1.1. Sex Education
1.2. Abstinence-only or Abstinence-only-until-marriage Education Approaches
1.3. Abstinence or Stress-abstinence Approach
1.4. Comprehensive Sex Education
3. Sex Education in the United States of America
3.4. Evaluation and Research
4. Sex Education in the United Kingdom
4.4. Evaluation and Research
5. Sex Education in Hong Kong
5.4. Evaluation and Research
6. Sex Education in Mainland China
6.4. Evaluation and Research
7. Sex Education in Taiwan
7.4. Evaluation and Research
Conflicts of Interest
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|Societies Under Review||Current Policy/Guideline on Sexuality EDUCATION||Program and Its Main Objectives||Actual Practice in Schools||Teacher Training||Evaluation and Research|
|United States of America||Sex education under jurisdiction of individual states|
Sex education policies are volatile and revised depending on the states’ administrators
2016: One of the most progressive states California passed a law to mandate comprehensive sex education in public schools
|Sex education is often included as part of health or physical education (PE) curriculum in public schools|
Objectives of sex education differs with respects to the approach adopted by the state
The overachieving objective of sexuality education includes:
|Sex education is commonly delivered by health and PE teachers|
Disparate implementation due to state-level policy
Few evidence-based prevention programs exist.
In addition to public schools, NGOS also offer community-based sex education
|Forms of training:|
Formal lessons, teacher workshops, talks, online resources
State Department of Education; Sexuality Information and Education Council of the US; Planned Parenthood; Advocates for Youth, and other NGOs
Follows the teacher-preparation standards proposed by the Future of Sex Education Initiative
Performance Assessment Tool for Teacher Candidates Teaching Sexuality Education was developed
|Numerous sex education programs have been evaluated and published|
Evaluation studies with rigorous methodologies and sustained post-program effects were conducted
A strong culture of evaluation shaped by researchers and different professionals
|United Kingdom||2017: legislation passed to mandate relationship and sex education for all school children commencing September 2020||Sex and Relationship Education Guidance was developed in 2000|
The Personal, Social and Health Education PSHE objectives include:
Guidelines for sex education has not changed since 2000
Contemporary sexuality issues are often neglected in current SRE programs
|SRE is delivered within the PSHE framework|
No standardized SRE curriculum for schools and are heavily influenced by localized district factors
Government has set out broad requirements that state-funded school must adhere to when implementing SRE
|Forms of training:|
Workshops with opportunities for exchanges with health professionals, in-service program training through lectures, forums
Local education authorities and hospitals; NGOs
Teachers reported insufficient training in the delivering of sex education
More up-to-date knowledge and skills on contemporary sexuality issues needed
|Nationwide large-scale sex education programs have been systematically evaluated using mixed methods and published|
More research on contemporary issues surrounding sexuality is needed
|Societies Under Review||Current Policy/Guideline on Sexuality Education||Program and Its Main Objectives||Actual Practice in Schools||Teacher Training||Evaluation and Research|
|Hong Kong||1997: Guideline on sexuality education|
Policy not updated for almost two decades
|Sexuality Education is suggested to be integrated into the curriculum of Moral and Civic Education.|
Help students develop positive values and attitudes towards their social and sexual relationship, including gender awareness, respecting others, protecting one’s body, getting along with the opposite sex, handling the sex impulse, and dealing with social issues relating to sex
|Sexuality education is not compulsory and standardized, schools generally adopt a diverse approach, like permeating through personal and social education programs, runs once or twice a week in the form master or mistress period plus general assembly and/or extra-curricular activities.|
Programs are commonly atheoretical with no close link to positive youth development
Evidence-based program non-existent
|Forms of training:|
Professional development programs, and online resources
The Education Bureau; The Department of Health; and NGOs
Unorganized and irregular
Evaluation of training programs not commonly conducted
No mandatory requirement for teacher training in sex education
No systematic evaluation of teacher training
|The Government and several NGOs had conducted research in investigating the effectiveness of sexuality education irregularly. The latest official survey was conducted in 2012–2013.|
Few rigorous evaluation studies
No evaluation studies of the long-term effectiveness of sex education programs
Evaluation culture not strong
|Mainland China||2008: School-based health education policy|
Top-down policy without much involvement of different stakeholders
|Six to seven hours Health Education is mandated in all primary, secondary and higher schools in each semester.|
Discuss the issue of premarital sex; provide information on self-protection and awareness on sexual assaults, prevention and knowledge on HIV/AIDS
|Health Education is mandated but not included in the assessment criteria, thus it is not treated seriously in some schools, and some exclude the relevant subjects in the school curriculum.|
Prorgams are basically atheoretical
Evidence-based programs do not exist
|Forms of training:|
The State Education Commission (collaborated with the United Nations Population Fund); Wenhui Sex Education Correspondence Institute; Capital Normal University; National Training Center for HIV/AIDS Prevention in Schools
Nature: Not systematic and nationwide; stem from the abstinence-based approach
|Numerous studies on the mandatory sex education programs and training were done by scholars and different organizations, but the official evaluations conducted by the Government were insufficient.|
Lack of longitudinal studies on program effectiveness
Evaluation culture not strong
|Taiwan||1997: Education reform policy “The Nine-Year Joint Curriculum”||Gender education is mandated in the curriculum.|
|Usually integrated sex education into the learning area of Health and Physical Education, Social Studies, Science and Technology, and Integrative Activities.|
Prorgams are basically atheoretical
Evidence-based programs do not exist
|Forms of training: Formal courses, talks, conferences and online resources|
Government and NGOs (mainly the “Taiwan Association for Sexuality Education and the Mercy Memorial Foundation)
Systematic and strictly regulated by the Government; the law requires the teachers to have corresponding qualifications in teaching the specific subject
|Evaluations are organized systematically in three databases:|
Lack of longitudinal studies on program effectiveness
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