the risk of mortality or cardiovascular disease. In addition, the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment carries out different campaigns to promote it among young athletes, establishing it as a suitable diet for sports. Objectives: The main aims of the study are to assess body composition, physical activity and adherence to the MD of beach handball players. It also aims to evaluate age group differences in male and female players, as well as studying the possible relationship between MD, body composition and performance variables. Methods: A total of 59 Spanish BH players were recruited in the national championship of BH in the province of Alicante. Thirty-eight male (14 junior; 17.0 ± 0.1 years and 24 seniors; 25.5 ± 4.7 years) and twenty-one female (7 junior; 16.1 ± 1.46 years and 14 seniors; 23.2 ± 2.0 years) BH players participated in this study. The questionnaire to evaluate eating habits was Mediterranean diet adherence (KIDMED). Body composition was measured with electrical bioimpedance. Strength was evaluated by means of a maximum isometric handgrip test of the dominant hand with handgrip and height of jump by counter-jump on contact platform. In the statistical analysis, descriptions and correlations between the study variables were made. Results: In females, when the adherence to the MD is lower, the weight is higher, the lean body mass is lower and worse results are observed in performance tests. As for males, there are differences in weight and lean body mass according to category. Conclusions: Adequate eating habits are related to the weight of beach handball athletes. In addition, specifically with junior players, it has been observed that adherence to the MD correlates with weight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Community Nutrition and Physical Exercise)
Article
Validation and Practical Applications of Performance in a 6-Min Rowing Test in the Danish Armed Forces
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1395; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041395 - 03 Feb 2021
Viewed by 946
Abstract
Personnel of the Danish Armed Forces must complete a yearly basic physical fitness test consisting of a Cooper’s 12-min run test (CRT) and four strength-related bodyweight exercises. However, there is no validated alternative to the CRT allowing injured or sailing personnel to conduct [...] Read more.
Personnel of the Danish Armed Forces must complete a yearly basic physical fitness test consisting of a Cooper’s 12-min run test (CRT) and four strength-related bodyweight exercises. However, there is no validated alternative to the CRT allowing injured or sailing personnel to conduct the yearly basic physical fitness test. Therefore, the aim of this study was to validate performance in a 6-min rowing ergometer test (6MRT) against CRT performance. Thirty-one individuals (M/F: 20/11, age: 34 ± 12 years) employed at the Danish Armed Forces completed testing on two independent days; (I) the CRT on an outdoor track and (II) a 6MRT with pulmonary measurements of breath-by-breath oxygen uptake. In addition, 5 participants (M/F: 4/1, age: 40 ± 10 years) completed re-testing of the 6MRT. No difference was observed between VO2max estimated from the CRT and measured during the 6MRT. Absolute VO2max correlated strongly (r = 0.95; p < 0.001) to performance in the 6MRT, and moderately (r = 0.80; p < 0.001) to performance in the CRT. Bodyweight (BW) and fat free mass (FFM) correlated stronger to performance in the 6MRT compared to the CRT. 6MRT re-testing yielded similar performance results. The 6MRT is a valid and reliable alternative to the CRT, allowing injured or sailing personnel of the Danish Armed Forces to complete the basic physical fitness test as required, albeit 6MRT performance demands must be made relative to bodyweight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Community Nutrition and Physical Exercise)
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Article
Assessment of Dietary Intake and Nutritional Status in CrossFit-Trained Individuals: A Descriptive Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4772; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134772 - 02 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2399
Abstract
CrossFit is a discipline with high training and nutritional requirements. To date, there is only scarce data evaluating nutrition among CrossFit training and they mostly focus on selected nutritional interventions. Therefore, the purpose of this descriptive study was the assessment of dietary intake [...] Read more.
CrossFit is a discipline with high training and nutritional requirements. To date, there is only scarce data evaluating nutrition among CrossFit training and they mostly focus on selected nutritional interventions. Therefore, the purpose of this descriptive study was the assessment of dietary intake and nutritional status in a selected group of CrossFit-trained participants. The study consisted of 62 CrossFit athletes (31 men and 31 women, aged 31.0 ± 5.2 and 30.0 ± 4.3 years, respectively). Body composition was analyzed by electrical bioimpedance. Dietary intake was assessed using a standardized 3-day food record. Body fat percentage for females and males was 20.3 ± 4.3% and 13.7 ± 3.3% respectively. The energy intake in the diet was lower (~1700 kcal in women and ~2300 kcal in men) than the recommended demand. Moreover, low consumption of carbohydrates was stated, as well as an inadequate intake of folate, vitamin E (in women), and minerals, such as Fe and Ca (in women). The energy, carbohydrate, iron, and calcium intake in the CrossFit participants’ diet was too low in comparison to recommendations. It seems justified to educate athletes and coaches about nutritional habits, and individual energy and nutrients requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Community Nutrition and Physical Exercise)
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Article
No Significant Differences in Muscle Growth and Strength Development When Consuming Soy and Whey Protein Supplements Matched for Leucine Following a 12 Week Resistance Training Program in Men and Women: A Randomized Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3871; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113871 - 29 May 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3098
Abstract
There are conflicting reports regarding the efficacy of plant versus animal-derived protein to support muscle and strength development with resistance training. The purpose of this study was to determine whether soy and whey protein supplements matched for leucine would comparably support strength increases [...] Read more.
There are conflicting reports regarding the efficacy of plant versus animal-derived protein to support muscle and strength development with resistance training. The purpose of this study was to determine whether soy and whey protein supplements matched for leucine would comparably support strength increases and muscle growth following 12 weeks of resistance training. Sixty-one untrained young men (n = 19) and women (n = 42) (18–35 year) enrolled in this study, and 48 completed the trial (17 men, 31 women). All participants engaged in supervised resistance training 3×/week and consumed 19 grams of whey protein isolate or 26 grams of soy protein isolate, both containing 2 g (grams) of leucine. Multi-level modeling indicated that total body mass (0.68 kg; 95% CI: 0.08, 1.29 kg; p < 0.001), lean body mass (1.54 kg; 95% CI: 0.94, 2.15 kg; p < 0.001), and peak torque of leg extensors (40.27 Nm; 95% CI: 28.98, 51.57 Nm, p < 0.001) and flexors (20.44 Nm; 95% CI: 12.10, 28.79 Nm; p < 0.001) increased in both groups. Vastus lateralis muscle thickness tended to increase, but this did not reach statistical significance (0.12 cm; 95% CI: −0.01, 0.26 cm; p = 0.08). No differences between groups were observed (p > 0.05). These data indicate that increases in lean mass and strength in untrained participants are comparable when strength training and supplementing with soy or whey matched for leucine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Community Nutrition and Physical Exercise)
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Article
Effects of Combined Resistance and Power Training on Cognitive Function in Older Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3435; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103435 - 14 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2013
Abstract
The present study compared the effects of traditional resistance training (TRT) and combined power training (PT) and TRT (PTRT) on cognitive parameters and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in non-demented, well-functioning, community-dwelling older women. Forty-five older women were randomized into one of [...] Read more.
The present study compared the effects of traditional resistance training (TRT) and combined power training (PT) and TRT (PTRT) on cognitive parameters and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in non-demented, well-functioning, community-dwelling older women. Forty-five older women were randomized into one of three experimental groups: TRT, PTRT, and control group (CG). Cognitive tests explored global cognitive function, short-term memory, and dual-task performance. Serum BDNF levels were assessed at baseline and after the intervention. Exercise sessions were performed twice a week over 22 weeks. In TRT, exercise sessions were based on three sets of 8–10 repetitions at “difficult” intensity. In PTRT, the first session was based on PT (three sets of 8−10 repetitions at “moderate” intensity), while the second session was similar to the TRT. Our analyses indicated that overall cognitive function, short-term memory, and dual-task performance were similarly improved after TRT and PTRT. Serum BDNF concentrations were not altered by any training protocol. In conclusion, the two RT programs tested in the present trial improved global cognitive function, short-term memory and dual task performance in non-demented, well-functioning, community-dwelling older women. In addition, our findings suggest that mechanisms other than BDNF may be associated with such improvements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Community Nutrition and Physical Exercise)
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Article
Relationship between Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Body Composition with Physical Fitness Parameters in a Young Active Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3337; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093337 - 11 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1352
Abstract
The current study aimed at analyzing the relationship between body composition, adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD), and physical fitness (PF) in a young active population. A total of 1198 athletes (boys = 875; girls = 323) enrolled in different municipal sports schools [...] Read more.
The current study aimed at analyzing the relationship between body composition, adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD), and physical fitness (PF) in a young active population. A total of 1198 athletes (boys = 875; girls = 323) enrolled in different municipal sports schools participated in this study. Data on adherence to the MD (KIDMED questionnaire), anthropometric measurements, and PF (20 m shuttle run test, handgrip strength, vertical jump and forced spirometry) were collected. Results show that the pubertal boys had a higher score in the KIDMED test than the prepubertal ones (+0.38, p = 0.28). Moreover, boys with better adherence to the MD had significantly higher results in handgrip strength (+12.20 regarding low MD group and +9.13 regarding medium MD group, p < 0.05), as well as in forced vital capacity (FVC) (+0.66 regarding low MD group and 0.29 regarding medium MD group, p < 0.05). No differences were found in the girls. Finally, the result of the KIDMED test is a variable with a positive and significant relationship with cardiorespiratory fitness, along with the FVC, percentage of fat mass, and performance in the vertical jump (p < 0.05). It is concluded that adherence to the MD could show a relationship with various PF variables in boys and could be a predictor of cardiorespiratory fitness in both cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Community Nutrition and Physical Exercise)
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Article
Strength plus Endurance Training and Individualized Diet Reduce Fat Mass in Overweight Subjects: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2596; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072596 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2525
Abstract
Studies with overweight people are a priority in order to observe the effect of the timing of intervention on pre-obesity people. The aim was to compare different physical activity programs plus an individualized hypocaloric diet on body composition in overweight subjects. A randomized [...] Read more.
Studies with overweight people are a priority in order to observe the effect of the timing of intervention on pre-obesity people. The aim was to compare different physical activity programs plus an individualized hypocaloric diet on body composition in overweight subjects. A randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out in overweight adults with no history of relevant illness. Primary outcome was total fat mass (TFM). Participants were allocated into four activity programs with equal intensity and volume of exercise for 22 weeks: strength training (S), endurance training (E), strength + endurance training (SE), and ‘adhering to physical activity recommendations’ (C). Participants followed a diet with 25% less energy (50%–55% carbohydrates, 30%–35% fat) measured by accelerometer. Variables were assessed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. One hundred nineteen from 205 subjects were randomized in the four exercise groups (S = 30/E = 30/SE = 30/C = 29) and 84 participants (36 men/48 women) ended the intervention (S = 19/E = 25/SE = 22/C = 18). At the end of the experiment, all groups except C increased their total physical activity (S = 1159 ± 1740; E = 1625 ± 1790; SE = 1699 ± 2516; C = 724 ± 1979 MET-min/week). Using an ANOVA-test, improvements were observed in body weight (S = −4.6 ± 4.5; E = −6.6 ± 4.6; SE = −8.5 ± 2.8; C = −6.1 ± 5.6 kg, p = 0.059) and TFM (S = −4.24 ± 2.02; E = −4.74 ± 2.96; SE = −6.74 ± 3.27; C = −3.94 ± 4.18%; p < 0.05). The main conclusion was that there were no adverse events. Strength and endurance training with a balanced, individualized hypocaloric diet was the most effective at reducing weight loss and fat mass in overweight subjects. Trial registration: NCT01116856. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Community Nutrition and Physical Exercise)
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Review

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Review
A Review Study of a Green Diet and Healthy Ageing
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8024; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18158024 - 29 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1008
Abstract
Nowadays people are living longer, and there has been a substantial growth in the global elderly population in the past decades. While life expectancy is increasing, there are growing concerns towards the heavy financial and social burdens related to chronic diseases among the [...] Read more.
Nowadays people are living longer, and there has been a substantial growth in the global elderly population in the past decades. While life expectancy is increasing, there are growing concerns towards the heavy financial and social burdens related to chronic diseases among the elderly. These have been critical health care issues, and healthy ageing is considered a top priority in public health. Diet and eating habits are crucial factors contributing to healthy ageing. These important aspects have attracted much attention in health research, particularly in consideration of the causes and management of chronic conditions which affect most elder adults in the world. Recently, a growing number of investigations have reported significant findings on the association of reduction in the risks of chronic non-communicable diseases with plant-based diets. Meanwhile, there have been worldwide initiatives and programmes implemented for reduction of salt intake. A green diet, which emphasises the consumption of a diet rich in plant foods with minimal portions of red or processed meat and reduced salt intake, is advocated with due consideration to the importance of sustainable environment and healthy ageing. This paper highlights a brief review of the recent advance of knowledge in diet and health, its effects on the elderly and the significance of a green diet on healthy ageing. Implications for a green diet and recommendations for future research are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Community Nutrition and Physical Exercise)
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Review
Effect of Supplements on Endurance Exercise in the Older Population: Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145224 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1318
Abstract
Background: Ageing is associated with changes of physical and physiological parameters, but there is evidence that regular physical activity could minimize these effects. Additionally, the older population presents a great risk of suboptimal nutrition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review [...] Read more.
Background: Ageing is associated with changes of physical and physiological parameters, but there is evidence that regular physical activity could minimize these effects. Additionally, the older population presents a great risk of suboptimal nutrition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review the evidence of nutritional strategies and endurance exercises in the older population. Methods: A systematic review was performed based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. The search was carried out in three different databases: PubMed, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus. Results: Eight studies were included in the present review. The use of caffeine and beta-alanine supplementation with proteins have been found to be beneficial in both sexes. In older women, a balanced diet, an increase in protein, supplementation with beta hydroxy methyl butyrate, and supplementation with sodium bicarbonate have been favorable. However, no benefit has been seen in older men with sodium bicarbonate or ubiquinone supplementation. Nevertheless, the use of supplements should be prescribed according to individual characteristics and physical activity. Conclusions: Caffeine and high protein supplement with beta-alanine may provide positive effects in the older population. In addition, in older women, bicarbonate supplementation and beta-hydroxyethyl butyrate (HMB), lysine, and arginine supplementation have shown positive effects on exercise performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Community Nutrition and Physical Exercise)
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Review
Nutrition-Related Adverse Outcomes in Endurance Sports Competitions: A Review of Incidence and Practical Recommendations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 4082; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114082 - 08 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1712
Abstract
During the last few years, the numbers of competitors in endurance and ultra-endurance sports modalities have increased significantly. This type of competition is an extreme challenge for athletes. Therefore, they have an increased the risk of developing medical and nutritional problems. The aim [...] Read more.
During the last few years, the numbers of competitors in endurance and ultra-endurance sports modalities have increased significantly. This type of competition is an extreme challenge for athletes. Therefore, they have an increased the risk of developing medical and nutritional problems. The aim of the work is to estimate the incidence of nutrition-related adverse outcomes in endurance and ultra-endurance sports, considering the variables that influence them. A critical review was carried out based on the PubMed database, by means of a search strategy based on keywords separated by Boolean connectors. For all the results obtained in a period from 2008 to 2019, a series of inclusion/exclusion criteria was applied to select only the studies that fitted the objective of the present study. Results and discussion: Of the 871 publications identified, 33 met the inclusion criteria. The adverse outcomes found included exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH), heat stroke by exertion (EHS), gastrointestinal (GI) problems, dehydration, and hypothermia; the provision of misinformation to athletes about nutrient intake and hydration during competition was identified as the main cause. Conclusions: The main adverse outcomes in endurance and ultra-endurance sports modalities are EAH, GI inconveniences, and EHS. These problems can affect the performance and health status of the athlete during and post-competition. Several nutritional guidelines have been suggested that can prevent these adverse outcomes, and it is essential to individualize and adjust the nutritional intake and hydration status according to the characteristics of each competition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Community Nutrition and Physical Exercise)
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Other

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Brief Report
Indoor Cycling Energy Expenditure: Does Sequence Matter?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18030870 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1021
Abstract
Although cycling class intensity can be modified by changing interval intensity sequencing, it has not been established whether the intensity order can alter physiological and perceptual responses. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effects of interval intensity sequencing on energy expenditure (EE), [...] Read more.
Although cycling class intensity can be modified by changing interval intensity sequencing, it has not been established whether the intensity order can alter physiological and perceptual responses. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effects of interval intensity sequencing on energy expenditure (EE), physiological markers, and perceptual responses during indoor cycling. Healthy volunteers (10 males = 20.0 ± 0.8years; 8 females = 21.3 ± 2.7years) completed three randomly ordered interval bouts (mixed pyramid—MP, ascending intervals—AI, descending intervals—DI) including three 3-min work bouts at 50%, 75%, and 100% of peak power output (PPO) and three 3-min recovery periods at 25% PPO. Heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) were expressed as percentages of maximal HR (%HRmax) and VO2 (%VO2max). EE was computed for both the work bout and for the 5-min recovery period. Session Rating of Perceived Exertion (sRPE) and Exercise Enjoyment Scale (EES) were recorded. No differences emerged for % HRmax (MP = 73.3 ± 6.1%; AI = 72.1 ± 4.9%; DI = 71.8 ± 4.5%), % VO2max (MP = 51.8 ± 4.6%; AI = 51.4 ± 3.9%; DI = 51.3 ± 4.5%), EE (MP = 277.5 ± 39.9 kcal; AI = 275.8 ± 39.4 kcal; DI = 274.9 ± 42.1 kcal), EES (MP = 4.9 ± 1.0; AI = 5.3 ± 1.1; DI = 4.9 ± 0.9), and sRPE (MP = 4.9 ± 1.0; AI = 5.3 ± 1.1; DI = 4.9 ± 0.9). EE during recovery was significantly (p < 0.005) lower after DI (11.9 ± 3.2 kcal) with respect to MP (13.2 ± 2.5 kcal) and AI (13.3 ± 2.5 kcal). Although lower EE was observed during recovery in DI, interval intensity sequencing does not affect overall EE, physiological markers, and perceptual responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Community Nutrition and Physical Exercise)
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