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Lipidomic Signatures Reveal Seasonal Shifts on the Relative Abundance of High-Valued Lipids from the Brown Algae Fucus vesiculosus

1
Centro de Espetrometria de Massa, Departamento de Química & QOPNA& LAQV-REQUIMTE, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
2
Departamento de Química & CESAM & ECOMARE, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
3
Departamento de Química & QOPNA & LAQV-REQUIMTE, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
4
ALGAplus-Produção e comercialização de algas e seus derivados, Lda., 3830-196 Ílhavo, Portugal
5
Departamento de Biologia & CESAM & ECOMARE, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060335
Received: 25 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 28 May 2019 / Published: 4 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids with Biological Interest)
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Abstract

Fucus vesiculosus is an edible brown macroalga, with health benefits associated with its consumption and also a source of bioactive molecules. It is acknowledged that the biochemical composition of macroalgae changes when exposed to different environmental conditions occurring on different habitats, such as the water temperature, and light intensity. In the present study, the polar lipidome of Fucus vesiculosus was characterized for the first time using modern high-resolution HILIC–MS, and MS/MS approaches, to evaluate the phenotypic variability in two seasons of the year, e.g., winter and spring. A total of 187 molecular species were identified over eighteen classes of glycolipids, phospholipids and betaine lipids. Principal component analysis (PCA) multivariate statistical analysis and cluster analysis of polar lipid classes, polar lipid species and total fatty acids (FA) datasets, showed clustering according to the seasonal groups. While the lipid profile of Fucus vesiculosus harvested in the winter and spring yielded the same molecular species, the relative abundance of these species was significantly different. In the winter, changes were mainly due to the increased relative abundance of some molecular species of glycolipids and phospholipids, bearing octadeca(poly)enoic (18:3, 18:4) and eicosa(poly)enoic (20:4, 20:5) FA and betaine lipids species with short saturated FA (14:0) and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA). Importantly, glycolipids with n-3 PUFA and sulfolipids, have been reported to have important biological activities and therapeutic value. Overall, Fucus vesiculosus is a promising source of bioactive compounds that can be used as functional food or ingredients for human nutrition, feed, pharma, and cosmetic formulations. In this study, samples harvested in the winter season maximized yields of these bioactive components, when compared with samples harvested in the spring. View Full-Text
Keywords: acclimatisation; phospholipids; glycolipids; betaine lipids; season; active ingredients acclimatisation; phospholipids; glycolipids; betaine lipids; season; active ingredients
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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da Costa, E.; Domingues, P.; Melo, T.; Coelho, E.; Pereira, R.; Calado, R.; Abreu, M.H.; Domingues, M.R. Lipidomic Signatures Reveal Seasonal Shifts on the Relative Abundance of High-Valued Lipids from the Brown Algae Fucus vesiculosus. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 335.

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