Special Issue "Occupational Health Psychology"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Occupational Safety and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 July 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Nicholas J. Beutell
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Management, Business Administration & Health Care Management, LaPenta School of Business, Iona College, New Rochelle, NY, USA
Interests: wellbeing; self-rated health; mental health; work-family interaction; ageing; retirement; small business; entrepreneurship
Prof. Dr. Xinyuan (Roy) Zhao
Website
Guest Editor
Business School, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China
Interests: work-family conflict; family friendly organization culture; flexible employment; job crafting

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The fact that an individual’s boss has a greater impact on their health than their primary care physician is revealing. The psychological and health consequences of work permeate all levels of society, from individual employees, teams, families, communities, to entire countries. The pervasive influence of work and occupational engagement on adjustment, adaptation, health symptoms, family life, economic productivity, and wellbeing is more widely recognized and appreciated as new research emerges. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health seeks to extend research in the exciting domain of occupational health psychology.

Organizations are changing in this volatile and uncertain world. So is the nature of work, the relationship between work and other life areas, and the consequences for worker and organizational psychological health. The erosion of top–down organizational structures that emerged from the Industrial Revolution has created new opportunities and threats. New forms of work such as job crafting, the impact of technology, automation, and emergence of the ‘robotic’ workforce have created new horizons but also valid concerns for employees regarding job security and economic wellbeing. The impact of such changes on occupational health psychology requires additional investigation.

Contributions from a variety of theoretical perspectives on occupational health psychology are encouraged, including empirical research, review articles, and studies of health-related interventions in organizations. This Special Issue takes a broad look at the field, including but not limited to job-related stress and burnout, health consequences of job loss, abusive supervision, economic and financial insecurity, substance abuse, bullying, job demands and resources, health impairment and promotion processes, and demographic factors (gender, aging workforce, immigrants, generational groups).

In addition, other areas of interest include job satisfaction, life satisfaction, happiness, wellbeing, thriving, withdrawal behaviors (absenteeism, turnover intentions), coping behavior, commuting time, performance and productivity, workplace violence and terrorism, work-family conflict and synergy, depression, mental health, and self-rated health.

Prof. Nicholas J. Beutell
Prof. Xinyuan (Roy) Zhao
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • health psychology
  • stress and burnout
  • job loss
  • health impairment
  • health promotion
  • mental health
  • wellbeing
  • job demands/resources
  • work-family interaction
  • self-rated health

Published Papers (50 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Unplanned Absenteeism: The Role of Workplace and Non-Workplace Stressors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6132; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176132 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Unplanned absenteeism (UA), which includes medically certified leave (MC) or emergency leave (EL), among nurses may disturb the work performance of their team and disrupt the quality of patient care. Currently, there is limited study in Malaysia that examines the role of stressors [...] Read more.
Unplanned absenteeism (UA), which includes medically certified leave (MC) or emergency leave (EL), among nurses may disturb the work performance of their team and disrupt the quality of patient care. Currently, there is limited study in Malaysia that examines the role of stressors in determining absenteeism among nurses. Therefore, apart from estimating the prevalence and the reasons of UA among nurses in Malaysia, this study aims to determine its stressor-related determinants. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 697 randomly sampled nurses working in Selangor, Malaysia. Most of them were female (97.3%), married (83.4%), and working in shifts (64.4%) in hospital settings (64.3%). In the past year, the prevalence of ever taking MC and EL were 49.1% and 48.4%, respectively. The mean frequency of MC and EL were 1.80 (SD = 1.593) and 1.92 (SD = 1.272) times, respectively. Meanwhile, the mean duration of MC and EL were 4.24 (SD = 10.355) and 2.39 (SD = 1.966) days, respectively. The most common reason for MC and EL was unspecified fever (39.2%) and child sickness (51.9%), respectively. The stressor-related determinants of durations of MC were inadequate preparation at the workplace (Adj.b = −1.065) and conflict with doctors (adjusted regression coefficient (Adj.b) = 0.491). On the other hand, the stressor-related determinants of durations of EL were conflict with spouse (Adj.b = 0.536), sexual conflict (Adj.b = −0.435), no babysitter (Adj.b = 0.440), inadequate preparation at workplace (Adj.b = 0.257), lack of staff support (Adj.b = −0.190) and conflict with doctors (Adj.b = −0.112). The stressor-related determinants of the frequency of MC were conflicts over household tasks (Adj.b = −0.261), no time with family (Adj.b = 0.257), dangerous surroundings (Adj.b = 0.734), conflict with close friends (Adj.b = −0.467), and death and dying (Adj.b = 0.051). In contrast, the stressor-related determinants of frequency of EL were not enough money (Adj.b = −0.334), conflicts with spouse (Adj.b = 0.383), pressure from relatives (Adj.b = 0.207), and inadequate preparation (Adj.b = 0.090). In conclusion, apart from the considerably high prevalence of unplanned absenteeism and its varying frequency, duration and reasons, there is no clear distinction in the role between workplace and non-workplace stressors in determining MC or EL among nurses in Malaysia; thus, preventive measures that target both type of stressors are warranted. Future studies should consider longitudinal design and mixed-method approaches using a comprehensive model of absenteeism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
The Moderated-Mediation Effect of Workplace Anxiety and Regulatory Focus in the Relationship between Work-Related Identity Discrepancy and Employee Innovation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6121; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176121 - 23 Aug 2020
Abstract
Extant research on work-related identity discrepancy mostly has probed its effects on employees’ attitudes and emotions but has paid little attention to its impact on employee behaviors. Drawing on self-discrepancy theory, we examined the influencing mechanism and conditions of work-related identity discrepancy on [...] Read more.
Extant research on work-related identity discrepancy mostly has probed its effects on employees’ attitudes and emotions but has paid little attention to its impact on employee behaviors. Drawing on self-discrepancy theory, we examined the influencing mechanism and conditions of work-related identity discrepancy on employee innovation behavior. With data collected from 563 employees who personally experienced leadership transition in the workplace, we found that work-related identity discrepancy predicts employee innovation behavior through workplace anxiety. We also discovered that employees’ personality traits—promotion regulatory focus and prevention regulatory focus in particular—can intensify or buffer the negative relationship between work-related identity discrepancy and employee innovation behavior. We further discuss the conceptual and practical implications of these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Wellbeing in Nongovernmental Organizations’ Workplace in a Developed Area Context
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5818; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165818 - 11 Aug 2020
Abstract
An extremely useful theoretical approach to understanding the nature of work, health, and wellbeing is the job demand–control (JDC) model and the job demand–control–support (JDCS) model. In order for professional workers in the nongovernmental organization (NGO) sector to do their job, it is [...] Read more.
An extremely useful theoretical approach to understanding the nature of work, health, and wellbeing is the job demand–control (JDC) model and the job demand–control–support (JDCS) model. In order for professional workers in the nongovernmental organization (NGO) sector to do their job, it is necessary for them to have a feeling of wellbeing. Despite this, in Europe, studies regarding the effects of the JDCS model in relation to workers’ wellbeing have not been carried out. This study is expected to fill this important gap in research by analyzing the relationship of wellbeing with work demands, work control, and social support. In order to corroborate the proposed hypotheses, an analysis of these constructs in employees in European nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) was developed and, using structural equation models, these relationships were tested. The results confirm the main hypothesis of the job demand–control–support (JDCS) model and the causal relationship among physical and psychological demands, work control, and support from supervisors and colleagues with the level of employee wellbeing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Daily Empowering Leadership and Job Crafting: Examining Moderators
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5756; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165756 - 09 Aug 2020
Abstract
In this study, we built and tested a contingency model linking leader daily empowering behaviors with employee daily job crafting. Drawing on the contingency leadership literature and the model of proactive motivation, we theorized employee daily work meaning and vigor as moderators of [...] Read more.
In this study, we built and tested a contingency model linking leader daily empowering behaviors with employee daily job crafting. Drawing on the contingency leadership literature and the model of proactive motivation, we theorized employee daily work meaning and vigor as moderators of the above relationships. Daily data were collected from 103 Chinese employees for five consecutive days. Our findings suggest that leader dayT (a certain day) empowering behaviors are more strongly related to employee dayT+1 (next day after the certain day) job crafting when employee dayT work meaning is low and employee dayT+1 vigor is high. Our findings suggest that only under certain conditions can empowering leadership promote employee job crafting on a daily basis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Work-Related Identity Discrepancy and Counterproductive Work Behavior: The Role of Emotional Exhaustion and Supervisor Incivility
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5747; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165747 - 09 Aug 2020
Abstract
This research investigates the role of emotional exhaustion and supervisor incivility in explaining the relationship between work-related identity discrepancy and counterproductive work behavior. Based on resource conservation theory, our study hypothesizes a moderated mediation model that work-related identity discrepancy impacts counterproductive work behavior [...] Read more.
This research investigates the role of emotional exhaustion and supervisor incivility in explaining the relationship between work-related identity discrepancy and counterproductive work behavior. Based on resource conservation theory, our study hypothesizes a moderated mediation model that work-related identity discrepancy impacts counterproductive work behavior through emotional exhaustion, and supervisor incivility is deemed as the boundary condition in the indirect effect. Drawing on a sample of 863 employees, we found support for the moderated mediation model in which the positive relationship between work-related identity discrepancy and counterproductive work behavior was mediated by emotional exhaustion, such that the mediating relationship was strengthened for new leaders with a low level of supervisor incivility and weakened for those with high level of supervisor incivility. We further discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Employee Political Skill, Supervisor-Subordinate Guanxi, and Work-Family Conflict: The Cross-Level Moderating Role of Family-Friendly Practices
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5185; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145185 - 17 Jul 2020
Abstract
Many studies have examined the negative effects of work-family conflict on society, organizations, and individuals. Nonetheless, alleviating employee work-family conflict is a topic worthy of further investigation. Few studies examine the antecedent variables of work-family conflict from personal skill and Guanxi perspectives. Studies [...] Read more.
Many studies have examined the negative effects of work-family conflict on society, organizations, and individuals. Nonetheless, alleviating employee work-family conflict is a topic worthy of further investigation. Few studies examine the antecedent variables of work-family conflict from personal skill and Guanxi perspectives. Studies that test the moderating role of family-friendly practices at the organization level are also rare. Accordingly, we collected data from 404 employees of 51 organizations. The research data are time-lagged and multileveled. The results of hierarchical linear model (HLM) show: (1) Employee political skill negatively affects employee perceived work-family conflict; (2) Employee political skill positively affects supervisor-subordinate Guanxi; (3) Supervisor-subordinate Guanxi partially mediates the relationship between employee political skill and employee work-family conflict (that is, employees can use their political skill to build high-quality supervisor-subordinate Guanxi, further reducing their perceived work-family conflict); (4) Organization family-friendly practices negatively moderate the relationship between supervisor-subordinate Guanxi and work-family conflict (that is, in organizations with high level family-friendly practices, the negative relationship between supervisor-subordinate Guanxi and work-family conflict becomes weak); Furthermore, by coding with Mplus software (Muthen & Muthen, Los Angeles, CA, USA), we also find: (5) Organization family-friendly practices moderate the indirect effect of employee political skill on employee work-family conflict. The results have both theoretical and empirical implications. Further research directions are addressed at the end. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
The Study Demands-Resources Framework: An Empirical Introduction
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5183; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145183 - 17 Jul 2020
Abstract
Based on the well-established job demands-resources (JD-R) framework, in our study we introduce the novel study demands-resources (SD-R) framework. The SD-R framework allows the study of salutogenic and pathogenic effects of university settings on students’ health and well-being. Using a large sample of [...] Read more.
Based on the well-established job demands-resources (JD-R) framework, in our study we introduce the novel study demands-resources (SD-R) framework. The SD-R framework allows the study of salutogenic and pathogenic effects of university settings on students’ health and well-being. Using a large sample of university students (n = 5660), our aim was to translate and validate the JD-R’s essential assumptions within the university context, and thus establish the SD-R framework. We performed structural equation modelling to examine these essential assumptions. As assumed, we found that study demands—the “bad things” at university—predict student burnout (β = 0.50), whereas study resources—the “good things” at university—predict student engagement (β = 0.70) as well as burnout (β = −0.35). Also, in line with the SD-R’s assumptions, student burnout predicts life satisfaction negatively (β = −0.34), whereas student engagement predicts life satisfaction positively (β = 0.29). Hence, we were able to introduce the novel SD-R framework and validate its core assumptions. The SD-R framework serves as an excellent theoretical basis to examine both the salutogenic and pathogenic effects of the study context on students’ health and well-being. However, the framework needs further longitudinal and meta-analytical verification in accordance with the research on the JD-R framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Role of Work and Family Factors in Predicting Career Satisfaction and Life Success
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5096; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145096 - 15 Jul 2020
Abstract
The mediating roles of work-family balance, job satisfaction and family satisfaction in work-family dynamics research has not been explored fully to delineate their probable intervening effects. Using spillover theory as the basis, the current study tests a model to identify the role of [...] Read more.
The mediating roles of work-family balance, job satisfaction and family satisfaction in work-family dynamics research has not been explored fully to delineate their probable intervening effects. Using spillover theory as the basis, the current study tests a model to identify the role of these factors in work-family conflict (and work-role ambiguity), career satisfaction and perception of life success. Responses obtained through an online survey from a final sample of 344 academic faculty, across different educational institutions in India, tend to suggest that work-family balance mediated work-family conflict and its potential influence on life success as well as career satisfaction, and also the relationship between work-role ambiguity and both life success and career satisfaction. While job satisfaction also showed similar results except for non-significant mediation between work-role ambiguity and life success, family satisfaction mediated only between work role ambiguity and life success. The importance of job satisfaction and work-family balance is highlighted in the context of reducing the negative impact of work-family conflict and work-role ambiguity on one’s career and life satisfaction. Results and their practical and theoretical implications, and future directions of research to further our understanding of work-family dynamics, etc., are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Mental Health and Work Attitudes among People Resuming Work during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5059; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145059 - 14 Jul 2020
Abstract
The unprecedented outbreak of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused an economic downturn and increased the unemployment rate in China. In this context, employees face health and social economic stressors. To assess their mental health (i.e., anxiety, depression, insomnia and somatization) and work [...] Read more.
The unprecedented outbreak of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused an economic downturn and increased the unemployment rate in China. In this context, employees face health and social economic stressors. To assess their mental health (i.e., anxiety, depression, insomnia and somatization) and work attitudes (i.e., work engagement, job satisfaction and turnover intention) as well as the associated factors, we conducted a cross-sectional study among people who resumed work after the Spring Festival holiday during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results show that the prevalence of anxiety, depression, insomnia and somatization among these people was 12.7%, 13.5%, 20.7% and 6.6%, respectively. The major risk factor for mental health was worrying about unemployment, and the main protective factors were psychological strengths (i.e., resilience and optimism). Regarding work attitudes, the percentage of people who felt more satisfied with their job (43.8%) was larger than that of those who felt less satisfied (26.9%), while the percentage of people who thought about quitting their job more frequently (15.7%) was smaller than that of those who considered it less frequently (63.2%). However, work engagement was lower than usual. Similar to the factors associated with mental health, the major risk factor for work attitudes was also worrying about unemployment, and the main protective factors were resilience and optimism. In addition, the nature of the organization, job status, age, position and income changes were also related to these work attitudes. Our findings shed light on the need for organization administrators to be aware of the status of and factors associated with employees’ mental health and work attitudes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Policies or interventions could be developed based on our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Help Comes from Understanding: The Positive Effect of Communication Visibility on Employee Helping Behavior
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5022; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145022 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Extant research focuses on the antecedents of employee helping behavior, but the role of social technologies in enhancing employee helping behavior remains understudied. The purpose of our research is to investigate the relationship between communication visibility and employee helping behavior. Drawing on both [...] Read more.
Extant research focuses on the antecedents of employee helping behavior, but the role of social technologies in enhancing employee helping behavior remains understudied. The purpose of our research is to investigate the relationship between communication visibility and employee helping behavior. Drawing on both communication visibility theory and social cognitive theory, we propose that the association between communication visibility and helping behavior is mediated by employee psychological state assessed by a cognitive state variable: trust in coworkers. Further, we also propose that proactive personality moderates the positive effect of trust in coworkers on employee helping behavior. We examined our hypothesized relationships using 149 employees collected in a field experiment in China. As hypothesized, we find that trust in coworkers mediates the relationship between communication visibility and helping behavior. Moreover, proactive personality strengthens the effectiveness of communication visibility. We discuss the implications of our findings for future research and practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Dispositional Optimism, Burnout and Their Relationship with Self-Reported Health Status among Nurses Working in Long-Term Healthcare Centers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 4918; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17144918 - 08 Jul 2020
Abstract
The mental health of nurses working in long-term healthcare centers is affected by the care they provide to older people with major chronic diseases and comorbidity and this in turn affects the quality of that care. The aim of the study was to [...] Read more.
The mental health of nurses working in long-term healthcare centers is affected by the care they provide to older people with major chronic diseases and comorbidity and this in turn affects the quality of that care. The aim of the study was to investigate dispositional optimism, burnout and self-reported health among nurses working in long-term healthcare centers. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey design was used. Survey questionnaires were distributed in 11 long-term health care centers (n = 156) in Catalonia (Spain). The instruments used were LOT-R (dispositional optimism), MBI (burnout) and EuroQol EQ-5D (self-reported health). Bivariate analyses and multivariate linear regression models were used. Self-reported health correlated directly with dispositional optimism and inversely with emotional exhaustion and cynicism. Better perceived health was independently associated with greater dispositional optimism and social support, lower levels of emotional exhaustion level and the absence of burnout. Dispositional optimism in nurses is associated with a greater perception of health and low levels of emotional exhaustion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
How Servant Leadership Motivates Innovative Behavior: A Moderated Mediation Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4753; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134753 - 02 Jul 2020
Abstract
Drawing on social identity theory, this study examines the effect of servant leadership on university teachers’ innovative behavior through the self-concept constructs of perceived insider status and organization-based self-esteem, and the moderating effect of leader–member exchange (LMX). This moderated mediation model was tested [...] Read more.
Drawing on social identity theory, this study examines the effect of servant leadership on university teachers’ innovative behavior through the self-concept constructs of perceived insider status and organization-based self-esteem, and the moderating effect of leader–member exchange (LMX). This moderated mediation model was tested with two waves of data from 269 university teachers in China. Results reveal that the self-concept constructs mediate the relationship between servant leadership and university teachers’ innovative behavior. Moreover, LMX strengthens the relationship between servant leadership and the self-concept constructs, as well as the indirect effect of servant leadership on university teachers’ innovative behavior through the self-concept constructs. Findings suggest that servant leadership is related to increased innovative behavior due to its positive influence on the self-concept of university teachers and it highlights the importance of developing a favorable supervisor–subordinate relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Chronic Regulatory Focus and Work-Family Conflict among Chinese Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4526; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124526 - 23 Jun 2020
Abstract
Survey data from 226 service employees were used to test the hypothesized moderating role of chronic self-regulatory focus on the relationships between work–family conflict (WFC) and challenge/hindrance strain. A follow-up scenario-based experiment (N = 93 executives) confirmed the results of the hypothesized model. [...] Read more.
Survey data from 226 service employees were used to test the hypothesized moderating role of chronic self-regulatory focus on the relationships between work–family conflict (WFC) and challenge/hindrance strain. A follow-up scenario-based experiment (N = 93 executives) confirmed the results of the hypothesized model. Results from the two studies together demonstrated the moderating role of self-regulatory processes: chronic promotion-focused individuals perceived WFC as a challenge-type strain, while chronic prevention-focused individuals viewed WFC as a hindrance-type strain. Individuals use self-regulation strategically: in work domains, they regulate themselves so that family does not interfere with work. Individuals’ stress perceptions differ depending on the two dimensions of WFC as they regard interferences from (WIF) as a personal challenge, perhaps affording them an opportunity to balance work and life and to refine their abilities, but interferences from family to work (FIW) act as a barrier preventing them from achieving career success. When two-way interactions between WIF/FIW and chronic promotion/prevention foci were taken into consideration, the WIF/FIW main effects on challenge/hindrance stress became insignificant, suggesting that chronic self-regulation fully moderated the relationship. The results extend the current work–family research by incorporating self-regulatory processes as an important moderating variable, suggesting new research directions. The findings can help human resource management establish policies and benefit programs that take individual differences into account. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Workplace Ostracism, TMX, Task Interdependence, and Task Performance: A Moderated Mediation Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124432 - 20 Jun 2020
Abstract
Background: Social interactions among employees are essential for individual performance as they provide various job-related information and feedback as well as social and emotional support. Tasks have become interdependent among organizational members, allowing teamwork to generally become an organizational norm. Consequently, it [...] Read more.
Background: Social interactions among employees are essential for individual performance as they provide various job-related information and feedback as well as social and emotional support. Tasks have become interdependent among organizational members, allowing teamwork to generally become an organizational norm. Consequently, it is pertinent that employees maintain favorable working relationships with other organizational members because workplace ostracism has become an organizational concern. Although recent studies have examined numerous psychological mechanisms that associate ostracism with workplace outcomes, studies have been limited in exploring practical facets that link the relationship. Thus, this study examined the mediating effect of team–member exchange for workplace ostracism and task performance and the moderating effect of task interdependence in influencing the relationship. Methods: Data were collected using a two-wave design and sampled 242 full-time employees in South Korea. The hypotheses were tested with hierarchical regression analyses. Results: Team–member exchange was found to mediate the relationship between workplace ostracism and task performance and task interdependence moderated the mediated relationship. Conclusions: The results suggest that being ostracized negatively influences the quality of the relationship between team-members which then affects individual performance. In addition, the conditional indirect effect for ostracism on task performance was significant when task interdependence was high, while not significant when it was low, thus moderating the mediated relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
The Multilevel Mechanism of Multifoci Service Orientation on Emotional Labor: Based on the Chinese Hospitality Industry
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4314; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124314 - 17 Jun 2020
Abstract
Emotional labor exerts a significant impact on employees’ physical and mental health as a unique form of labor. This study aims to explore the multilevel mechanism of multifoci service orientation on emotional labor from the social capital perspective. Through a multistage survey of [...] Read more.
Emotional labor exerts a significant impact on employees’ physical and mental health as a unique form of labor. This study aims to explore the multilevel mechanism of multifoci service orientation on emotional labor from the social capital perspective. Through a multistage survey of managers and employees of 31 hospitality service companies in China, we obtained a valid sample of 31 business managers and 760 employees from hotel, restaurant, and tourism. Using Statistical analytical tools, the results revealed that organizational service orientation and individual service orientation enhanced individual social capital, which promoted employees’ deep acting and exerted a partial mediation effect on the correlation between individual service orientation and deep acting. Besides, individual social capital exerted a partial mediation effect on the relationship between organizational service orientation and deep acting. At the organizational level, organizational service orientation positively affected organizational social capital; and organizational social capital positively affected aggregate deep acting. The study results provide theoretical guidance for service companies to enhance employees’ well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Factors Associated with Burnout Syndrome in Primary and Secondary School Teachers in the Republic of Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3595; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103595 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout syndrome in a large sample of primary and secondary school teachers in the Republic of Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina) and identify the factors associated with burnout in this population. [...] Read more.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout syndrome in a large sample of primary and secondary school teachers in the Republic of Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina) and identify the factors associated with burnout in this population. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in August and September of 2018, on a sample of 952 teachers. Beside socio-demographic information, Bortner scale, Job Content Questionnaire, and Maslach Burnout Inventory were filled in by the study participants. Results: Only 5.1% of teachers reported high levels of emotional exhaustion, 3.8% reported high levels of depersonalization, and 22.3% reported low levels of personal accomplishment. Behavior type, specifically type-A behavior, was associated with higher levels of emotional exhaustion. The most important factors associated with burnout were work–life characteristics and job-demand-control model of occupational stress. Conclusions: Our study shows a low prevalence of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in teachers in the Republic of Srpska before the beginning of the new school year. Since similar studies show a high prevalence of burnout at the end of the school year, a potential seasonality of this syndrome should be considered and explored further. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Voluntary or Forced: Different Effects of Personal and Social Norms on Urban Residents’ Environmental Protection Behavior
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3525; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103525 - 18 May 2020
Abstract
It is well known that environmental protection behaviors are influenced by both individual internal motivation and external environmental pressure, but few studies have looked at the two kinds of factors together. In order to study the influence mechanism of these two kinds of [...] Read more.
It is well known that environmental protection behaviors are influenced by both individual internal motivation and external environmental pressure, but few studies have looked at the two kinds of factors together. In order to study the influence mechanism of these two kinds of factors on the environmental protection behavior of urban residents, especially the difference between these two kinds of factors, we take personal norms and social norms as independent variables into the theoretical model. Results based on survey data of 731 urban residents revealed that personal norms and social norms both are positively associated with environmental protection behavior. Moreover, environmental protection willingness was found to mediate the relationship of personal and social norms with environmental protection behavior. We also found that the direct and indirect influences of personal norms on environmental protection behavior are greater than that of social norms. Further, the study revealed that cost consciousness moderates the relationship between personal norms, environmental protection willingness, and environmental protection behavior. Our results suggest that personal norms have a greater impact on environmental protection behavior than social norms. Therefore, we need to make greater efforts to promote environmental education and cultivate young people’s sense of environmental responsibility from an early age. At the same time, it is necessary to maintain appropriate environmental pressure and reduce the environmental cost in the daily life of residents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Multilevel Job Demands and Resources: Cross-Level Effects of Competing Organizational Facet-Specific Climates on Risky Safety Behaviors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3496; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103496 - 17 May 2020
Abstract
Both individual demands (i.e., workload) and organizational demands and resources (i.e., production pressure and safety climates) may affect the likelihood that employees undertake risky safety behaviors in different ways. Adopting an organizational multilevel perspective, the aim of the present research was fourfold: (1) [...] Read more.
Both individual demands (i.e., workload) and organizational demands and resources (i.e., production pressure and safety climates) may affect the likelihood that employees undertake risky safety behaviors in different ways. Adopting an organizational multilevel perspective, the aim of the present research was fourfold: (1) to examine the impact of individual-level job demands (i.e., workload) on the enactment of risky safety behaviors; (2) to evaluate the effects of coexisting and competing organizational facet-specific climates (i.e., for safety and for production pressure) on the above outcome; (3) to assess their cross-level interactions with individual job demands, and (4) to test the interaction among such organizational demands and resources in shaping risky behaviors. A series of multilevel regression models tested on surveydata from 1375 employees nested within 33 organizations indicated that high workload increases the likelihood of employees enacting risky safety behaviors, while organizational safety and production pressure climates showed significant and opposite direct effects on this safety outcome. Moreover, organizational safety climate significantly mitigated the effect of individual job demands on risky safety behaviors, while organizational production pressure climate exacerbated this individual-level relationship. Finally, organizational safety climate mitigates the cross-level direct effect of organizational production pressure climate on the enactment of risky safety behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Experiences of Overseas Trained Physical Therapists Working in Saudi Arabia: An Observational Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3406; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103406 - 13 May 2020
Abstract
Background: Health professionals, including physical therapists (PTs), are known to migrate for better jobs, as well as for personal and professional development. However, this involves risks of maladjustment, discrimination, and exploitation. We conducted this study to investigate the experiences of overseas trained PTs [...] Read more.
Background: Health professionals, including physical therapists (PTs), are known to migrate for better jobs, as well as for personal and professional development. However, this involves risks of maladjustment, discrimination, and exploitation. We conducted this study to investigate the experiences of overseas trained PTs in Saudi Arabia (SA) and their perceptions about physical therapy practice and problems regarding the profession in the country. Methods: A questionnaire and accompanying explanation of the study was sent to 175 members of the Saudi Physical Therapy Association (SPTA) working in SA who had been trained outside SA and had a minimum of one year of work experience before moving to SA. Results: One hundred and fifty (86%) respondents completed the questionnaire. Among the respondents, the majority had more than five years of work experience after moving to SA. While 54% of the respondents reported that they were satisfied with their work experiences in SA, the remaining respondents reported their dissatisfaction for various reasons. Conclusions: With the increase in aged population and rise in disability, the need for PTs has simultaneously increased in the health care sector around the world, including in SA. Until PTs of local origin are ready to fill the requirements, the services of PTs from other countries will be required in SA. Although the majority of respondents reported having positive work experiences in SA, the negative aspects and challenges faced by PTs in SA have also been highlighted in this study. These problems need to be addressed in order to promote the development of a better and more holistic approach to patient care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Examining the Effects of Overtime Work on Subjective Social Status and Social Inclusion in the Chinese Context
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3265; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093265 - 07 May 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Although researchers have argued that long work hours have been shown to threaten individual health, lead to work-family conflict, and reduce job performance, the effect of overtime work on social-related outcomes has received little attention. Based on the framework of relative deprivation, we [...] Read more.
Although researchers have argued that long work hours have been shown to threaten individual health, lead to work-family conflict, and reduce job performance, the effect of overtime work on social-related outcomes has received little attention. Based on the framework of relative deprivation, we attempt to address this important issue by exploring whether, why, and when individuals’ overtime work influences their social attitudes. By using the data of 400 Chinese employees from the China Labor-Force Dynamics Survey (CLD), we found that overtime work was associated with a low level of subjective social status and social inclusion. In addition, we found that the time type of overtime work (work overtime on weekdays or on weekends and holidays) has a moderating effect on the relationship between overtime work and social inclusion. That is, employees who work overtime on weekdays are unlikely to have a sense of social inclusion. Furthermore, the negative relationship between overtime work and subjective social status was stronger at a low level of fairness rather than a high level of fairness. In contrast, the negative relationship between overtime work and social inclusion was stronger at a high level of fairness rather than a low level of fairness. These findings highlight the critical role of overtime work in social life and also provide novel insights into social intervention aimed at the happiness and harmony of a society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Burnout, Reasons for Living and Dehumanisation among Italian Penitentiary Police Officers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3117; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093117 - 30 Apr 2020
Abstract
The literature on burnout syndrome among Penitentiary Police Officers (PPOs) is still rather scarce, and there are no analyses on the protective factors that can prevent these workers from the dangerous effect of burnout, with respect to the weakening of the reasons for [...] Read more.
The literature on burnout syndrome among Penitentiary Police Officers (PPOs) is still rather scarce, and there are no analyses on the protective factors that can prevent these workers from the dangerous effect of burnout, with respect to the weakening of the reasons for living and de-humanization. This study aimed to examine the relationships between burnout, protective factors against weakening of the reasons for living and not desiring to die and the role of de-humanisation, utilising the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI); the Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL); the Testoni Death Representation Scale (TDRS); and the Human Traits Attribution Scale (HTAS), involving 86 PPOs in a North Italy prison. Results showed the presence of a high level of burnout in the group of participants. In addition, dehumanization of prisoners, which is considered a factor that could help in managing other health professional stress situations, does not reduce the level of burnout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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The Effects of Biofeedback Training and Smartphone-Delivered Biofeedback Training on Resilience, Occupational Stress, and Depressive Symptoms among Abused Psychiatric Nurses
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2905; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082905 - 22 Apr 2020
Abstract
Psychiatric ward (PW) nurses are at a higher risk to encounter workplace violence than are other healthcare providers, and many interventions have been developed to improve their mental health. We compared the effectiveness of biofeedback training (BT) and smartphone-delivered BT (SDBT) interventions on [...] Read more.
Psychiatric ward (PW) nurses are at a higher risk to encounter workplace violence than are other healthcare providers, and many interventions have been developed to improve their mental health. We compared the effectiveness of biofeedback training (BT) and smartphone-delivered BT (SDBT) interventions on occupational stress, depressive symptoms, resilience, heart rate variability, and respiration rate in a sample of abused PW nurses. This was a quasi-experimental study. Structured questionnaires were administered before and six weeks after the intervention. Data were collected from April 2017 to October 2017. A total of 159 abused PW nurses were randomly assigned to BT, SDBT, and control groups, and 135 of them completed all processes of our protocol, with the study consisting of 119 females (88.1%) and 16 males (11.9%) and their age range being from 22 to 59 with the mean age of 35.61 and a standard deviation of 8.16. Compared to the controls, both the BT and the SDBT intervention groups experienced significant improvements in depressive symptoms, resilience, and respiration rate; and the SDBT group experienced significant reductions in occupational stress. Considering the cost, accessibility, restrictions time and space, SDBT be used as an effective intervention in people with resilience or occupational stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
From LMX to Individual Creativity: Interactive Effect of Engagement and Job Complexity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2626; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082626 - 11 Apr 2020
Abstract
This study explores how the quality of leader–member exchange (LMX) is associated with employees’ creativity via engagement, and the moderating role of a job characteristic related to knowledge (job complexity) in this relationship. A moderated mediation model was tested on a sample of [...] Read more.
This study explores how the quality of leader–member exchange (LMX) is associated with employees’ creativity via engagement, and the moderating role of a job characteristic related to knowledge (job complexity) in this relationship. A moderated mediation model was tested on a sample of 320 employees from emergent high-tech and knowledge-based small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Spain. The results supported an indirect influence of LMX on individual creativity through engagement. Additionally, this study found that job complexity accentuated the impact of engagement on creativity. More importantly, the findings confirmed that the intensity of the LMX–engagement–creativity relationship was moderated by job complexity. That is, the relationship was stronger when job complexity was high. Taken together, this study improves the understanding of the factors that contribute to increased employee creativity, an important outcome for high-tech and knowledge-based SMEs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Do Work Engagement and Transformational Leadership Facilitate Knowledge Sharing? A Perspective of Conservation of Resources Theory
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2615; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072615 - 10 Apr 2020
Abstract
Based on the perspective of conservation of resources (COR) theory, this study adopts a multilevel approach to examine the influences of employees’ personal resources (i.e., work engagement and intrinsic motivation) and external resources (i.e., transformational leadership) on knowledge sharing. This study conducts a [...] Read more.
Based on the perspective of conservation of resources (COR) theory, this study adopts a multilevel approach to examine the influences of employees’ personal resources (i.e., work engagement and intrinsic motivation) and external resources (i.e., transformational leadership) on knowledge sharing. This study conducts a survey to explore the interrelationships among transformational leadership, work engagement, intrinsic motivation, and knowledge sharing. The sample includes 33 healthcare work groups consisting of 214 group members. The results show that an individual’s personal and external resources are positive and benefit the promotion of knowledge sharing. As for personal resources, work engagement has a positive impact on knowledge sharing by increasing intrinsic motivation. Regarding external resources, transformational leadership acts as a facilitator for knowledge sharing. Specifically, the conditional indirect effects of work engagement on knowledge sharing through intrinsic motivation are more positive under high levels of transformational leadership, rather than low levels of transformational leadership. Based on the COR theory, this is the first study to argue that knowledge sharing could be considered as an active activity and that individuals could be eager to perform knowledge sharing when they possess significant personal and external resources. The results of this study provide new insights into knowledge sharing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Leader Humility, and Subordinates’ Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Withdrawal Behavior: Exploring the Mediating Mechanisms of Subordinates’ Psychological Capital
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2544; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072544 - 08 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
As a bottom-up leadership style, leader humility has received considerable attention from researchers. Among the abundant studies revealing the positive impact of leader humility on employees’ work attitude and behaviors, there is less knowledge on how leader humility influences subordinates’ organizational citizenship behavior [...] Read more.
As a bottom-up leadership style, leader humility has received considerable attention from researchers. Among the abundant studies revealing the positive impact of leader humility on employees’ work attitude and behaviors, there is less knowledge on how leader humility influences subordinates’ organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and withdrawal behavior. On the basis of the social information processing theory, this study proposed a cross-level mediation model and examined the direct impact of leader humility on subordinates’ OCB and withdrawal behavior. We also further explored the underlying psychological mechanism and examined the mediating effect of psychological capital on these relationships. Using a two-wave panel design and 274 employees’ questionnaire data, the empirical analysis found that: (1) leader humility was positively related to subordinates’ OCB and negatively related to subordinates’ withdrawal behavior; (2) leader humility was positively related to subordinates’ psychological capital; and (3) psychological capital played a cross-level mediating role in the leader humility-subordinates’ OCB relationship and the leader humility-subordinates’ withdrawal behavior relationship. Theoretical and practical implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Models for Developing Community Organizations to Reinforce Health Management in Small Businesses
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2444; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072444 - 03 Apr 2020
Abstract
The incidence of occupational diseases in small businesses is higher than in big ones, and this fact puts the former in need of a healthcare management model they can administer. This study established a model based on community organizational development theory to reinforce [...] Read more.
The incidence of occupational diseases in small businesses is higher than in big ones, and this fact puts the former in need of a healthcare management model they can administer. This study established a model based on community organizational development theory to reinforce worker empowerment for healthcare in small businesses, focusing on health centers for workers (HCFW). The researchers surveyed 408 workers at 39 small businesses in the B region of South Korea, according to the characteristics of business sites, general characteristics of workers, and elements of community organizational development theory, and analyzed their results with a structural equation. The research period was September, 2015. Five concepts were examined: empowerment in healthcare, community capacity, participation and relevance, critical consciousness, and issue selection. The results revealed that greater community capacity led to greater participation and relevance (γ = 0.39) and empowerment in healthcare (γ = 0.25), while greater participation and relevance led to greater empowerment in healthcare (γ = 0.76). In addition, greater critical consciousness led to greater participation and relevance (γ = 0.12). Finally, greater community capacity led to greater issues selection (γ = 0.56), which in turn led to greater participation and relevance (γ = 0.25). The study makes proposals for directions of health centers for workers and community networks. Confirmation of this model for worker empowerment suggests several directions to HCFW in relation to workers and community networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Guanxi HRM Practice and Employees’ Occupational Well-Being in China: A Multi-Level Psychological Process
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2403; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072403 - 01 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Chinese employees may experience and respond to guanxi human resource management (HRM) practice (e.g., recruiting, selecting, inducting and appraising employees based on personal relationships). Little has been done to examine the linkage between guanxi HRM practice and employees’ occupational well-being. This study investigates [...] Read more.
Chinese employees may experience and respond to guanxi human resource management (HRM) practice (e.g., recruiting, selecting, inducting and appraising employees based on personal relationships). Little has been done to examine the linkage between guanxi HRM practice and employees’ occupational well-being. This study investigates the psychological process of how guanxi HRM practice affects employees’ occupational well-being. The theoretical model of this study proposes that employee psychological safety mediates the relationship between guanxi HRM practice and occupational well-being, while collectivistic team culture moderates the relationship between guanxi HRM practice and psychological safety. Multi-level data from 297 employees nested within 42 teams support all hypotheses. This study reveals the cross-level effects of guanxi HRM practice and providing practical suggestions for future research on psychologically safe and healthy work environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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How Servant Leadership Leads to Employees’ Customer-Oriented Behavior in the Service Industry? A Dual-Mechanism Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2296; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072296 - 29 Mar 2020
Abstract
Although servant leadership has been acknowledged as an important predictor of employees’ behavioral outcomes in the service industry, there is still no cohesive understanding of the positive association between servant leadership and employees’ customer-oriented behavior (COB). This research, drawing on cognitive affective processing [...] Read more.
Although servant leadership has been acknowledged as an important predictor of employees’ behavioral outcomes in the service industry, there is still no cohesive understanding of the positive association between servant leadership and employees’ customer-oriented behavior (COB). This research, drawing on cognitive affective processing system theory (CAPS), empirically investigates the influence of servant leadership on employees’ COB by exploring two mediators (i.e., organizational identification and vitality). We conducted two studies in China, using a cross-sectional design to survey employees in service-oriented technical organizations (Study 1) and a time-lagged design to survey hospitality employees with frontline service jobs in star-level hotels (Study 2). Across both samples, we found that servant leadership enhanced employees’ COB by simultaneously increasing their organizational identification and vitality. We discuss the implications of these results for future research and practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Employee-Organization Fit and Voluntary Green Behavior: A Cross-Level Model Examining the Role of Perceived Insider Status and Green Organizational Climate
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2193; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072193 - 25 Mar 2020
Abstract
Employee green behavior has received considerable attention in recent years because of its contribution to an organization’s environmental performance. However, little is known about how personal and organizational factors can simultaneously affect employee voluntary green behavior. The present study draws on person-environment fit [...] Read more.
Employee green behavior has received considerable attention in recent years because of its contribution to an organization’s environmental performance. However, little is known about how personal and organizational factors can simultaneously affect employee voluntary green behavior. The present study draws on person-environment fit theory to investigate how and when employee voluntary green behavior can be facilitated by employee-organization fit. Based on a time-lagged survey study of 413 employees from three different manufactures of chemical products, the present study discovers a positive relationship between employee-organization fit and employee voluntary green behavior, and this relationship is mediated by perceived insider status. Moreover, the relationship between perceived insider status and voluntary green behavior is strengthened when employees perceive a green organizational climate. Insights for theory, practice, and future research are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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“Digging Deeper” into the Relationship Between Safety Climate and Turnover Intention Among Stone, Sand and Gravel Mine Workers: Job Satisfaction as a Mediator
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1925; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061925 - 16 Mar 2020
Abstract
Employee turnover has been linked to negative business performance outcomes, increased costs, and disruptions to operations. Research to explore predictors of turnover intention is important to the mining industry, including the stone, sand, and gravel mining (SSGM) industry. Safety climate has been linked [...] Read more.
Employee turnover has been linked to negative business performance outcomes, increased costs, and disruptions to operations. Research to explore predictors of turnover intention is important to the mining industry, including the stone, sand, and gravel mining (SSGM) industry. Safety climate has been linked to job satisfaction and reductions in turnover intention in other fields, but investigation within SSGM has virtually been non-existent, creating a knowledge gap. This research seeks to address this dearth of information. Cross-sectional data from 452 workers in the SSGM industry were analyzed to assess the influence of safety climate on turnover intention through job satisfaction. Mediation analyses showed that job satisfaction significantly mediated the relationship between safety climate and turnover intention. The implications of these novel findings are important for SSGM administrators. It suggests that bolstering safety programs and increasing safety climate perceptions will help increase job satisfaction and reduce turnover intention among workers in the SSGM industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Occupational and Individual Determinants of Work-life Balance among Office Workers with Flexible Work Arrangements
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041418 - 22 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Flexible work arrangements permitting workers to work anytime and anywhere are increasingly common. This flexibility can introduce both challenges and opportunities for the organisation, as well as for worker work-life balance (WLB). This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the extent to which occupational [...] Read more.
Flexible work arrangements permitting workers to work anytime and anywhere are increasingly common. This flexibility can introduce both challenges and opportunities for the organisation, as well as for worker work-life balance (WLB). This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the extent to which occupational factors (organizational, leadership and psychosocial) and individual work-related behaviours (over-commitment, overtime work and boundary management) are associated with WLB, and whether these associations are modified by the perceived level of flexibility at work (i.e., control over when, where, and how to do the work). In total, 2960 full-time office workers with flexible work arrangements at the Swedish Transport Administration participated. Associations were determined using linear regression analyses with adjustment for covariates. The strongest negative associations with WLB were found for over-commitment, quantitative job demands, expectations of availability, and overtime work. Strongest positive associations were found for boundary management, information about organizing work, social support, and relation-oriented leadership. Perceived flexibility was positively associated with WLB, and interacted with several of the examined factors, buffering their negative associations with WLB. Results suggest that WLB can be promoted by organizational initiatives focusing on minimizing excessive job demands, increasing psychosocial resources, supporting boundary management, and enhancing perceived flexibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Cardiac Autonomic Modulation during on-Call Duty under Working Hours Restriction
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17031118 - 10 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: Medical residency is a time of high stress and long working hours, which increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate the autonomic modulation of resident physicians throughout the on-call duty cycle. Methods: Spectral analysis of heart rate variability [...] Read more.
Background: Medical residency is a time of high stress and long working hours, which increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate the autonomic modulation of resident physicians throughout the on-call duty cycle. Methods: Spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) was used to compute cardiac parasympathetic modulation (high-frequency power, HF) and cardiac sympathetic modulation (normalized low-frequency power, LF%, and the ratio of LF and HF, LF/HF) of 18 residents for a consecutive 4-day cycle. Results: Male residents show reduced cardiac sympathetic modulation (i.e., higher LF/HF and LF%) than the female interns. Medical residents’ cardiac parasympathetic modulation (i.e., HF) significantly increased on the first and the second post-call day compared with the pre-call day. In contrast, LF% was significantly decreased on the first and the second post-call day compared with the pre-call day. Similarly, LF/HF was significantly decreased on the second post-call day compared with the pre-call day. LF/HF significantly decreased on the first post-call day and on the second post-call day from on-call duty. Conclusion: The guideline that limits workweeks to 80 h and shifts to 28 h resulted in reduced sympathetic modulation and increased parasympathetic modulation during the two days following on-call duty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Ethical Leadership as the Reliever of Frontline Service Employees’ Emotional Exhaustion: A Moderated Mediation Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 976; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030976 - 04 Feb 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Based on the conservation of resources theory, this study aims to create new knowledge on the antecedents of emotional exhaustion. We explore the internal mechanism and boundary conditions of the impact of ethical leadership on emotional exhaustion, using data gathered from 460 frontline [...] Read more.
Based on the conservation of resources theory, this study aims to create new knowledge on the antecedents of emotional exhaustion. We explore the internal mechanism and boundary conditions of the impact of ethical leadership on emotional exhaustion, using data gathered from 460 frontline service employees at an airport in China. Employees completed questionnaires regarding ethical leadership, emotional exhaustion, organizational embeddedness, job satisfaction, and demographic variables. After controlling for the effects of demographic variables and company tenure, ethical leadership was found to have a negative impact on emotional exhaustion (β = −0.128, p < 0.01), and to be positively related to organizational embeddedness (β = 0.518, p < 0.01). After adding in the mediating variable (organizational embeddedness), the effect of ethical leadership on emotional exhaustion was no longer significant (β = 0.012, ns), while organizational embeddedness emerged as significantly related to emotional exhaustion (β = −0.269, p < 0.01), implying that the effect of ethical leadership on emotional exhaustion was completely mediated by organizational embeddedness. Simultaneously, the results suggested that job satisfaction could strengthen the mediating effect of organizational embeddedness on emotional exhaustion (the difference in the mediating effect between the groups with respective high and low job satisfaction was −0.096, p < 0.05). This study proposed and validated a moderated mediation model, the implications of which are that ethical leadership is an effective way to alleviate frontline service employees’ emotional exhaustion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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How Can Job Crafting Be Reproduced? Examining the Trickle-Down Effect of Job Crafting from Leaders to Employees
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030894 - 31 Jan 2020
Abstract
This study seeks to examine how and when job crafting trickles down from leaders to followers in a team context. Drawing on social learning theory, we hypothesize that team leaders’ job resources mediate the relationship between team leaders’ job crafting and team members’ [...] Read more.
This study seeks to examine how and when job crafting trickles down from leaders to followers in a team context. Drawing on social learning theory, we hypothesize that team leaders’ job resources mediate the relationship between team leaders’ job crafting and team members’ job crafting. Empowering leadership is proposed to strengthen the mediation effect, such that under a stronger (higher) empowering leadership style the relationship between team leaders’ job resources and team members’ job crafting is further strengthened, thereby positively influencing the overall mediated relationship. We tested our multilevel moderated mediation model with leader-subordinate paired data from 64 work teams in seven Chinese enterprises over two time periods. The results support our hypothesized mediated relationship; however, contrary to our prediction, we find that empowering leadership negatively moderates the relationship between team leaders’ job resources and team members’ job crafting, and weakens the mediation effect of team leaders’ job resources. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Supervision Incivility and Employee Psychological Safety in the Workplace
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030840 - 29 Jan 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Much of the supervision incivility research has focused on the supervisor-subordinate dyad when examining the effects of supervision incivility on employee outcomes. Our study examines a trickle-down effect of supervision incivility across three hierarchical levels, i.e., from the department leader (middle manager), through [...] Read more.
Much of the supervision incivility research has focused on the supervisor-subordinate dyad when examining the effects of supervision incivility on employee outcomes. Our study examines a trickle-down effect of supervision incivility across three hierarchical levels, i.e., from the department leader (middle manager), through group leader (supervisor), and to group members (employees), and how it affects group psychological safety. Drawing on a sample of 346 employees and 78 group leaders in 78 work groups, our research found a negative relationship between department leader incivility and group psychological safety, and that this negative relationship was mediated by group leader incivility and moderated by group leader attribution for performance-promotion or injury-initiation motives. We further discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Job Burnout Among Primary Healthcare Workers in Rural China: A Multilevel Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030727 - 22 Jan 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
The health workers in rural primary care systems are at the increasing risk of job burnout. To explore the prevalence and associated factors of the job burnout among the primary healthcare worker in rural China, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 15,627 participants [...] Read more.
The health workers in rural primary care systems are at the increasing risk of job burnout. To explore the prevalence and associated factors of the job burnout among the primary healthcare worker in rural China, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 15,627 participants in 459 township hospitals from six provinces. A combination of stratified multi-stage sampling and cluster sampling method, and a self-administrated questionnaire with the Chinese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Scale (MBI-GS) were used in the investigation. Multilevel regression analyses were used to examine the potential associated factors on both individual and organisational levels. 47.6% of respondents were experiencing moderate burnout, and 3.3% were in severe burnout. Professionals working for over 40 h per week, at young age, with a college degree, and with professional titles at medium or high rank reported a higher degree of job burnout. At the institutional level, the high ratio of performance-based salary was associated with a higher level of depersonalization. Burnout has become prevalent among the primary healthcare workers in rural China, and multiple strategies are needed to reduce the work stress and some high-risk groups’ vulnerability to job burnout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Organizational Downsizing, Work Conditions, and Employee Outcomes: Identifying Targets for Workplace Intervention among Survivors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030719 - 22 Jan 2020
Abstract
This study broadly assesses the association of organizational downsizing to work conditions and employee outcomes, and the extent to which work conditions mediate the association of downsizing to employee outcomes, thereby serving as targets for workplace intervention to reduce the harmful effects of [...] Read more.
This study broadly assesses the association of organizational downsizing to work conditions and employee outcomes, and the extent to which work conditions mediate the association of downsizing to employee outcomes, thereby serving as targets for workplace intervention to reduce the harmful effects of downsizing on surviving workers. The cross-sectional data came from a national probability sample of 2297 U.S. workers. A parallel multiple-mediator model with multiple outcomes was estimated, adjusting for personal, occupational, geographic, and temporal covariates. Exposure to downsizing was the predictor. A set of 12 work conditions, representing four dimensions of the work environment, served as simultaneous mediators (Work Role: work demands, role conflict, role ambiguity, and work autonomy; Interpersonal Relationships: supervisor aggression, coworker aggression, friendship formation, and dysfunctional leadership; Rewards: distributive justice and promotion opportunities; Security: job insecurity and employment insecurity). A set of 16 employee consequences, representing five categories of outcomes, served as simultaneous outcomes (Inability to Detach from Work: negative work rumination and inability to unwind after work; Energetic Resource Depletion: physical, mental, and emotional work fatigue; Negative Affect: depression, anxiety, and anger; Positive Affect: happiness, confidence, and vigor; Health: physical and mental health; Work Attitudes: job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions). The results indicated that downsizing had an adverse association with nine of the 12 work conditions (higher levels of work demands, role conflict, supervisor aggression, dysfunctional leadership, job insecurity, and employment insecurity, and lower levels of friendship formation, distributive justice, and promotion opportunities) and all 16 employee outcomes. Moreover, the associations of downsizing to the employee outcomes were indirect, collectively mediated by the nine work conditions. This study provides the broadest evaluation of the deleterious effects of downsizing on U.S. workers surviving a downsizing, identifies affected work conditions that can serve as targets for workplace interventions, and provides insight into why organizational downsizing often fails to deliver anticipated financial and performance benefits to organizations. In terms of serving as targets for workplace intervention, some work conditions meditated the associations of downsizing to a broad set of employee outcomes, whereas other work conditions were specific to certain outcomes. The broad mediators should be targets of any intervention aimed at reducing the adverse effects of downsizing, with additional workplace targets depending on the class of outcomes to be addressed by the intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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The Impact of Negative Informal Information Before a Change on Performance: A Within-Person Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020670 - 20 Jan 2020
Abstract
We live in a rapidly changing business environment where change has become the norm for organizations to maintain competitiveness. Although both scholars and practitioners agree that organizational change communication is important to help employees adjust to change, little is known about how negative [...] Read more.
We live in a rapidly changing business environment where change has become the norm for organizations to maintain competitiveness. Although both scholars and practitioners agree that organizational change communication is important to help employees adjust to change, little is known about how negative informal information before the change affects employees’ reaction to the change and occurrence of possible within-person dynamics of resistance intention over time. Based on the construal-level theory, we used SPSS 22, AMOS 20, and HLM 6.0 as tools to explore how negative informal information affects individual performance. We used a multilevel approach to probe within-person processes among 215 MBA students in China. The results show that (1) negative informal information provided before the organizational change is positively related to the resistance intention, (2) resistance intention decreases significantly over time, and (3) negative informal information is negatively related to individual performance during the organizational change. The results from this study extend the literature on informal communication before the change and provide a dynamic perspective on the occurrence of possible within-person dynamics of resistance intention over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
“Engaged, Burned Out, or Both?” A Structural Equation Model Testing Risk and Protective Factors for Social Workers in Refugee and Homeless Aid
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020583 - 16 Jan 2020
Abstract
The present study sheds light on social workers’ working conditions in highly demanding settings and examines the associations between their perceived job demands, resources, resilience, personal burnout, and work engagement. A cross-sectional quantitative online survey was conducted with employees in social work institutions [...] Read more.
The present study sheds light on social workers’ working conditions in highly demanding settings and examines the associations between their perceived job demands, resources, resilience, personal burnout, and work engagement. A cross-sectional quantitative online survey was conducted with employees in social work institutions of independent and public sponsors providing help for refugees and homeless persons. The study participants were 243 social workers (68.8% female and 31.3% male) from four federal states in Germany. Correlations between social workers’ job demands, resources, burnout, and work engagement were confirmed in accordance with the Job Demands–Resources model. Results of the structural equation modelling revealed significant positive effects of employees’ job demands on their personal burnout, but no significant effects on their work engagement. The meaning of work as a job resource was significantly positively related to work engagement and negatively related to burnout. Although resilience did not moderate the relationship between employees’ job demands and burnout, it had a significant negative effect on burnout and a positive effect on work engagement. The results indicate a need for the development of health promotion measures for social workers in homeless and refugee aid. Structural approaches should target the reduction of employees’ job demands to diminish their potentially health-depleting effects. Of equal importance, behavioural measures should foster employees’ meaning of work and resilience, since both resources showed beneficial effects on their work engagement and were negatively related to burnout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Too-Much-Of-A-Good-Thing Effect of External Resource Investment—A Study on the Moderating Effect of Psychological Capital on the Contribution of Social Support to Work Engagement
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020437 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Built on the job demands-resources model (JD-R) and self-determination theory, the present research proposed that the relationship between work resources (social support) and employees’ work engagement takes on an inverted U-shaped curve, and presents a model of the moderation of personal resources (psychological [...] Read more.
Built on the job demands-resources model (JD-R) and self-determination theory, the present research proposed that the relationship between work resources (social support) and employees’ work engagement takes on an inverted U-shaped curve, and presents a model of the moderation of personal resources (psychological capital) on the relationship. The hypotheses were tested by hierarchical regression analysis and path analysis with 535 surveys collected in 19 enterprises. The findings demonstrated an inverted U-shaped curve relationship between enterprises’ social support and employees’ work engagement and further suggested that the predicting effect of social support on work engagement is influenced by employees’ psychological capital, that is to say, the transformation from social support to work engagement bears higher efficiency in employees with high psychological capital than in those with low psychological capital. However, psychological capital fails to display a moderating effect on the curve relationship between social support and work engagement. The present study, casting doubt on the assumption that enterprise supply must meet the needs of employees, argued that the effectiveness of enterprises’ resource support is influenced by the individual needs of employees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Ethical Leadership and Young University Teachers’ Work Engagement: A Moderated Mediation Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010021 - 18 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper aims to examine the mediating role of organizational trust in the relationship between ethical leadership and young teachers’ work engagement, and the moderating effect of supervisor–subordinate (S–S) guanxi. S–S guanxi is a special interpersonal relationship in Chinese organizations. The sample in [...] Read more.
This paper aims to examine the mediating role of organizational trust in the relationship between ethical leadership and young teachers’ work engagement, and the moderating effect of supervisor–subordinate (S–S) guanxi. S–S guanxi is a special interpersonal relationship in Chinese organizations. The sample in this study comprises 205 young teachers from 15 Chinese universities. The results reveal that organizational trust mediates the relationship between ethical leadership and young teachers’ work engagement. Moreover, S–S guanxi strengthens the positive relationship between organizational trust and young teachers’ work engagement, and the indirect effect of ethical leadership on young teachers’ work engagement through organizational trust. Based upon these findings, several theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Long-Term PTSD Risks in Emergency Medical Technicians Who Responded to the 2016 Taiwan Earthquake: A Six-Month Observational Follow-Up Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 4983; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244983 - 07 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Although several factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in disaster rescue workers were identified in previous studies, the results were inconsistent. This study aimed to explore the prognostic factors of PTSD among disaster rescuers using different screening tools. A 6.4 magnitude earthquake [...] Read more.
Although several factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in disaster rescue workers were identified in previous studies, the results were inconsistent. This study aimed to explore the prognostic factors of PTSD among disaster rescuers using different screening tools. A 6.4 magnitude earthquake struck southern Taiwan on February 6, 2016. Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) who responded to the earthquake were recruited. The initial survey was conducted one month after the earthquake using a standardized, self-reported, paper-based questionnaire. After six months, we re-evaluated the EMTs using the same questionnaire that was used in the baseline survey. A total of 38 EMT-paramedics were enrolled in the final analysis. Significant differences in PTSD scores at baseline existed between EMTs with and without certain risk factors. The interaction between survey time and risk factors was not significant, but several risk factors correlated with a nonsignificant improvement in the PTSD score after the 6-month follow-up. Perfectionism personality characteristics and several specific field experiences (managing injured patients, managing dead victims, managing dead victims who were pregnant, managing emotionally distraught families, or guilty feelings during the missions) might affect different subdomains of PTSD symptom improvement. Disaster rescuers should be followed up after their missions, regardless of their age, gender, or previous experience with disaster response. EMTs with certain personality characteristics or who are involved in specific field operations should be carefully monitored during and after disaster rescue missions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Long Working Hours on Depression and Mental Well-Being among Employees in Shanghai: The Role of Having Leisure Hobbies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 4980; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244980 - 07 Dec 2019
Abstract
Our aim is to examine the associations between long working hours and depression and mental well-being among the working population in Shanghai, as well as to identify the impact of having hobbies on these relationships. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shanghai, with [...] Read more.
Our aim is to examine the associations between long working hours and depression and mental well-being among the working population in Shanghai, as well as to identify the impact of having hobbies on these relationships. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shanghai, with depression assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale and mental well-being assessed by the World Health Organization five-item Well-Being Index (WHO-5) scale. The phenomenon of long working hours (69.3%) was quite common among employees in Shanghai, and the rate of working over 60 h was 19.3%. Those who worked over 60 h had the highest prevalence of poorer mental health compared with individuals working ≤40 h per week. After adjustment in the logistic regression model, those who reported weekly working time over 60 h were 1.40 (95%CI: 1.03–1.90) and 1.66 (95%CI: 1.26–2.18) times more likely to have depression and poor mental well-being (PMWB), respectively. Adjusted ORs for having hobbies were 0.78 (95%CI: 0.62–0.97) and 0.62 (95%CI: 0.51–0.75), respectively. Meanwhile, having hobbies could significantly lower the mean score on the PHQ-9 and elevate the mean score on the WHO-5 in each working time group, with no interaction effect. Long working hours could have a significantly negative impact on workers’ psychological health. Importantly, having hobbies in their daily lives might help to mitigate the adverse effects of long working hours on workers’ depression and mental well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
How to Motivate Employees for Sustained Innovation Behavior in Job Stressors? A Cross-Level Analysis of Organizational Innovation Climate
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4608; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234608 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The starting point of organizational innovation is employees’ creative thinking and innovation behaviors at work. In addition to personality and innovation willingness, innovation behavior depends on the level of support available in an organizational environment. The data used in this study were collected [...] Read more.
The starting point of organizational innovation is employees’ creative thinking and innovation behaviors at work. In addition to personality and innovation willingness, innovation behavior depends on the level of support available in an organizational environment. The data used in this study were collected from 74 R&D teams (418 employee participants) in technology companies in Taiwan, and a multi-level analysis was conducted to investigate the relationships among job stressors, creative self-efficacy, and employees’ sustained innovation behavior, as well as the role of the organizational innovation climate between creative self-efficacy and employees’ innovation behavior. The research findings revealed significant positive relationships between challenge stressors and employees’ sustained innovation behavior, as well as significant negative relationships between hindrance stressors and employees’ sustained innovation behavior, mediation effects of creative self-efficacy on job stressors and employees’ sustained innovation behavior, and moderation effects of the organizational innovation climate on employees’ creative self-efficacy and sustained innovation behavior. An enterprise could place some working-related stress on employees and create a rich internal innovative climate to induce innovation behavior in its members. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Bridging the Gap between Affective Well-Being and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Role of Work Engagement and Collectivist Orientation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4503; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224503 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Workplace well-being has received considerable attention over the past decade. Relative to the positive relationship between affective well-being and in-role performance, the relationship between affective well-being and extra-role performance has received little empirical attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the [...] Read more.
Workplace well-being has received considerable attention over the past decade. Relative to the positive relationship between affective well-being and in-role performance, the relationship between affective well-being and extra-role performance has received little empirical attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among affective well-being, work engagement, collectivist orientation, and organizational citizenship behavior. Specifically, we tested this model with a sample of 264 employees from a telecom company in China. We found that: (1) affective well-being was the positive predictor of organizational citizenship behavior (B = 0.482, p < 0.001); (2) work engagement mediated the relationship between employee affective well-being and organizational citizenship behavior (indirect effect = 0.330, p < 0.001); and (3) collectivist orientation moderated the relationship between affective well-being and work engagement (B = 0.113, p < 0.01) and affective well-being and organizational citizenship behavior (B = 0.084, p < 0.05). Our discussion highlights the benefits of understanding the role of work engagement and cultural values with regard to the relationship between affective well-being and organizational citizenship behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
The Development and Validation of the Healthcare Professional Humanization Scale (HUMAS) for Nursing
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 3999; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203999 - 19 Oct 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Introduction: The approach and use of the term “humanization” is very much present in healthcare. However, instruments for measuring the concept of the humanization of care are yet to be designed and developed. Objective: The main objective of this study was to evaluate [...] Read more.
Introduction: The approach and use of the term “humanization” is very much present in healthcare. However, instruments for measuring the concept of the humanization of care are yet to be designed and developed. Objective: The main objective of this study was to evaluate and validate the Healthcare Professional Humanization Scale (HUMAS) for nursing professionals. Method: The sample was made up of 338 adults, who were nurses working at health centers and hospitals, and aged between 22 and 56. Results: The results of the analyses confirm that the Healthcare Professional Humanization Scale (HUMAS) has an adequate construct validity and reliability, and defines the humanization of care as a multidimensional construct, made up of five factors: Affection, Self-efficacy, Emotional understanding, Optimistic disposition and Sociability. Conclusions: The new HUMAS scale may be an easily administered and coded instrument for approaching the humanization of care, not only in research, but also in practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Workplace Violence in Asian Emergency Medical Services: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 3936; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203936 - 16 Oct 2019
Abstract
Workplace violence among Asian emergency medical services (EMS) has rarely been examined. A cross-sectional, mainly descriptive study using a standardized, paper-based, self-reported questionnaire survey was conducted between August and October 2018 among emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in the Tainan City Fire Bureau, Taiwan. [...] Read more.
Workplace violence among Asian emergency medical services (EMS) has rarely been examined. A cross-sectional, mainly descriptive study using a standardized, paper-based, self-reported questionnaire survey was conducted between August and October 2018 among emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in the Tainan City Fire Bureau, Taiwan. A total of 152 EMT-paramedics responded to the questionnaire survey, constituting an overall response rate of 96.2%. The participants were predominantly male (96.1%), college-educated (4-year bachelor’s degree) (49.3%), and middle-aged (35–44 years old) (63.8%). Among them, 113 (74.3%) and 75 (49.3%) participants had experienced verbal and physical assaults at work, respectively. Only 12 (7.9%) participants were familiar with relevant regulations or codes. The assaults predominantly occurred during evening shifts (16:00–24:00) and at the scene of the emergency. The most predominant violence perpetrators included patients, patients’ families, or patients’ friends. Nearly 10% of participants had experienced verbal assaults from hospital personnel. EMTs who encountered workplace violence rarely completed a paper report, filed for a lawsuit, or sought a psychiatric consultation. Fifty-eight (38.2%) and 16 (10.5%) participants were victims of frequent (at least once every 3 months) verbal and physical forms of violence, respectively; however, no statistically significant association was observed in terms of EMT gender, age, working years, education level, or the number of EMS deployments per month. The prevalence of workplace violence among Asian EMS is considerable and is comparable to that in Western countries. Strategies to prevent workplace violence should be tailored to local practice and effectively implemented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Social Communication on Life Satisfaction among the Rural Elderly: A Moderated Mediation Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 3791; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203791 - 09 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Life satisfaction of the rural elderly has increasingly become an important issue for society. Based on the social support theory and Cha Xu Ge Ju (pattern of difference sequence), this study investigates the underlying mechanisms and boundary conditions that explain the relationship between [...] Read more.
Life satisfaction of the rural elderly has increasingly become an important issue for society. Based on the social support theory and Cha Xu Ge Ju (pattern of difference sequence), this study investigates the underlying mechanisms and boundary conditions that explain the relationship between social communication and life satisfaction among the rural elderly. Specifically, it explores the mediating role of psychological well-being in the relationship between social communication and life satisfaction. In addition, it examines whether emotional support moderates the effect of social communication on psychological well-being. Data from 658 rural elderly in China were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results show that psychological well-being mediates the relationship between social communication and life satisfaction. Additionally, the relationship between social communication on psychological well-being was negatively moderated by emotional support. Finally, implications for management theory and practice are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Contextual Factors Associated with Burnout among Chinese Primary Care Providers: A Multilevel Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3555; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193555 - 23 Sep 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Burnout is a common and growing phenomenon in the health care setting. The objective of the present study is to examine contextual factors in the workplace associated with burnout among primary care providers (PCPs) in Shandong Province, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted [...] Read more.
Burnout is a common and growing phenomenon in the health care setting. The objective of the present study is to examine contextual factors in the workplace associated with burnout among primary care providers (PCPs) in Shandong Province, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 951 PCPs nested within 48 primary health institutions (PHIs). Burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Human Services Survey (MBI–HSS). We used two-level random intercept linear regression models to examine individual- versus workplace-level risk factors for burnout. The result revealed that 33.12%, 8.83% and 41.43% PCPs were experiencing a high degree of emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP) and low personal accomplishment (PA). In multilevel analysis, the most significant and common individual-level predictors of burnout were lack of perceived work support and autonomy. At the institutional level, workload was positively related to EE (odds ratio (OR): 6.59; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.46–9.72), while work support was related to higher PA (OR: 3.49; 95% CI: 0.81–6.17). Greater attention should be paid to the influence of the work environment factors (workload and work support) to prevent burnout. Strategies such as increasing human resources allocated to PHIs and establishing a supportive work environment are encouraged to prevent and reduce burnout among PCPs in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)

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Open AccessReview
Working Conditions in Social Firms and Health Promotion Interventions in Relation to Employees’ Health and Work-Related Outcomes—A Scoping Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3963; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113963 - 03 Jun 2020
Abstract
Background: Social firms—a type of social enterprise—offer people with severe disabilities the possibility of employment and integration into the labor market. Since 01 January 2018, social firms in Germany are obligated to provide health promotion interventions for their employees. Therefore, the study aims [...] Read more.
Background: Social firms—a type of social enterprise—offer people with severe disabilities the possibility of employment and integration into the labor market. Since 01 January 2018, social firms in Germany are obligated to provide health promotion interventions for their employees. Therefore, the study aims to provide an overview of the current state of research on working conditions, coping strategies, work- and health-related outcomes, and health promotion interventions in social firms to derive recommendations for action. Methods: The databases PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX, CINAHL, and Web of Science were searched. The study selection was based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria in the time period between 2000 and 2019. The quality of the studies was critically appraised in a standardized way using the Mixed-Methods Appraisal Tool. Results: A total of 25 studies were included. The current state of research indicated that employees with disabilities were provided with several environmental resources like social support, flexibility, structured work tasks or options for training. A mix of environmental and personal resources impacted several work- and health-related outcomes like well-being, job satisfaction, productivity, work engagement, the motivation to work, or job tenure. Conclusions: There is a need for further (longitudinal) research concerning the work and health situation of employees working in social firms and the development of health promotion interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Health Psychology)
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