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Strength plus Endurance Training and Individualized Diet Reduce Fat Mass in Overweight Subjects: A Randomized Clinical Trial

1
LFE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Science-INEF, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Department of Nutrition, Hospital La Paz Health Research Institute (IdiPAZ), La Paz University Hospital, 28046 Madrid, Spain
3
Laboratory of Pediatrics, Department of Medical and Surgery Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cantabria, Marqués de Valdecilla Biomedical Research Institute (IDIVAL), 39011 Santander, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
PJB and BLP contributed equally to this work.
Membership of the PRONAF Study Group is provided in the Funding.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2596; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072596
Received: 21 March 2020 / Revised: 4 April 2020 / Accepted: 6 April 2020 / Published: 10 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Community Nutrition and Physical Exercise)
Studies with overweight people are a priority in order to observe the effect of the timing of intervention on pre-obesity people. The aim was to compare different physical activity programs plus an individualized hypocaloric diet on body composition in overweight subjects. A randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out in overweight adults with no history of relevant illness. Primary outcome was total fat mass (TFM). Participants were allocated into four activity programs with equal intensity and volume of exercise for 22 weeks: strength training (S), endurance training (E), strength + endurance training (SE), and ‘adhering to physical activity recommendations’ (C). Participants followed a diet with 25% less energy (50%–55% carbohydrates, 30%–35% fat) measured by accelerometer. Variables were assessed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. One hundred nineteen from 205 subjects were randomized in the four exercise groups (S = 30/E = 30/SE = 30/C = 29) and 84 participants (36 men/48 women) ended the intervention (S = 19/E = 25/SE = 22/C = 18). At the end of the experiment, all groups except C increased their total physical activity (S = 1159 ± 1740; E = 1625 ± 1790; SE = 1699 ± 2516; C = 724 ± 1979 MET-min/week). Using an ANOVA-test, improvements were observed in body weight (S = −4.6 ± 4.5; E = −6.6 ± 4.6; SE = −8.5 ± 2.8; C = −6.1 ± 5.6 kg, p = 0.059) and TFM (S = −4.24 ± 2.02; E = −4.74 ± 2.96; SE = −6.74 ± 3.27; C = −3.94 ± 4.18%; p < 0.05). The main conclusion was that there were no adverse events. Strength and endurance training with a balanced, individualized hypocaloric diet was the most effective at reducing weight loss and fat mass in overweight subjects. Trial registration: NCT01116856. View Full-Text
Keywords: physical activity; endurance training; strength training; dietary modification; body composition physical activity; endurance training; strength training; dietary modification; body composition
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Benito, P.J.; López-Plaza, B.; Bermejo, L.M.; Peinado, A.B.; Cupeiro, R.; Butragueño, J.; Rojo-Tirado, M.A.; González-Lamuño, D.; Gómez-Candela, C.; on behalf of the PRONAF Study Group. Strength plus Endurance Training and Individualized Diet Reduce Fat Mass in Overweight Subjects: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2596.

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