Next Article in Journal
Effects of Using Immersive Media on the Effectiveness of Training to Prevent Ergonomics Risks
Previous Article in Journal
The Role of Green Building Materials in Reducing Environmental and Human Health Impacts
Article

Census Demographics and Chlorpyrifos Use in California’s Central Valley, 2011–15: A Distributional Environmental Justice Analysis

Data Science Initiative, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Current address: University of California, Merced, CA 95343, USA.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2593; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072593
Received: 13 March 2020 / Revised: 3 April 2020 / Accepted: 6 April 2020 / Published: 10 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Public Health Statistics and Risk Assessment)
Chlorpyrifos, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (ACI), is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world, and is generally recognized to be a moderate human neurotoxin. This paper reports a distributional environmental justice (dEJ) analysis of chlorpyrifos use in California’s Central Valley, examining the way distributions of environmental risks are associated with race, ethnicity, class, gender, and other systems of structural oppression. Spatial data on chlorpyrifos use were retrieved from California’s Department of Pesticide Registration public pesticide use records for 2011–2015. These data were combined with demographic data for the Central Valley from the American Community Survey (ACS). Spatial regression models were used to estimate effects of demographic covariates on local chlorpyrifos use. A novel bootstrap method was used to account for measurement error in the ACS estimates. This study finds consistent evidence that Hispanic population proportion is associated with increased local chlorpyrifos use. A 10-point increase in Hispanic proportion is associated with an estimated 1.05–1.4-fold increase in local chlorpyrifos use across Census tract models. By contrast, effects of agricultural employment and poverty on local chlorpyrifos use are ambiguous and inconsistent between Census tracts and Census-designated places. View Full-Text
Keywords: pesticides; chlorpyrifos; environmental justice; California; spatial regression; public data pesticides; chlorpyrifos; environmental justice; California; spatial regression; public data
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Hicks, D.J. Census Demographics and Chlorpyrifos Use in California’s Central Valley, 2011–15: A Distributional Environmental Justice Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2593. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072593

AMA Style

Hicks DJ. Census Demographics and Chlorpyrifos Use in California’s Central Valley, 2011–15: A Distributional Environmental Justice Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(7):2593. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072593

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hicks, Daniel J. 2020. "Census Demographics and Chlorpyrifos Use in California’s Central Valley, 2011–15: A Distributional Environmental Justice Analysis" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 7: 2593. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072593

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop