Next Article in Journal
Healthy Behaviors through Behavioral Design–Obesity Prevention
Previous Article in Journal
Social Distancing among Medical Students during the 2019 Coronavirus Disease Pandemic in China: Disease Awareness, Anxiety Disorder, Depression, and Behavioral Activities
Article

Determination of the Microbial and Chemical Loads in Rivers from the Quito Capital Province of Ecuador (Pichincha)—A Preliminary Analysis of Microbial and Chemical Quality of the Main Rivers

1
Instituto de Microbiología, Colegio de Ciencias Biológicas y Ambientales (COCIBA), Universidad San Francisco de Quito (USFQ), Diego de Robles y Vía Interoceánica, Campus Cumbayá, Casilla Postal 17-1200-841, Quito 170901, Ecuador
2
Colegio de Ciencias e Ingeniería, El Politécnico, Instituto Biósfera, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Quito 170901, Ecuador
3
Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
4
Geosciences Environnement Toulouse, CNRS/IRD/CNES/Université Paul Sabatier, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France
5
Área de Salud de la Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar, Toledo N22-80, P.O. Box 17-12-569, Quito 170143, Ecuador
6
Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, Grupo de Bioquimioinformática, Universidad de Las Américas, Quito 170125, Ecuador
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5048; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145048
Received: 19 May 2020 / Revised: 12 June 2020 / Accepted: 15 June 2020 / Published: 14 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Microbiology)
Contamination of natural water sources is one of the main health problems worldwide, which could be caused by chemicals, metals, or microbial agents. This study aimed to analyze the quality of 18 rivers located in Quito, the capital province of Pichincha, Ecuador, through physico-chemical and microbial parameters. The E. coli and total coliforms assessments were performed by a counting procedure in growth media. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was realized to detect several microbial genera, as well as Candida albicans, two parasites (Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp.) and E. coli pathotypes: enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). Additionally, physico-chemical parameters and major and trace metals were analyzed in each surface water sample. Our results demonstrated that most of the rivers analyzed do not comply with the microbial, physico-chemical, and metal requirements established by the Ecuadorian legislation. In terms of microbial pollution, the most polluted rivers were Monjas, Machángara, Pisque, and Pita Rivers. Furthermore, three out of four analyzed E. coli pathotypes (EIEC, EHEC, and EAEC) were detected in certain rivers, specifically: Monjas River showed the presence of EIEC and EHEC; in the Machángara River, EAEC and EIEC were detected; and finally, EIEC was present in the Guayllabamba River. Several physico-chemical parameters, such as pH, CODtotal, and TSS values, were higher than the Ecuadorian guidelines in 11, 28, and 28% of the rivers, respectively. Regarding heavy metals, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Mn surpassed the established values in 94, 89, 61, 22, 22, and 17% of the rivers, respectively. Machangara River was the only one that registered higher Cr concentrations than the national guidelines. The values of Al and Fe were above the recommended values in 83 and 72% of the rivers. Overall, based on the physical-chemical and microbiological parameters the most contaminated rivers were Machángara and Monjas. This study revealed severe contaminations in Ecuadorean Rivers; further studies should evaluate the sources of contamination and their impact on public health. View Full-Text
Keywords: river quality; total coliforms; Escherichia coli pathotypes; parasites; physico-chemical parameters; major and trace elements river quality; total coliforms; Escherichia coli pathotypes; parasites; physico-chemical parameters; major and trace elements
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Borja-Serrano, P.; Ochoa-Herrera, V.; Maurice, L.; Morales, G.; Quilumbaqui, C.; Tejera, E.; Machado, A. Determination of the Microbial and Chemical Loads in Rivers from the Quito Capital Province of Ecuador (Pichincha)—A Preliminary Analysis of Microbial and Chemical Quality of the Main Rivers. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5048. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145048

AMA Style

Borja-Serrano P, Ochoa-Herrera V, Maurice L, Morales G, Quilumbaqui C, Tejera E, Machado A. Determination of the Microbial and Chemical Loads in Rivers from the Quito Capital Province of Ecuador (Pichincha)—A Preliminary Analysis of Microbial and Chemical Quality of the Main Rivers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(14):5048. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145048

Chicago/Turabian Style

Borja-Serrano, Pamela, Valeria Ochoa-Herrera, Laurence Maurice, Gabriela Morales, Cristian Quilumbaqui, Eduardo Tejera, and António Machado. 2020. "Determination of the Microbial and Chemical Loads in Rivers from the Quito Capital Province of Ecuador (Pichincha)—A Preliminary Analysis of Microbial and Chemical Quality of the Main Rivers" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 14: 5048. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145048

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop