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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 15, Issue 12 (December 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Effect of Road Safety Education on Road Risky Behaviors of Spanish Children and Adolescents: Findings from a National Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2828; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122828 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 24 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
Background: Road Safety Education (RSE) is widely known as a reliable determinant of the future results for what concerns health and welfare and as an undisputable factor which contributes to the social behavior of individuals and to their mid- and long-term road safety
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Background: Road Safety Education (RSE) is widely known as a reliable determinant of the future results for what concerns health and welfare and as an undisputable factor which contributes to the social behavior of individuals and to their mid- and long-term road safety outcomes. However, its development has been relatively scarce in most countries, a fact which has contributed to letting matters as delicate as traffic crashes, largely explained by road misbehaviors, continue to be a prevalent problem, thus affecting the health of the community. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between demographic and RSE-related variables and the self-reported road risky behavior of Spanish students. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, a representative sample of 4062 (51.5% males and 48.5% females) participants attending primary (47.5%), secondary (40.7%), and high school (11.7%) was gathered through a national survey on RSE and road behaviors. Results: A set of significant associations between demographic factors, RSE variables, and self-reported road behaviors was found. Furthermore, Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) allowed us to establish that age and observed misbehaviors (positively), and attitudes towards road safety and risk perception (negatively), have a direct link with the road risky behavior of children and young people. The knowledge of traffic rules was not a significant predictor of road behavior. Conclusions: The results of this study show that, together with demographic factors such as age, RSE-related variables have an effect on the road behavior of children and young people. They also suggest the need for strengthening actions to be implemented in road safety (Road Safety Education) at scholar and community levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children Health)
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Open AccessArticle The Relationship between Infectious Diseases and Housing Maintenance in Indigenous Australian Households
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2827; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122827 (registering DOI)
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 2 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
This research aimed to identify systemic housing-level contributions to infectious disease transmission for Indigenous Australians, in response to the Government program to ‘close the gap’ of health and other inequalities. A narrative literature review was performed in accordance to PRISMA guidelines. The findings
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This research aimed to identify systemic housing-level contributions to infectious disease transmission for Indigenous Australians, in response to the Government program to ‘close the gap’ of health and other inequalities. A narrative literature review was performed in accordance to PRISMA guidelines. The findings revealed a lack of housing maintenance was associated with gastrointestinal infections, and skin-related diseases were associated with crowding. Diarrhoea was associated with the state of food preparation and storage areas, and viral conditions such as influenza were associated with crowding. Gastrointestinal, skin, ear, eye, and respiratory illnesses are related in various ways to health hardware functionality, removal and treatment of sewage, crowding, presence of pests and vermin, and the growth of mould and mildew. The research concluded that infectious disease transmission can be reduced by improving housing conditions, including adequate and timely housing repair and maintenance, and the enabling environment to perform healthy behaviours. Full article
Open AccessArticle Non-Uniformity of the Indoor Radon Concentration under a Convective Mixing Mechanism
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2826; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122826 (registering DOI)
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
This paper focuses on the results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of radon concentration distribution in living areas within residences. The COMSOL Multiphysics® 5.3 software package has been employed for solving coupled momentum and species transport problems together with pseudo-reaction term
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This paper focuses on the results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of radon concentration distribution in living areas within residences. The COMSOL Multiphysics® 5.3 software package has been employed for solving coupled momentum and species transport problems together with pseudo-reaction term modeling of the radon radioactive decay process. The reliability and verification of the simulation model was tested by comparing with available experimental data. The obtained results show the existence of stagnant zones where the concentration of radon is substantially higher than the average values. The impact of factors such as wind velocity, air tightness, and incoming radon flux were taken into consideration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
Open AccessReview Heavy Metal and Metalloid Pollution of Soil, Water and Foods in Bangladesh: A Critical Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2825; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122825 (registering DOI)
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
Bangladesh is a densely populated developing country. Both industrialization and geological sources have caused widespread heavy metal and metalloid pollution in Bangladesh, which is now posing substantial threats to the local people. In this review, we carried out one of the most exhaustive
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Bangladesh is a densely populated developing country. Both industrialization and geological sources have caused widespread heavy metal and metalloid pollution in Bangladesh, which is now posing substantial threats to the local people. In this review, we carried out one of the most exhaustive literature analyses on the current status of Bangladesh heavy metal and metalloid pollution, covering water, soil, and foods. Analysis showed that soils near high traffic and industrial areas contain high concentrations of heavy metals and metalloids. Agricultural land and vegetables in sewage-irrigated areas were also found to be heavy metal- and metalloid-contaminated. River water, sediment, and fish from the Buriganga, Turag, Shitalakhya, and Karnaphuli rivers are highly contaminated with cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and chromium (Cr). Particularly, groundwater arsenic (As) pollution associated with high geological background levels in Bangladesh is well reported and is hitherto the largest mass poisoning in the world. Overall, the contamination levels of heavy metals and metalloids vary among the cities, with industrial areas being most polluted. In all, this review provides a quantitative identification of the As, Pb, Cd, and Cr contamination hotspots in Bangladesh based on the literature, which may be useful to environmental restorationists and local policy makers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remediation and Analysis of Soil, Air, and Water Pollution)
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Open AccessArticle Perceived Facilitators and Barriers in Response to a Walking Intervention in Rural Cancer Survivors: A Qualitative Exploration
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2824; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122824 (registering DOI)
Received: 20 November 2018 / Revised: 6 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
Physical activity has numerous associated benefits for cancer survivors. Compared to their urban counterparts, rural and remote Australians experience a health disadvantage, including poorer survival rate after the diagnosis of cancer. The purpose of this qualitative study was to (a) investigate factors that
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Physical activity has numerous associated benefits for cancer survivors. Compared to their urban counterparts, rural and remote Australians experience a health disadvantage, including poorer survival rate after the diagnosis of cancer. The purpose of this qualitative study was to (a) investigate factors that motivated or inhibited walking in rural participants during a 12-week intervention and (b) to investigate factors that motivated or inhibited physical activity behavior change three months post-intervention. Ten cancer survivors living in rural areas of South Australia participated in a 12-week computer-delivered walking-based intervention during which they reported daily steps, daily affect, and ratings of perceived exertion. Based on this information, individualized daily step goals were sent to them to increase walking. Following the intervention, participants engaged in face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and coded using thematic analysis. Participants identified a range of physical, psychological, social, environmental, and organizational motivators and barriers. Participants appreciated the monitoring and support from the research team, but some voiced a need for better transition to post-program and many desired ongoing support to maintain their motivation. Future studies should incorporate strategies to help walking behavior to become more intrinsically motivated and therefore sustained. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Physical Activity and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Outbreak of Acute Gastroenteritis Caused by Norovirus Genogroup II Attributed to Contaminated Cold Dishes on a Cruise Ship in Chongqing, China, 2017
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2823; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122823 (registering DOI)
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 12 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
In April 2017, several travelers with acute gastroenteritis on a cruise ship were reported. We conducted an investigation to identify the pathogen, mode of transmission, and risk factors. We searched and classified case-patient according to structured case definition, and collect date of the
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In April 2017, several travelers with acute gastroenteritis on a cruise ship were reported. We conducted an investigation to identify the pathogen, mode of transmission, and risk factors. We searched and classified case-patient according to structured case definition, and collect date of the onset, clinical manifestations, and demographic information of cases. A case-control study was implemented to compare foods consumption between cases and asymptomatic travelers. Samples such as feces, rectal swab, vomitus, and environment swab were collected for testing. The attack rate was 18.2% (101/555), four cold dishes served on 11th, April were independently associated with an increased risk of disease: cold potherb (odds ratio (OR): 14.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.2–93.3) and cold garlic sprout (OR: 26.1; 95% CI: 4.9–138.0) served at lunch, cold broad bean (OR: 5.8; 95% CI: 1.3–26.2), and cold cucumber (OR: 13.9; 95% CI: 2.3–84.2) served at dinner. A total of 15 samples were positive for norovirus genogroup II (GII) by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This outbreak that occurred on the cruise ship was caused by norovirus GII. The evidence indicated that norovirus was mainly transmitted through consumption of cold dishes on 11th, April, which might be contaminated by asymptomatic cold dish cook. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Air Pollution Control on Urban Development Quality in Chinese Cities Based on Spatial Durbin Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2822; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122822 (registering DOI)
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
With the rapid development of urbanization, industrialization, and motorization, a large number of Chinese cities have been affected by heavy air pollution. In order to promote the development quality of Chinese cities, mixed regulations to control air pollution have been implemented under the
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With the rapid development of urbanization, industrialization, and motorization, a large number of Chinese cities have been affected by heavy air pollution. In order to promote the development quality of Chinese cities, mixed regulations to control air pollution have been implemented under the lead of government. The principal component analysis and efficacy coefficient method are used to estimate urban development quality, according to the panel data of 285 prefecture-level cities in China over the period 2003–2016. On this basis, the paper uses the spatial Durbin model to study the direct impact and the spatial spillover effect of air pollution control on urban development quality in China. Results show that the control of smoke and dust has improved urban development quality in China, however, the control of sulfur dioxide has led to the decline of urban development quality in China. Furthermore, the impact of air pollution control on urban development quality in the eastern region is of great significance in statistical tests, while the situation in the central and western regions has not passed the test, implying the spatial heterogeneity among different regions. The different effects of air pollution control on urban development quality in different regions also illustrate the consciousness and supervision of local governments’ environment protection. Finally, the effects decomposition of the influencing factors based on spatial Durbin model (SDM) also supports the robust findings. Promoting the upgrading of energy consumption structure, raising awareness of environmental protection and supervision, and strengthening cooperation of different regions are suggested. Further recommendations are provided to improve the conceptual design and increase the credibility of our research. Our study not only provides new evidence on the impact of air pollution control on urban development quality in China, but also proposes a new perspective to promote urban development quality in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Economics)
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Open AccessArticle Relative Density of Away from Home Food Establishments and Food Spend for 24,047 Households in England: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2821; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122821 (registering DOI)
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
Eating away from home is a risk factor for poor diet quality and obesity. With an ever-increasing proportion of household food spend directed toward eating out, the proliferation of these food establishments may contribute to their use, a potential precursor to less healthy
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Eating away from home is a risk factor for poor diet quality and obesity. With an ever-increasing proportion of household food spend directed toward eating out, the proliferation of these food establishments may contribute to their use, a potential precursor to less healthy food choices and low overall diet quality. However few studies are conducted at the national level and across a range of away from home food sources. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the density of away from home food establishments (e.g., restaurants, fast food outlets and cafés) and household spend on away from home food within a nationally representative sample for England, UK. A cross-sectional analysis of data from Wave 1 of the UK Household Longitudinal Survey (n = 24,047 adults aged ≥19y) was conducted. Exposure was characterised as the density of away from home food establishments to all other food sources within 1 mile of the home, divided into quintiles (Q1 as lowest exposure and Q5 as highest exposure). The primary outcome included households with a high away from home equivalised monthly food spend (≥25% of total food spend). Logistic regression was used to estimate associations between away from home food establishment exposure and high away from home food spend. Away from home food establishment density was significantly associated with a greater odds of high monthly food spend (Q3: OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.07, 1.30; Q4: OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.18, 1.43; and Q5: OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.37, 1.68) with attenuation after controlling for known socioeconomic confounders (Q4: OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.25; and Q5: OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.30) compared to those least exposed (Q1). Those most exposed to away from home food establishments had a 16% greater odds of allocating more than 25% of household food spend on away from home food sources. This study provides one of the first analyses at the national level to examine the role of the local food environment in relation to household food spend, a potential precursor to diet quality and health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 15th Anniversary)
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Open AccessArticle A Comparison of Stress Perception in International and Local First Semester Medical Students Using Psychometric, Psychophysiological, and Humoral Methods
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2820; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122820 (registering DOI)
Received: 25 October 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
(1) Medical doctors and medical students show increased psychological stress levels. International medical students seem to be particularly vulnerable. (2) We compared different methods of assessing stress levels in international and local first year medical students. First, study participants completed questionnaires related to
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(1) Medical doctors and medical students show increased psychological stress levels. International medical students seem to be particularly vulnerable. (2) We compared different methods of assessing stress levels in international and local first year medical students. First, study participants completed questionnaires related to stress, depression, empathy, and self-efficacy (MBI, PSQ, PHQ-9, JSPE-S, and GSE) at three separate points in time (T1 to T3). Second, their heart rate variabilities (HRVs) were recorded in an oral examination, a seminar, and in a relaxing situation. Third, hair samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of the semester to assess the cortisol concentration. (3) Included were 20 international and 20 local first semester medical students. At T1, we found considerable differences between international and local students in the JSPE-S; at T2 in the MBI factor “professional efficacy”, the PHQ-9, and in the JSPE-S; and at T3 in the MBI factors “cynicism” and “professional efficacy”, the PHQ-9, and in the JSPE-S. International and local students also differed concerning their HRVs during relaxation. Over the course of the semester, international students showed changes in the MBI factors “emotional exhaustion” and “professional efficacy”, the PHQ-9, and the GSE. Local students showed changes in the GSE. No effects were found for students’ hair cortisol concentrations. (4) All participants showed low levels of stress. However, while international students experienced their stress levels to decrease over the course of the semester, local students found their stress levels to increase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mental Health)
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Open AccessReview STI Health Disparities: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Preventive Interventions in Educational Settings
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2819; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122819 (registering DOI)
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 8 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to address disparities related to sexual health among students by examining the effectiveness of sexually transmitted infection (STI) preventive interventions in educational settings. PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, Public Health Database, and EMBASE databases were
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The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to address disparities related to sexual health among students by examining the effectiveness of sexually transmitted infection (STI) preventive interventions in educational settings. PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, Public Health Database, and EMBASE databases were used to conduct searches. Information relating to studies, programs, participants, and quantitative outcome variables were extracted. Risk of bias was assessed and meta-analysis was conducted. This systematic review included 16 articles. The outcomes were classified into behavioral and psychosocial categories. The behavioral category included sexual partners, sexual activity, condom use, STI/HIV testing, and alcohol/drug use before sex. The psychosocial category consisted of knowledge, motivational factors, and skills. Interventions had a significantly positive impact on both behavioral (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.17–1.39) and psychosocial (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.36–2.72) outcomes. Among the psychosocial outcomes, the interventions were most effective at promoting knowledge (OR, 3.17; 95% CI, 2.13–4.72), followed by enhancing motivational factors (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.04–2.75) and increasing behavioral skills (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.13–1.81). The results of this systematic review provide empirical evidence for public health professionals and policy makers regarding planning, implementation, evaluation, and modification of STI preventive intervention programs in educational settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Care Equity)
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Open AccessArticle Socio-Economic Status and Health: Evaluation of Human Biomonitored Chemical Exposure to Per- and Polyfluorinated Substances across Status
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2818; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122818 (registering DOI)
Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
Research on the environment, health, and well-being nexus (EHWB) is shifting from a silo toward a systemic approach that includes the socio-economic context. To disentangle further the complex interplay between the socio-exposome and internal chemical exposure, we performed a meta-analysis of human biomonitoring
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Research on the environment, health, and well-being nexus (EHWB) is shifting from a silo toward a systemic approach that includes the socio-economic context. To disentangle further the complex interplay between the socio-exposome and internal chemical exposure, we performed a meta-analysis of human biomonitoring (HBM) studies with internal exposure data on per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and detailed information on risk factors, including descriptors of socio-economic status (SES) of the study population. PFASs are persistent in nature, and some have endocrine-disrupting properties. Individual studies have shown that HBM biomarker concentrations of PFASs generally increase with SES indicators, e.g., for income. Based on a meta-analysis (five studies) of the associations between PFASs and SES indicators, the magnitude of the association could be estimated. For the SES indicator income, changes in income were expressed by a factor change, which was corrected by the Gini coefficient to take into account the differences in income categories between studies, and the income range between countries. For the SES indicator education, we had to conclude that descriptors (<college, x years of study, etc.) differed too widely between studies to perform a meta-analysis. Therefore, the use of the uniform ISCED (International Standard Classification of Education) is recommended in future studies. The meta-analysis showed that a higher income is associated with a higher internal exposure to PFASs (PFOS or perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, PFOA or perfluorooctanoic acid, PFNA or perfluorononanoic acid, PFHxS or perfluorohexane sulfonate). This is opposite to the environmental justice hypothesis, referring to an inequitable distribution of detrimental environmental effects toward poor and minority communities by a practice or policy. With a doubling of the income, internal exposure increased on average by 10%–14%. Possible explanations for this difference are given, e.g., underlying differences in diet. However, other sources can also contribute, and the exact causes of SES-related differences in PFAS concentrations remain unclear. Studies are needed that include social descriptors together with lifestyle and dietary information as explanatory variables for internal chemical exposure levels. This will help clarify the underlying factors that link SES with inequity to environmental exposures, and will raise awareness and knowledge to strengthen the capacities of people and communities to advocate chemical exposure reduction in order to reduce this health inequity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Achieving Environmental Health Equity: Great Expectations)
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Open AccessArticle Modelization of Nutrient Removal Processes at a Large WWTP Using a Modified ASM2d Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2817; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122817 (registering DOI)
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 2 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
The biodegradation of particulate substrates starts by a hydrolytic stage. Hydrolysis is a slow reaction and usually becomes the rate limiting step of the organic substrates biodegradation. The objective of this work was to evaluate a novel hydrolysis concept based on a modification
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The biodegradation of particulate substrates starts by a hydrolytic stage. Hydrolysis is a slow reaction and usually becomes the rate limiting step of the organic substrates biodegradation. The objective of this work was to evaluate a novel hydrolysis concept based on a modification of the activated sludge model (ASM2d) and to compare it with the original ASM2d model. The hydrolysis concept was developed in order to accurately predict the use of internal carbon sources in enhanced biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes at a full scale facility located in northern Poland. Both hydrolysis concepts were compared based on the accuracy of their predictions for the main processes taking place at a full-scale facility. From the comparison, it was observed that the modified ASM2d model presented similar predictions to those of the original ASM2d model on the behavior of chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4-N, NO3-N, and PO4-P. However, the modified model proposed in this work yield better predictions of the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) (up to 5.6 and 5.7%) as well as in the phosphate release and uptake rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Environmental Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Enablers Supporting the Implementation of Knowledge Management in the Healthcare of Pakistan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2816; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122816 (registering DOI)
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
Knowledge is considered to be an important resource; it is the source of competitive advantage. However, if knowledge is managed well with Knowledge Management (KM), then it becomes a source for sustainable competitive advantage for organizations. If KM is implemented in an organization,
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Knowledge is considered to be an important resource; it is the source of competitive advantage. However, if knowledge is managed well with Knowledge Management (KM), then it becomes a source for sustainable competitive advantage for organizations. If KM is implemented in an organization, it would improve the organizational competitiveness, performance, and productivity, and facilitate the efficient use of resources. Due to intense competition in the global market, many organizations are moving towards the adoption of KM. The healthcare sectors of many developed countries have moved towards the implementation of KM because it can improve the procuring of knowledge from ongoing activities by the effective use of data repositories. Developing countries have now realized the potential and benefits of KM adoption. Pakistan is one of the developing countries that have recently shown an inclination towards the adoption of KM in its healthcare sector to improve performance of its healthcare. This study was composed of two main research phases. Firstly, the enablers of KM were reviewed from earlier studies. Secondly, interpretive structural modeling (ISM) and MICMAC (Cross-Impact Matrix Multiplication Applied to Classification) techniques were used to show the interrelationships between KM enablers and driving and dependence power of each enabler. The application of ISM and MICMAC technique shows that policy incentive, long-term strategic planning, Information Technology (IT), and alignment of KM efforts with business strategy are the main enablers of KM adoption in the healthcare of Pakistan. Focusing on the identified enablers will help in the implementation of KM. Policy incentives can work as a catalyst to promote KM adoption in the healthcare of Pakistan. Full article
Open AccessArticle Prevalence and Factors Associated with Inconsistent Condom Use among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) Who Use Mobile Geo-Social Networking Applications in Greater Tokyo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2815; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122815 (registering DOI)
Received: 27 October 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with inconsistent condom use among men who have sex with men (MSM) who use gay mobile geo-social networking applications (gay mobile apps) in Greater Tokyo. Among a sample of 1657 MSM recruited through advertisements on
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This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with inconsistent condom use among men who have sex with men (MSM) who use gay mobile geo-social networking applications (gay mobile apps) in Greater Tokyo. Among a sample of 1657 MSM recruited through advertisements on gay mobile apps, inconsistent condom use was reported by over one-third (37%) of participants with regular male partners, 18% with casual male partners, and 20% with female partners. In multiple regression analysis, inconsistent condom use with both regular and casual male partners was more commonly reported among participants without a university education, and among participants reporting lower self-efficacy for safer sex. Inconsistent condom use with casual male partners was more commonly reported among participants living in the central 23 wards of Tokyo. Inconsistent condom use with regular male partners was more commonly reported among participants who identified as a member of the gay community, and who only had male partners. These results indicate that a substantial proportion of Greater Tokyo gay mobile app users use condoms inconsistently, particularly with regular partners, and may be at risk for HIV. This paper provides useful information to help design tailored strategies to reduce inconsistent condom use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health of Marginalized People)
Open AccessArticle Maternal Education, Fertility, and Child Survival in Comoros
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2814; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122814 (registering DOI)
Received: 9 September 2018 / Revised: 21 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
Reduction in child mortality is a demographic progress of significant socioeconomic development relevance in Africa. This paper analyzed the effect of maternal education and fertility on child survival in the Islands of Comoros. The 2012 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data were used.
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Reduction in child mortality is a demographic progress of significant socioeconomic development relevance in Africa. This paper analyzed the effect of maternal education and fertility on child survival in the Islands of Comoros. The 2012 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data were used. A two-stage probit regression method was used for data analysis. The results showed that about 75% of the children’s mothers had given birth to between one and five children, while more than half did not have any form of formal education. The results of the two-stage probit regression showed that while child survival reduced significantly (p < 0.05) with the age of the heads of households, residence in the Ngazidja region, being born as twins, mother’s number of business trips, and number of marital unions, it increased with maternal education, fertility, male household headship, and the child being breastfed immediately after birth. It was concluded that efforts to enhance maternal education would reduce child mortality. It is also critical to promote child breastfeeding among women, while regional characteristics promoting differences in child mortality in Comoros Islands should be properly addressed with keen focus on the Ngazidja region. Full article
Open AccessArticle Differing Contributions of Classical Risk Factors to Type 2 Diabetes in Multi-Ethnic Malaysian Populations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2813; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122813 (registering DOI)
Received: 29 October 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is escalating rapidly in Asian countries, with the rapid increase likely attributable to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors. Recent research suggests that common genetic risk variants contribute minimally to the rapidly rising prevalence. Rather, recent
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The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is escalating rapidly in Asian countries, with the rapid increase likely attributable to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors. Recent research suggests that common genetic risk variants contribute minimally to the rapidly rising prevalence. Rather, recent changes in dietary patterns and physical activity may be more important. This nested case-control study assessed the association and predictive utility of type 2 diabetes lifestyle risk factors in participants from Malaysia, an understudied Asian population with comparatively high disease prevalence. The study sample comprised 4077 participants from The Malaysian Cohort project and included sub-samples from the three major ancestral groups: Malay (n = 1323), Chinese (n = 1344) and Indian (n = 1410). Association of lifestyle factors with type 2 diabetes was assessed within and across ancestral groups using logistic regression. Predictive utility was quantified and compared between groups using the Area Under the Receiver-Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC). In predictive models including age, gender, waist-to-hip ratio, physical activity, location, family history of diabetes and average sleep duration, the AUC ranged from 0.76 to 0.85 across groups and was significantly higher in Chinese than Malays or Indians, likely reflecting anthropometric differences. This study suggests that obesity, advancing age, a family history of diabetes and living in a rural area are important drivers of the escalating prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Malaysia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle Network Design for Municipal Solid Waste Collection: A Case Study of the Nanjing Jiangbei New Area
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2812; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122812
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
Garbage collection is an important part of municipal engineering. An effective service network design can help to reduce the municipal operation cost and improve its service level. In this paper, we propose an optimization model for the network design of municipal solid waste
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Garbage collection is an important part of municipal engineering. An effective service network design can help to reduce the municipal operation cost and improve its service level. In this paper, we propose an optimization model for the network design of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection in the Nanjing Jiangbei new area. The problem was formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model with an emphasis on minimizing the annual operation cost. The model simultaneously decides on the optimal number of refuse transfer stations (RTSs), determines the relative size and location for each RTS, allocates each community to a specific RTS, and finally identifies the annual operation cost and service level for the optimal scenario as well as other scenarios. A custom solution procedure which hybrids an enumeration rule and a genetic algorithm was designed to solve the proposed model. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to illustrate the impact of changes in parameters on the optimality of the proposed model. Test results revealed that our model could provide tangible policy recommendations for managing the MSW collection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Air Pollution on Sedentary Behavior: A Cohort Study of Freshmen at a University in Beijing, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2811; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122811
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
Human populations worldwide have experienced substantial environmental issues in part due to air pollution, notably in China. Gaps in the scientific literature remain regarding the relationship between air pollution and sedentary behavior among young adults in China. The purpose of this study is
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Human populations worldwide have experienced substantial environmental issues in part due to air pollution, notably in China. Gaps in the scientific literature remain regarding the relationship between air pollution and sedentary behavior among young adults in China. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of air pollution on sedentary behavior among college students living in Beijing, China. We conducted follow-up health surveys on 12,174 freshman students enrolled at Tsinghua University from 2013 to 2017. Sedentary behavior was measured using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Corresponding air pollution data measured by the Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China were collected to include the average hourly air quality index (AQI), PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 (µg/m³). The data were analyzed using linear individual fixed-effect regressions. An increase in air pollution concentration of one standard deviation in AQI, PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 was associated with an increase in weekly total hours of sedentary behavior by 7.35 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 5.89, 8.80), 6.24 (95% CI = 5.00, 7.49), 6.80 (95% CI = 5.46, 8.15), and 7.06 (95% CI = 5.65, 8.47), respectively. In the presence of air pollution, women students tended to increase their sedentary behavior more than men. Air pollution increases sedentary behavior among freshman students living in Beijing, China. Replication of this study is warranted among various populations within China. Full article
Open AccessReview Smartphone Applications for Mindfulness Interventions with Suicidality in Asian Older Adults: A Literature Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2810; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122810
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
Elderly suicide is a rising concern. Despite the advent of mobile technology, there remained a gap in the evidence base as to whether smartphone applications could be used for mindfulness intervention for suicidality in Asian older adults. This paper aimed to review recent
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Elderly suicide is a rising concern. Despite the advent of mobile technology, there remained a gap in the evidence base as to whether smartphone applications could be used for mindfulness intervention for suicidality in Asian older adults. This paper aimed to review recent research relevant to smartphone applications that could be used in providing mindfulness interventions for suicidality to Asian older adults. The inclusion criteria for this review were papers published in peer-reviewed journals from 2008 to 2018 with the usage of specific search terms, namely, ‘smartphone application’, ‘mobile application’, and ‘mindfulness’, assessed against the inclusion criteria and screened by an experienced Asian clinician to be of clinical utility for mindfulness intervention for suicidality with Asian older adults. Initial search on databases yielded 236 results. A total of 35 full text papers that fit the inclusion criteria were assessed for eligibility and 10 papers were included in the current review. This review highlighted the paucity of rigorous empirically validated research into effective smartphone applications that can be used for mindfulness interventions for suicidality with Asian older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry)
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Open AccessArticle Process Mining and Conformance Checking of Long Running Processes in the Context of Melanoma Surveillance
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2809; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122809
Received: 25 October 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
Background: Process mining is a relatively new discipline that helps to discover and analyze actual process executions based on log data. In this paper we apply conformance checking techniques to the process of surveillance of melanoma patients. This process consists of recurring events
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Background: Process mining is a relatively new discipline that helps to discover and analyze actual process executions based on log data. In this paper we apply conformance checking techniques to the process of surveillance of melanoma patients. This process consists of recurring events with time constraints between the events. Objectives: The goal of this work is to show how existing clinical data collected during melanoma surveillance can be prepared and pre-processed to be reused for process mining. Methods: We describe an approach based on time boxing to create process models from medical guidelines and the corresponding event logs from clinical data of patient visits. Results: Event logs were extracted for 1023 patients starting melanoma surveillance at the Department of Dermatology at the Medical University of Vienna between January 2010 and June 2017. Conformance checking techniques available in the ProM framework and explorative applied process mining techniques were applied. Conclusions: The presented time boxing enables the direct use of existing process mining frameworks like ProM to perform process-oriented analysis also with respect to time constraints between events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process-Oriented Data Science for Healthcare 2018 (PODS4H18))
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of a High PM2.5 Exposure Group in Seoul Using the Korea Simulation Exposure Model for PM2.5 (KoSEM-PM) Based on Time–Activity Patterns and Microenvironmental Measurements
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2808; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122808
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 6 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
The Korea Simulation Exposure Model for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) (KoSEM-PM) was developed to estimate population PM2.5 exposure in Korea. The data were acquired based on 59,945 min of the actual microenvironmental PM2.5 measurements and on the time–activity patterns
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The Korea Simulation Exposure Model for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) (KoSEM-PM) was developed to estimate population PM2.5 exposure in Korea. The data were acquired based on 59,945 min of the actual microenvironmental PM2.5 measurements and on the time–activity patterns of 8072 residents of Seoul. The aims of the study were to estimate daily PM2.5 exposure of Seoul population, and to determine the characteristics of a high exposure group. KoSEM-PM estimated population exposures by applying the PM2.5 distribution to the matching time–activity patterns at 10-min intervals. The mean personal PM2.5 exposure level of the surveyed subjects in Seoul was 26.0 ± 2.7 µg/m3 (range: 21.0–40.2 µg/m3) in summer. Factors significantly associated with high exposure included day of the week, age, industry sector, job type, and working hours. Individuals surveyed on Saturdays were more likely to be in the high exposure group than those surveyed on weekdays and Sundays. Younger, non-office-working individuals with longer working hours were more likely to be in the high exposure group. KoSEM-PM could be a useful tool to estimate population exposure levels to other region in Korea; to expand its use, microenvironmental measurements are required for other region in Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Open AccessBrief Report Who Is Serving Us? Food Safety Rules Compliance Among Brazilian Food Truck Vendors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2807; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122807
Received: 12 October 2018 / Revised: 21 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
The rise of food trucks as an eating out option requires knowledge of this sector. Balancing the reality of the food truck sector with access to safe food should guide actions and public policies to cater to its peculiarities. Therefore, this study aimed
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The rise of food trucks as an eating out option requires knowledge of this sector. Balancing the reality of the food truck sector with access to safe food should guide actions and public policies to cater to its peculiarities. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the Brazilian food truck vendors’ profile regarding their socioeconomic status and compliance with food safety rules. From the 118 food truck vendors registered in the Brazilian Federal District, 30% (n = 35) participated in the study. We conducted structured interviews from December 2017 to April 2018. We ranked compliance levels according to a five-point Likert scale based on calculated compliance scores. The interviews revealed that food truck vendors were mostly married males, who had completed at least a tertiary education level, and wanted to start up their own businesses. The compliance levels depict good compliance with food safety rules (overall compliance (OC)-score = 0.69, on a 0 to 1 scale). The food trucks assessed in this study distinguished themselves from the street food and food retail sectors due to their operational structure and the complexity of food production processes. Those particular features should be considered to ensure adequate and effective sanitary control and inspections, as well as to reduce the probability of microbial growth and food contamination and the consequent risk of foodborne illnesses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
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Open AccessArticle Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain, Self-Reported Health and Quality of Life among Older Populations in South Africa and Uganda
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2806; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122806
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
Chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) is a serious health concern especially among the elderly population and has significant bearing on health and quality of life. Not much is known about the relationship between chronic pain with self-reported health and quality of life among older
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Chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) is a serious health concern especially among the elderly population and has significant bearing on health and quality of life. Not much is known about the relationship between chronic pain with self-reported health and quality of life among older populations in low-resource settings. Based on sub-national data from South Africa and Uganda, the present study aimed to explore whether the older population living with CMP report health and quality of life differently compared to those with no CMP complaints. This study was based on cross-sectional data on 1495 South African and Ugandan men and women collected from the SAGE Well-Being of Older People Study. Outcome variables were self-reported physical and mental health and quality of life (QoL). Mental health was assessed by self-reported depressive symptoms during the last 12 months. CMP was assessed by self-reported generalised pain as well as back pain. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to measure the association between health and QoL with CMP by adjusting for potential demographic and environmental confounders. The prevalence of poor self-rated health (61.2%, 95% CI = 51.7, 70.0), depression (37.2%, 95% CI = 34.8, 39.6) and QoL (80.5%, 95% CI = 70.8, 87.5) was considerably high in the study population. Mild/moderate and Severe/extreme generalised pain were reported respectively by 34.5% (95% CI = 28.9, 40.5) and 15.7% (95% CI = 12.2, 19.9) of the respondents, while back pain was reported by 53.3% (95% CI = 45.8, 60.4). The prevalence of both types was significantly higher among women than in men (p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, both generalised pain and back pain significantly predicted poor health, depression and QoL, however, it varied between the two different populations. Back pain was associated with higher odds of poor self-rated health [OR = 1.813, 95% CI = 1.308, 2.512], depression [1.640, 95% CI = 1.425, 3.964] and poor QoL [1.505, 95% CI = 1.028, 2.202] in South Africa, but not in Uganda. Compared to having no generalised pain, having Mild/Moderate [OR = 2.309, 95% CI = 1.219, 7.438] and Severe/Extreme [OR = 2.271, 95% CI = 1.447, 4.143] generalised pain was associated with significantly higher odds of poor self-rated health in South Africa. An overwhelmingly high proportion of the sample population reported poor health, quality of life and depression. Among older individuals, health interventions that address CMP may help promote subjective health and quality and life and improve psychological health. Full article
Open AccessReview Risk Factors for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Population-Based Studies: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2805; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122805
Received: 26 October 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) represents an important public health problem with a prevalence between 1.3% and 12.5%. Several population-based randomized trials have evaluated ultrasound screening for AAA providing evidence of a reduction in aneurysm-related mortality in the screened population. The aim of our
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Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) represents an important public health problem with a prevalence between 1.3% and 12.5%. Several population-based randomized trials have evaluated ultrasound screening for AAA providing evidence of a reduction in aneurysm-related mortality in the screened population. The aim of our study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the risk factors for AAA. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies and we performed a meta-analysis that evaluated the following risk factors: gender, smoking habits, hypertension, coronary artery disease and family history of AAA. Respect to a previous a meta-analysis we added the funnel plot to examine the effect sizes estimated from individual studies as measure of their precision; sensitivity analysis to check the stability of study findings and estimate how the overall effect size would be modified by removal of one study; cumulative analysis to evaluate the trend between studies in relation to publication year. Abdominal aortic aneurysm prevalence is higher in smokers and in males. On the other hand, while diabetes is a risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases, it is not a risk factor for AAA. In addition, it is important to underline that all countries, where AAA screening was set up, had high income level and the majority belong to Western Europe (United Kingdom, Sweden, Italy, Poland, Spain and Belgium). Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening is fundamental for public health. It could avoid deaths, ruptures, and emergency surgical interventions if abdominal aortic aneurysm was diagnosed early in the population target for screening. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Health Behaviors, Risk Factors, NCDs and Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle Psychological Benefits of Walking through Forest Areas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2804; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122804
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 25 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
This study aimed to clarify the psychological benefits of brief walks through forest areas. In addition, we aimed to examine the associations between psychological responses and trait anxiety levels. Five-hundred-and-eighty-five participants (mean age, 21.7 ± 1.6 years) were instructed to walk predetermined courses
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This study aimed to clarify the psychological benefits of brief walks through forest areas. In addition, we aimed to examine the associations between psychological responses and trait anxiety levels. Five-hundred-and-eighty-five participants (mean age, 21.7 ± 1.6 years) were instructed to walk predetermined courses through forest (test) and city (control) areas for 15 min. The Profile of Mood State (POMS) questionnaire and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to assess participants’ psychological responses and trait anxiety levels, respectively. The results revealed that walking through forest areas decreased the negative moods of “depression-dejection”, “tension-anxiety”, “anger-hostility”, “fatigue”, and “confusion” and improved the participants’ positive mood of “vigor” compared with walking through city areas. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between participants’ trait anxiety levels and their changes in the subscale of “depression-dejection” of POMS after walking through forest areas. A more effective reduction in the feeling of “depression-dejection” after walking through forest areas was observed for participants with high trait anxiety levels than for those with normal and low trait anxiety levels. This study showed the psychological benefits of walking through forest areas and identified a significant correlation between psychological responses to walking through forests and trait anxiety levels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tuberculosis Transmission in Households and Classrooms of Adolescent Cases Compared to the Community in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2803; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122803 (registering DOI)
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the link between the history of exposure to tuberculosis (TB) in the household and diagnosed TB cases at school, and to compare the detection rate of active TB among household contacts and classroom contacts of
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The aim of this paper is to evaluate the link between the history of exposure to tuberculosis (TB) in the household and diagnosed TB cases at school, and to compare the detection rate of active TB among household contacts and classroom contacts of adolescent TB cases with the rates among contacts of healthy controls. From November 2016 to December 2017, a prospective matched case-control study was conducted using passively identified index adolescent student cases from the TB surveillance system and healthy controls (matched by county, school type, sex, age and ethnicity). Contacts in households and classrooms of index cases and of controls were investigated. Matched tabulation of 117 case-control pairs revealed exposure to TB in the household as a strong risk factor (odds ratio (OR) = 21.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4, 868.6). Forty-five (case detection rate 0.69%) and two (case detection rate 0.03%) new active TB cases were detected among 6512 and 6480 classroom contacts of the index cases and controls, respectively. Having an index case in the classroom significantly increased the risk of classmates contracting active TB (OR = 22.5, 95% CI: 5.9, 191.4). Our findings suggested that previous exposure to TB in the household could lead a child to catch TB at school, then spread TB to classmates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Air Pollution Exposure in Walking School Bus Routes: A New Zealand Case Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2802; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122802
Received: 3 November 2018 / Revised: 6 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
Walking School Buses (WSBs), organized groups for children to walk to school under the supervision of adults, help reduce traffic congestion and contribute towards exercise. Routes are based largely on need, traffic safety and travel time, with exposure to air pollution not generally
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Walking School Buses (WSBs), organized groups for children to walk to school under the supervision of adults, help reduce traffic congestion and contribute towards exercise. Routes are based largely on need, traffic safety and travel time, with exposure to air pollution not generally considered. This paper explores whether reductions in exposure can be achieved based on the side of the road travelled using data collected in Auckland, New Zealand. Exposure to air pollution was measured for a 25-min commute consisting of a 10-min segment along a quiet cul-de-sac and a 15-min segment along a main arterial road with traffic congestion heavier in one direction. Two participants were each equipped with a portable P-Trak ultrafine particle monitor and a portable Langan carbon monoxide monitor, and walked the route on opposite sides of the road simultaneously, for both morning and afternoon, logging 10-s data. The results suggest that pedestrians travelling on the footpath next to the less congested side of the road in the morning avoid many short-term peaks in concentration and experience significantly lower mean exposures than those travelling on the footpath next to the more congested side. Significant reductions in air pollution exposure could be made for children by taking into account the side of the road in WSB route design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children, Air Pollution and the Outdoor Urban Environment)
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Open AccessArticle Relationships between Meteorological Parameters and Particulate Matter in Mae Hong Son Province, Thailand
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2801; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122801
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
Meteorological parameters play an important role in determining the prevalence of ambient particulate matter (PM) in the upper north of Thailand. Mae Hong Son is a province located in this region and which borders Myanmar. This study aimed to determine the relationships between
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Meteorological parameters play an important role in determining the prevalence of ambient particulate matter (PM) in the upper north of Thailand. Mae Hong Son is a province located in this region and which borders Myanmar. This study aimed to determine the relationships between meteorological parameters and ambient concentrations of particulate matter less than 10 µm in diameter (PM10) in Mae Hong Son. Parameters were measured at an air quality monitoring station, and consisted of PM10, carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and meteorological factors, including temperature, rainfall, pressure, wind speed, wind direction, and relative humidity (RH). Nine years (2009–2017) of pollution and climate data obtained from the Thai Pollution Control Department (PCD) were used for analysis. The results of this study indicate that PM10 is influenced by meteorological parameters; high concentration occurred during the dry season and northeastern monsoon seasons. Maximum concentrations were always observed in March. The PM10 concentrations were significantly related to CO and O3 concentrations and to RH, giving correlation coefficients of 0.73, 0.39, and −0.37, respectively (p-value < 0.001). Additionally, the hourly PM10 concentration fluctuated within each day. In general, it was found that the reporting of daily concentrations might be best suited to public announcements and presentations. Hourly concentrations are recommended for public declarations that might be useful for warning citizens and organizations about air pollution. Our findings could be used to improve the understanding of PM10 concentration patterns in Mae Hong Son and provide information to better air pollution measures and establish a warning system for the province. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Open AccessArticle Levels of Burnout and Risk Factors in Medical Area Nurses: A Meta-Analytic Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2800; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122800
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
Research findings concerning burnout prevalence rate among nurses from the medical area are contradictory. The aim of this study was to analyse associated factors, to determine nurse burnout levels and to meta-analyse the prevalence rate of each burnout dimension. A systematic review, with
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Research findings concerning burnout prevalence rate among nurses from the medical area are contradictory. The aim of this study was to analyse associated factors, to determine nurse burnout levels and to meta-analyse the prevalence rate of each burnout dimension. A systematic review, with meta-analysis, was conducted in February 2018, consulting the next scientific databases: PubMed, CUIDEN, CINAHL, Scopus, LILACS, PsycINFO and ProQuest Health & Medical Complete. In total, 38 articles were extracted, using a double-blinded procedure. The studies were classified by the level of evidence and degrees of recommendation. The 63.15% (n = 24) of the studies used the MBI. High emotional exhaustion was found in the 31% of the nurses, 24% of high depersonalisation and low personal accomplishment was found in the 38%. Factors related to burnout included professional experience, psychological factors and marital status. High emotional exhaustion prevalence rates, high depersonalisation and inadequate personal accomplishment are present among medical area nurses. The risk profile could be a single nurse, with multiple employments, who suffers work overload and with relatively little experience in this field. The problem addressed in this study influence the quality of care provided, on patients’ well-being and on the occupational health of nurses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Profile Resemblance in Health-Related Markers: The Portuguese Sibling Study on Growth, Fitness, Lifestyle, and Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2799; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122799
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 6 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
The co-occurrence of health-related markers and their associations with individual, family, and environmental characteristics have not yet been widely explored in siblings. We aimed to identify multivariate profiles of health-related markers, analyze their associations with biological, sociodemographic, and built environment characteristics, and estimate
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The co-occurrence of health-related markers and their associations with individual, family, and environmental characteristics have not yet been widely explored in siblings. We aimed to identify multivariate profiles of health-related markers, analyze their associations with biological, sociodemographic, and built environment characteristics, and estimate sibling resemblance in these profiles. The sample includes 736 biological siblings aged 9–20 years. Body fat was measured with a portable bioelectrical impedance scale; biological maturation was assessed with the maturity offset; handgrip strength, standing long jump, one-mile run, and shuttle run were used to mark physical fitness. Health behaviors, sociodemographic, and built environmental characteristics were recorded by questionnaire. Latent profile analysis and multilevel logistic regression models were used; sibling resemblance was estimated with the intraclass correlation (ρ). Two multivariate profiles emerged: “P1 = fit, lower fat and poorer diet” (86.7%) and “P2 = higher fat and lower fit, but better diet” (13.3%). Siblings whose fathers were less qualified in their occupation were more likely to belong to P2 (OR = 1.24, p = 0.04); those whose fathers with Grade 12 and university level education were more likely to fit in P2 compared to peers living with fathers having an educational level below Grade 12 (OR = 3.18, p = 0.03, and OR = 6.40, p = 0.02, Grade 12 and university level, respectively). A moderate sibling profile resemblance was found (0.46 ≤ ρ ≤ 0.55). In conclusion, youth health-related markers present substantial differences linked with their body composition, physical fitness and unhealthy diet. Furthermore, only father socio-demographic characteristics were associated with profile membership. Sibling´s profile resemblance mirrors the effects of genetics and shared characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Adolescents and Children Health Research)
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