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Medicina, Volume 59, Issue 4 (April 2023) – 177 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Psychotherapy and psychosomatic rehabilitation have no curative effect in the treatment of ME/CFS. Nevertheless, patients suffer severely, and the specifics of this disease represent an enormous psychological challenge for them. A psychotherapeutic approach is outlined that takes into account two principles: that ME/CFS is a physical illness and curative treatment must therefore be physical, and that post-exertional malaise (PEM) is the cardinal symptom of ME/CFS which warrants tailored psychotherapeutic attention. View this paper
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10 pages, 365 KiB  
Viewpoint
Current Concepts in the Diagnosis and Management of Adult Primary Immune Thrombocytopenia: Our Personal View
by Tomás José González-López, Adrian Newland and Drew Provan
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 815; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040815 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2692
Abstract
Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired blood disorder that causes a reduction in circulating platelets with the potential for bleeding. The incidence of ITP is slightly higher in adults and affects more women than men until 60 years, when males are more [...] Read more.
Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired blood disorder that causes a reduction in circulating platelets with the potential for bleeding. The incidence of ITP is slightly higher in adults and affects more women than men until 60 years, when males are more affected. Despite advances in basic science, primary ITP remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The disease is heterogeneous in its clinical behavior and response to treatment. This reflects the complex underlying pathophysiology, which remains ill-understood. Platelet destruction plays a role in thrombocytopenia, but underproduction is also a major contributing factor. Active ITP is a proinflammatory autoimmune disease involving abnormalities within the T and B regulatory cell compartments, along with several other immunological abnormalities. Over the last several years, there has been a shift from using immunosuppressive therapies for ITP towards approved treatments, such as thrombopoietin receptor agonists. The recent COVID-19 pandemic has hastened this management shift, with thrombopoietin receptor agonists becoming the predominant second-line treatment. A greater understanding of the underlying mechanisms has led to the development of several targeted therapies, some of which have been approved, with others still undergoing clinical development. Here we outline our view of the disease, including our opinion about the major diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. We also discuss our management of adult ITP and our placement of the various available therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hematology and Immunology)
16 pages, 4583 KiB  
Article
Impact of Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy on Liver Fibrosis Regression among People with Chronic HCV Infection: Results from a Real-Life Cohort in Patients Who Achieved Sustained Virological Response
by Alejandro García-Ros, Senador Morán, Virginia Núñez, Gonzalo García-Ros, Guadalupe Ruiz and José García-Solano
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040814 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2080
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The global prevalence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is 0.8%, affecting around 58 million people worldwide. Treatment with DAAs reduces all-cause HCV mortality by 49–68%. This work aims to determine whether there is liver fibrosis regression (LFR) [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The global prevalence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is 0.8%, affecting around 58 million people worldwide. Treatment with DAAs reduces all-cause HCV mortality by 49–68%. This work aims to determine whether there is liver fibrosis regression (LFR) in patients who achieved Sustained Virological Response (SVR) after treatment with DAAs. Materials and Methods: An analytical, observational, single-center, and cohort study was carried out. The final sample consisted of 248 HCV-infected patients. All started treatment with DAAs between January 2015 and December 2017. Five measurements were performed to determine the fibrotic stage in patients (measured in kilopascals (kPa)) using transient elastography (FibroScan®, Echosens, The Netherlands). Results: Taking the baseline fibrotic stage as a reference, the distribution in subgroups was as follows: 77 F4 patients (31.0%); 55 F3 patients (22.2%); 53 F2 patients (21.4%); and 63 F0/F1 patients (25.4%). There were 40 patients (16.1%) with at least one HCV complication and 13 (5.2%) who developed hepatocellular carcinoma. The overall LFR rate was 77.8% (144 of 185 F2/F3/F4 patients, p = 0.01) at the end of the follow-up period. The highest mean FibroScan® values were observed in patients with: “male gender”; “metabolic syndrome”; “subtype 1a”; “NRP DAA”; “at least one HCV complication”; “death from HCV complications”; and “liver transplantation requirement”. Conclusions: Treatment with DAAs achieved high rates of LFR and a decrease in mean FibroScan® values in all subgroups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Hepatitis Research: Updates and Challenges)
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24 pages, 744 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effects of Virtual Reality on the Limb Motor Function, Balance, Gait, and Daily Function of Patients with Stroke: Systematic Review
by Bohan Zhang, Ka-Po Wong and Jing Qin
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 813; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040813 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3050
Abstract
Background and Objectives: This systematic review aimed to clarify the effectiveness of virtual reality rehabilitation on physical outcomes for people with stroke. Materials and Methods: Articles were searched through PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database, CINAHL, Web of [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: This systematic review aimed to clarify the effectiveness of virtual reality rehabilitation on physical outcomes for people with stroke. Materials and Methods: Articles were searched through PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database, CINAHL, Web of Science, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, from inception to 30 April 2022. Methodological quality was scored using the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews 2 tool. Each systematic review for the outcome of interest was assessed by two independent reviewers using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system. Results: Twenty-six articles were selected. These studies evaluated the effectiveness of virtual reality on limb motor function, balance, gait, and daily function in patients with stroke. The findings suggested a beneficial effect of virtual reality; there was a “very low” to “moderate” quality of evidence for improved limb extremity function, balance, and daily function, and a “very low” to “moderate” quality of evidence for improved gait. Conclusions: Despite widespread interest in the use of virtual reality rehabilitation, high-quality evidence for its routine use in stroke treatment is lacking. Further research is needed to determine the treatment modality, duration, and long-term effects of virtual reality on stroke populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technology in Rehabilitation)
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38 pages, 1653 KiB  
Review
Pituitary Tumorigenesis—Implications for Management
by Rodanthi Vamvoukaki, Maria Chrysoulaki, Grigoria Betsi and Paraskevi Xekouki
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040812 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3347
Abstract
Pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs), the third most common intracranial tumor, are mostly benign. However, some of them may display a more aggressive behavior, invading into the surrounding structures. While they may rarely metastasize, they may resist different treatment modalities. Several major advances in [...] Read more.
Pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs), the third most common intracranial tumor, are mostly benign. However, some of them may display a more aggressive behavior, invading into the surrounding structures. While they may rarely metastasize, they may resist different treatment modalities. Several major advances in molecular biology in the past few years led to the discovery of the possible mechanisms involved in pituitary tumorigenesis with a possible therapeutic implication. The mutations in the different proteins involved in the Gsa/protein kinase A/c AMP signaling pathway are well-known and are responsible for many PitNETS, such as somatotropinomas and, in the context of syndromes, as the McCune–Albright syndrome, Carney complex, familiar isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA), and X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG). The other pathways involved are the MAPK/ERK, PI3K/Akt, Wnt, and the most recently studied HIPPO pathways. Moreover, the mutations in several other tumor suppressor genes, such as menin and CDKN1B, are responsible for the MEN1 and MEN4 syndromes and succinate dehydrogenase (SDHx) in the context of the 3PAs syndrome. Furthermore, the pituitary stem cells and miRNAs hold an essential role in pituitary tumorigenesis and may represent new molecular targets for their diagnosis and treatment. This review aims to summarize the different cell signaling pathways and genes involved in pituitary tumorigenesis in an attempt to clarify their implications for diagnosis and management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Therapeutic Horizons for Pituitary Tumors)
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15 pages, 4995 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of Silver Nanoparticles-Loaded Bone Cement against an MRSA Induced-Osteomyelitis in a Rat Model
by Young Suk Choi, Young Hwan Kim, Hye Min An, Sung Kyoung Bae and Young Koo Lee
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040811 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2199
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the cytotoxicity and antibacterial effects of AgNP-impregnated Tetracalcium phosphate-dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (TTCP-DCPD). Materials and Methods: Using in vitro experiments, the cytotoxicity of AgNP-impregnated TTCP-DCPD against fibroblasts and osteocytes was assessed in terms [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the cytotoxicity and antibacterial effects of AgNP-impregnated Tetracalcium phosphate-dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (TTCP-DCPD). Materials and Methods: Using in vitro experiments, the cytotoxicity of AgNP-impregnated TTCP-DCPD against fibroblasts and osteocytes was assessed in terms of cell viability by water-soluble tetrazolium salt assay. To assess antibacterial effects, a disc diffusion test was used; osteomyelitis was induced first in vivo, by injection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus into the tibia of rats. AgNP-impregnated TTCP-DCPD bone cement was then applied at various silver concentrations for 3 or 12 weeks. Antibacterial effects were assessed by culturing and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). For histological observation, the bone tissues were stained using hematoxylin and eosin. Results: Cell viability was decreased by the impregnated bone cement but did not differ according to AgNP concentration. The diameter of the growth-inhibited zone of MRSA was between 4.1 and 13.3 mm on the disks treated with AgNP, indicating antimicrobial effects. In vivo, the numbers of bacterial colonies were reduced in the 12-week treatment groups compared to the 3-week treatment groups. The groups treated with a higher (10×) dose of AgNP (G2–G5) showed a tendency of lower bacterial colony counts compared to the group without AgNP (G1). The PCR analysis results showed a tendency of decreased bacterial gene expression in the AgNP-impregnated TTCP-DCPD groups (G2–G5) compared to the group without AgNP (G1) at 3 and 12 weeks. In the H&E staining, the degree of inflammation and necrosis of the AgNP-impregnated TTCP-DCPD groups (G2–G5) showed a tendency to be lower at 3 and 12 weeks compared to the control group. Our results suggest that AgNP-impregnated TTCP-DCPD cement has antimicrobial effects. Conclusions: This study indicates that AgNP-impregnated TTCP-DCPD bone cement could be considered to treat osteomyelitis. Full article
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11 pages, 1375 KiB  
Article
Design of a Convolutional Neural Network as a Deep Learning Tool for the Automatic Classification of Small-Bowel Cleansing in Capsule Endoscopy
by Tiago Ribeiro, Miguel José Mascarenhas Saraiva, João Afonso, Pedro Cardoso, Francisco Mendes, Miguel Martins, Ana Patrícia Andrade, Hélder Cardoso, Miguel Mascarenhas Saraiva, João Ferreira and Guilherme Macedo
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 810; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040810 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1693
Abstract
Background and objectives: Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a non-invasive method to inspect the small bowel that, like other enteroscopy methods, requires adequate small-bowel cleansing to obtain conclusive results. Artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms have been seen to offer important benefits in the field [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a non-invasive method to inspect the small bowel that, like other enteroscopy methods, requires adequate small-bowel cleansing to obtain conclusive results. Artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms have been seen to offer important benefits in the field of medical imaging over recent years, particularly through the adaptation of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to achieve more efficient image analysis. Here, we aimed to develop a deep learning model that uses a CNN to automatically classify the quality of intestinal preparation in CE. Methods: A CNN was designed based on 12,950 CE images obtained at two clinical centers in Porto (Portugal). The quality of the intestinal preparation was classified for each image as: excellent, ≥90% of the image surface with visible mucosa; satisfactory, 50–90% of the mucosa visible; and unsatisfactory, <50% of the mucosa visible. The total set of images was divided in an 80:20 ratio to establish training and validation datasets, respectively. The CNN prediction was compared with the classification established by consensus of a group of three experts in CE, currently considered the gold standard to evaluate cleanliness. Subsequently, how the CNN performed in diagnostic terms was evaluated using an independent validation dataset. Results: Among the images obtained, 3633 were designated as unsatisfactory preparation, 6005 satisfactory preparation, and 3312 with excellent preparation. When differentiating the classes of small-bowel preparation, the algorithm developed here achieved an overall accuracy of 92.1%, with a sensitivity of 88.4%, a specificity of 93.6%, a positive predictive value of 88.5%, and a negative predictive value of 93.4%. The area under the curve for the detection of excellent, satisfactory, and unsatisfactory classes was 0.98, 0.95, and 0.99, respectively. Conclusions: A CNN-based tool was developed to automatically classify small-bowel preparation for CE, and it was seen to accurately classify intestinal preparation for CE. The development of such a system could enhance the reproducibility of the scales used for such purposes. Full article
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9 pages, 1919 KiB  
Article
Effects of Topical or Intravitreal Application of Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor on Density of Intestinal Blood Vessels of Mice
by Atsushi Ichio, Masahiko Sugimoto, Yuhki Koike, Yuji Toiyama and Mineo Kondo
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040809 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1656
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy has become the first-line treatment for diabetic macular edema. However, it is still not clear whether anti-VEGF agents act on systemic blood vessels. The aim of this study is to determine whether a direct [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy has become the first-line treatment for diabetic macular edema. However, it is still not clear whether anti-VEGF agents act on systemic blood vessels. The aim of this study is to determine whether a direct topical application or intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF will change the intestinal blood vessels of mice. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6 mice were laparotomied under deep anesthesia, and the blood vessels on the surface of the intestines were exposed, examined, and photographed through a dissecting microscope. Vascular changes were evaluated before and at 1, 5, and 15 min after the topical application of 50 µL of the different anti-VEGF agents onto the surface of the intestine (group S) or after the intravitreal injection (group V). The vascular density (VD) was determined for five mice in each group before and after 40 μg/μL of aflibercept (Af), or 25 μg/μL of bevacizumab (Be), or 10 μg/μL of ranibizumab (Ra) were applied. Endothelin-1 (ET1), a potent vasoconstrictor, was used as a positive control, and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was used as a control. Results: For group S, no significant changes were observed after PBS (baseline, 1, 5, and 15 min: 46.3, 44.5, 44.8, and 43.2%), Be (46.1, 46.7, 46.7, and 46.3%), Ra (44.7, 45.0, 44.7, and 45.6%), and Af (46.5, 46.2, 45.9, and 46.1%, repeated ANOVA) were applied topically. Significant decreases in the VD were observed after ET1 (46.7, 28.1, 32.1, and 34.0%, p < 0.05) was topically applied. For group V, no significant differences were observed for all anti-VEGF agents. Conclusions: The topical application or intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents do not cause a change in the VD of the intestinal vessels, which may be related to its safety. Full article
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11 pages, 917 KiB  
Article
Effect of Herpes Zoster Treatment and Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss Using National Health Insurance Claims Data of South Korea
by Hyo Jung Son, Eun-Ji Choi, Ukjin Jeong and Yoon Ji Choi
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040808 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 3518
Abstract
Background and objectives: Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by the reactivation of a pre-existing latent varicella zoster virus, which is one of the viruses that causes hearing loss, and hearing loss may occur due to a systemic immune response even if it [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by the reactivation of a pre-existing latent varicella zoster virus, which is one of the viruses that causes hearing loss, and hearing loss may occur due to a systemic immune response even if it does not invade the auditory nerve. This study aimed to determine the correlation between sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) in older adult patients who received HZ treatment. Materials and Methods: We used the cohort data of patients aged 60 years and above (n = 624,646) between 2002 and 2015 provided by the National Health Insurance Service. The patients were divided into two groups: those who were diagnosed with HZ between 2003 and 2008 (group H, n = 36,121) and those who had not been diagnosed with HZ between 2002 and 2015 (group C, n = 584,329). Results: In the main model (adjusted HR = 0.890, 95% CI = 0.839–0.944, p < 0.001) adjusted for sex, age, and income, and the full model (adjusted HR = 0.894, 95% CI = 0.843–0.949, p < 0.001) adjusted for all comorbidities, group H had a lower risk of SSNHL than group C. Conclusions: This study showed that patients who received HZ treatment had a lower incidence of SSNHL within five years after diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hematology and Immunology)
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8 pages, 1982 KiB  
Case Report
Radiologic Findings of Single Accessory Splenic Infarction in a Patient with Accessory Spleens in the Abdominal Cavity: A Case Report
by Nan Xu, Yingchen Xu and Qiang Zhu
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040807 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2087
Abstract
The presence of multiple accessory spleens in the abdominal cavity is typically limited to two, with cases involving a higher number being exceedingly rare. Concurrently, accessory spleen infarction is remarkably uncommon, primarily resulting from torsion of the vascular pedicle. In this report, we [...] Read more.
The presence of multiple accessory spleens in the abdominal cavity is typically limited to two, with cases involving a higher number being exceedingly rare. Concurrently, accessory spleen infarction is remarkably uncommon, primarily resulting from torsion of the vascular pedicle. In this report, we present a case of a 19-year-old male who experienced infarction in one of four accessory spleens. Imaging diagnosis proved challenging, with the definitive diagnosis being made through postoperative pathology, revealing no torsion in the affected accessory spleen. Following surgery combined with anti-inflammatory and analgesic treatment, the patient exhibited an uneventful recovery. No complications were observed at the 3-month follow-up. This case indicates the challenge and difficulty of diagnosing accessory splenic infarction without torsion in imaging diagnosis. Employing a multimodality approach and diffusion-weighted imaging may aid in confirming the diagnosis. Full article
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11 pages, 2989 KiB  
Case Report
Cervico-Dorsal Intramedullary Spinal Cord Abscess with Aspergillus fumigates following Pulmonary Infection in an Immunocompetent Patient
by Vasile Deniss Mereuta, Anca Sava, Cristinel Ionel Stan, Lucian Eva, Gabriela Florenta Dumitrescu, Nicolaie Dobrin, Cornelia Tudorache, Alexandru Chiriac, Irina Ruxandra Strambu, Dragos Andrei Chiran and Ana Maria Dumitrescu
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040806 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1518
Abstract
Invasive forms of aspergillosis of the nervous system are relatively rare and are usually diagnosed in immunocompromised patients. We present the case of a young female patient, treated in the last two months with corticosteroids and antifungal drug for pulmonary aspergillosis, who developed [...] Read more.
Invasive forms of aspergillosis of the nervous system are relatively rare and are usually diagnosed in immunocompromised patients. We present the case of a young female patient, treated in the last two months with corticosteroids and antifungal drug for pulmonary aspergillosis, who developed progressive paraparesis. An intramedullary abscess at the C7–D1 level was identified and the lesion was treated with a combination of surgery and antifungal therapy. Histopathologic findings of surgical specimens showed myelomalacia with Aspergillus hyphae and a peripheral rim of neutrophils. We consider that the use of multiple drugs and corticosteroids for our patient’s initial community pneumonia could be the factor that transformed her into a mildly immunocompromised individual and permitted the Aspergillus spp. to disseminate through the blood and into the spinal cord. Moreover, we highlight the fact that more attention should be paid to living and working conditions of the patients, as a simple colonization of the lung with Aspergillus spp. could develop, in a short time, into an invasive disease with a high risk of mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neurology)
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16 pages, 643 KiB  
Systematic Review
Should Procalcitonin Be Included in Acute Cholecystitis Guidelines? A Systematic Review
by Clyve Yu Leon Yaow, Ryan Ian Houe Chong, Kai Siang Chan, Christopher Tze Wei Chia and Vishal G. Shelat
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 805; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040805 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2373
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Acute cholecystitis (AC) is a common surgical emergency. Recent evidence suggests that serum procalcitonin (PCT) is superior to leukocytosis and serum C-reactive protein in the diagnosis and severity stratification of acute infections. This review evaluates the role of PCT [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Acute cholecystitis (AC) is a common surgical emergency. Recent evidence suggests that serum procalcitonin (PCT) is superior to leukocytosis and serum C-reactive protein in the diagnosis and severity stratification of acute infections. This review evaluates the role of PCT in AC diagnosis, severity stratification, and management. Materials and Methods: PubMed, Embase, and Scopus were searched from inception till 21 August 2022 for studies reporting the role of PCT in AC. A qualitative analysis of the existing literature was conducted. Results: Five articles, including 688 patients, were included. PCT ≤ 0.52 ng/mL had fair discriminative ability (Area under the curve (AUC) 0.721, p < 0.001) to differentiate Grade 1 from Grade 2–3 AC, and PCT > 0.8 ng/mL had good discriminatory ability to differentiate Grade 3 from 1–2 AC (AUC 0.813, p < 0.001). PCT cut-off ≥ 1.50 ng/mL predicted difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy (sensitivity 91.3%, specificity 76.8%). The incidence of open conversion was higher with PCT ≥ 1 ng/mL (32.4% vs. 14.6%, p = 0.013). A PCT value of >0.09 ng/mL could predict major complications (defined as open conversion, mechanical ventilation, and death). Conclusions: Current evidence is plagued by the heterogeneity of small sample studies. Though PCT has some role in assessing severity and predicting difficult cholecystectomy, and postoperative complications in AC patients, more evidence is necessary to validate its use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatology)
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15 pages, 4096 KiB  
Article
Hyalofast Cartilage Repair Surgery with a Full Load-Bearing Rehabilitation Program One Day after Operation Reduces the Time for Professional Athletes to Return to Play
by Bartłomiej Kacprzak, Karolina Rosińska and Natalia Siuba-Jarosz
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040804 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3037
Abstract
Background and Objectives: This study evaluated the effectiveness of Hyalofast cartilage repair surgery with an early, full load-bearing rehabilitation program one day after the operation for reducing the time needed for professional athletes to return to play. Materials and Methods: This [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: This study evaluated the effectiveness of Hyalofast cartilage repair surgery with an early, full load-bearing rehabilitation program one day after the operation for reducing the time needed for professional athletes to return to play. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 49 patients aged between 19 and 38 years who had undergone surgical reconstruction of cartilage using the microfracture technique combined with a Hyalofast scaffold. All patients were active professional athletes. Early rehabilitation was implemented from the first postoperative day, fully loading the operated limb. A clinical evaluation was based on the KOOS and SF-36 questionnaires used during subsequent follow-up visits. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate the effect of the surgery after one year. Results: The clinical results demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in the number of complaints about pain and in the quality of life of the patients, measured in all of the applied scales, with comparisons made between six months or one year post-surgery and pre-surgery. Importantly for athletes, the parameter related to sports and recreation improved from 14 ± 11.1 to 95 ± 7.7 6 months after surgery and to 99.8 ± 1.8 one year after surgery. The overall quality of life score improved from 30 ± 18 to 88 ± 8.8 one year after surgery. Conclusions: These results show that this approach significantly shortened the time needed for the athletes to return to sports at the same level as before the surgery (athletes returned to sports in approximately 2.5–3 months). The mean follow-up time was 19.75 months. This technique can be considered a viable option for the treatment of cartilage injuries in professional athletes, allowing them to return to play more quickly in a safe and healthy way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Orthopedics and Sports Medicine)
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11 pages, 476 KiB  
Review
A Need for Improvement in the Definition of Resistant Arterial Hypertension
by Goran Koracevic, Sladjana Micic, Milovan Stojanovic and Marija Zdravkovic
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 803; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040803 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2274
Abstract
With the medical and social importance of resistant arterial hypertension (HTN) in mind, we had three goals in this paper: to study the definitions of resistant HTN in the guidelines on the topic, to analyze them, and to suggest some improvements. We found [...] Read more.
With the medical and social importance of resistant arterial hypertension (HTN) in mind, we had three goals in this paper: to study the definitions of resistant HTN in the guidelines on the topic, to analyze them, and to suggest some improvements. We found (at least) eleven insufficiencies in the definition of resistant HTN: (1) different blood pressure (BP) values are used for diagnoses; (2) the number of BP measurements is not specified; (3) the time-frame for the definition is not obtained; (4) it fails to provide normal or target or controlled BP values; (5) secondary HTN is not currently defined as true resistant HTN, but as apparently treatment-resistant HTN; (6) the definition usually directly incorporates BP cut-offs for systolic BP (sBP) and diastolic BP (dBP) making the diagnosis temporary; (7) stress is not included in the exclusion strategy for resistant HTN; (8) there is potentially a need to introduce a category of recovered resistant HTN; (9) to what degree do healthy lifestyle measures have to be fulfilled to consider it as sufficient to change the diagnosis from “apparent treatment-resistant HTN” to the “resistant HTN”; (10) sBP values normal-for-the-age for 61 and 81 year old patients in some guidelines fulfill the criterion for resistant HTN; (11) it probably ought to read “In the absence of contraindications and compelling indications…” in the others. We believe that it is better to use the phrase “above the target BP” for the definition of (treatment) resistant HTN, because the whole story of resistant HTN is related to non-responders to antihypertensive treatment. Therefore, as we treat to target and not to normal values, it is appropriate to define resistant HTN as an insufficiency to reach the target BP values. Moreover, the definition of (treatment) resistant HTN should not be universal for every patient with HTN, but it should be age-related: (treatment) resistant HTN is elevated BP over the target/normal BP values. Using this modification, there will be no need to automatically change the definition of resistant HTN when we change the BP targets in the future. Full article
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19 pages, 4213 KiB  
Article
Addressing Chronic Gynecological Diseases in the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic
by Maria-Loredana Țieranu, Nicoleta Alice Dragoescu, George-Lucian Zorilă, Anca-Maria Istrate-Ofițeru, Cătălina Rămescu, Elena-Iuliana-Anamaria Berbecaru, Roxana Cristina Drăguşin, Rodica Daniela Nagy, Răzvan Grigoraș Căpitănescu and Dominic-Gabriel Iliescu
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040802 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1756
Abstract
Introduction: the COVID-19 pandemic has had a considerable impact on healthcare systems worldwide. Since the actual influence of the pandemic on gynecological care is still unclear, we aim to evaluate the effect of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on gynecological procedures compared to the [...] Read more.
Introduction: the COVID-19 pandemic has had a considerable impact on healthcare systems worldwide. Since the actual influence of the pandemic on gynecological care is still unclear, we aim to evaluate the effect of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on gynecological procedures compared to the pre-pandemic period in Romania. Materials and Methods: this is a single-center retrospective observational study, involving patients hospitalized in the year before the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (PP), in the first year of the pandemic (P1), and in the second year of the pandemic until February 2022 (P2). The percentages of interventions were analyzed globally but also according to the type of surgery applied on the female genital organs. Results: during pandemic, the number of gynecological surgeries dropped considerably, by more than 50% in some cases, or even decreased by up to 100%, having a major impact on women’s health, especially in the first year of the pandemic (P1), before slightly increasing in the post-vaccination period (PV). Surgically treated cancer cases dropped by over 80% during the pandemic, and the consequences of this will be seen in the future. Conclusions: the COVID-19 pandemic played an important part in gynecological care management in the Romanian public health care system, and the effect will have to be investigated in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reproductive Health in COVID-19 Era)
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10 pages, 858 KiB  
Review
Hidradenitis Suppurativa and JAK Inhibitors: A Review of the Published Literature
by Fabrizio Martora, Massimiliano Scalvenzi, Angelo Ruggiero, Luca Potestio, Teresa Battista and Matteo Megna
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 801; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040801 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 7443
Abstract
Background: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), also known as acne inversa or Verneuil’s disease, is a chronic, inflammatory, recurrent, and debilitating skin disease of the hair follicles characterized by inflammatory, painful, deep-rooted lesions in the areas of the body characterized by the presence of [...] Read more.
Background: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), also known as acne inversa or Verneuil’s disease, is a chronic, inflammatory, recurrent, and debilitating skin disease of the hair follicles characterized by inflammatory, painful, deep-rooted lesions in the areas of the body characterized by the presence of the apocrine glands. Unfortunately, huge unmet needs still remain for its treatment. Objective: The purpose of our review was collecting all cases, case series, trials, and ongoing studies available in the literature on the use of this class of drugs for HS. Materials and Methods: The investigated manuscripts included trials, reviews, letters to the editor, real-life studies, case series, and reports. Manuscripts were identified, screened, and extracted for the relevant data following the PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) guidelines. Results: We selected 56 articles of which 25 met the selection criteria for our review. Among the JAK inhibitors to date, there is only one published clinical trial in the literature (Janus kinase 1 inhibitor INCB054707), a real-life study with 15 patients up to week 24 in which upadacitinib was used and a case series where tofacitinib was successfully used. Conversely, there are several ongoing clinical trials. Conclusions: Results to date in the literature show promising levels of efficacy and the safety of JAK inhibitors in HS. Several clinical trials are underway from which it will be very important to compare the available data. There are still too few studies conducted with a low sample size, so it remains critical to investigate this issue further in the future with a real-life study involving a large sample of patients in order to provide safe and viable therapeutic alternatives for HS. Full article
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12 pages, 667 KiB  
Review
Assessing Critical Flicker Fusion Frequency: Which Confounders? A Narrative Review
by Thomas Muth, Jochen D. Schipke, Anne-Kathrin Brebeck and Sven Dreyer
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040800 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5739
Abstract
The critical flicker fusion frequency (cFFF) refers to the frequency at which a regularly recurring change of light stimuli is perceived as steady. The cFFF threshold is often assessed in clinics to evaluate the temporal characteristics of the visual system, making it a [...] Read more.
The critical flicker fusion frequency (cFFF) refers to the frequency at which a regularly recurring change of light stimuli is perceived as steady. The cFFF threshold is often assessed in clinics to evaluate the temporal characteristics of the visual system, making it a common test for eye diseases. Additionally, it serves as a helpful diagnostic tool for various neurological and internal diseases. In the field of diving/hyperbaric medicine, cFFF has been utilized to determine alertness and cognitive functions. Changes in the cFFF threshold have been linked to the influence of increased respiratory gas partial pressures, although there exist inconsistent results regarding this effect. Moreover, the use of flicker devices has produced mixed outcomes in previous studies. This narrative review aims to explore confounding factors that may affect the accuracy of cFFF threshold measurements, particularly in open-field studies. We identify five broad categories of such factors, including (1) participant characteristics, (2) optical factors, (3) smoking/drug use, (4) environmental aspects, and (5) breathing gases and partial pressures. We also discuss the application of cFFF measurements in the field of diving and hyperbaric medicine. In addition, we provide recommendations for interpreting changes in the cFFF threshold and how they are reported in research studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ophthalmology)
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11 pages, 946 KiB  
Article
Differences in Technical Aspects of Primary Sleeve Gastrectomy Prior to Redo Bariatric Surgery—A Multicenter Cohort Study (PROSS Study)
by Piotr Zarzycki, Justyna Rymarowicz, Piotr Małczak, Magdalena Pisarska-Adamczyk, Rafał Mulek, Artur Binda, Natalia Dowgiałło-Gornowicz, Piotr Major and PROSS Collaborative Study Group
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040799 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1783
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Although the technical simplicity of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is relatively well understood, many parts of the procedure differ according to bariatric surgeons. These technical variations may impact postoperative weight loss or the treatment of comorbidities and lead to qualification for [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Although the technical simplicity of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is relatively well understood, many parts of the procedure differ according to bariatric surgeons. These technical variations may impact postoperative weight loss or the treatment of comorbidities and lead to qualification for redo procedures. Materials and Methods: A multicenter, observational, retrospective study was conducted among patients undergoing revision procedures. Patients were divided into three groups based on the indications for revisional surgery (insufficient weight loss or obesity-related comorbidities treatment, weight regain and development of complications). Results: The median bougie size was 36 (32–40) with significant difference (p = 0.04). In 246 (51.57%) patients, the resection part of sleeve gastrectomy was started 4 cm from the pylorus without significant difference (p = 0.065). The number of stapler cartridges used during the SG procedure was six staplers in group C (p = 0.529). The number of procedures in which the staple line was reinforced was the highest in group A (29.63%) with a significant difference (0.002). Cruroplasty was performed in 13 patients (p = 0.549). Conclusions: There were no differences between indications to redo surgery in terms of primary surgery parameters such as the number of staplers used or the length from the pylorus to begin resection. The bougie size was smaller in the group of patients with weight regain. Patients who had revision for insufficient weight loss were significantly more likely to have had their staple line oversewn. A potential cause could be a difference in the size of the removed portion of the stomach, but it is difficult to draw unequivocal conclusions within the limitations of our study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity and Bariatric Surgery: Updates and Challenges)
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10 pages, 302 KiB  
Article
Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis and Secondary Macrophage Activation Syndrome in Latvia from 2009 to 2020: A Nationwide Retrospective Study
by Kristīne Lukjanoviča, Ieva Šlēziņa, Zane Dāvidsone, Ruta Šantere, Kristīna Budarina and Valda Staņēviča
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 798; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040798 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1630
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is a distinctive JIA subtype with mostly nonspecific systemic clinical features, which can be a diagnostic challenge. This study aimed to analyze our experience with sJIA in Latvia for twelve years: assessing clinical and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is a distinctive JIA subtype with mostly nonspecific systemic clinical features, which can be a diagnostic challenge. This study aimed to analyze our experience with sJIA in Latvia for twelve years: assessing clinical and epidemiological characteristics, the efficacy of therapy, and disease outcomes, including the development of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Materials and methods: This is a descriptive study in which we conducted a retrospective case review of all patients with sJIA diagnosis admitted to the only pediatric tertiary centre in Latvia during the period 2009–2020. Results: sJIA was diagnosed in 35 patients with a mean annual incidence rate of 0.85 patients per 100,000 children. Major clinical signs at the first visit were: fever, rash, arthritis, and lymphadenopathy. Almost half of the patients, 48.5%, had a monocyclic disease course, and only 20% of patients had persistent disease. MAS developed in 28.6% of patients. Biological therapy was administered to 48.6% of patients, mostly by tocilizumab, which induced remission in 75% after one year, and in 81.2% after two years without any serious therapy-related complications. In our study, none of the patients had interstitial lung disease, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS)-like syndrome, or fatal disease. Conclusions: The incidence and clinical characteristics of sJIA correlate with the literature findings, although MAS was more common than described in other studies. There is a tendency for the persistent disease to decrease with the use of biological therapy. Tocilizumab is an efficient choice of treatment with a good safety profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatrics)
12 pages, 470 KiB  
Systematic Review
Fluoride Exposure and ADHD: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies
by Gianluca Fiore, Federica Veneri, Rosaria Di Lorenzo, Luigi Generali, Marco Vinceti and Tommaso Filippini
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040797 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4601
Abstract
Background and objectives: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by two dimensions: inattentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity. ADHD may be the result of complex interactions between genetic, biological and environmental factors possibly including fluoride exposure. Materials and methods: [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by two dimensions: inattentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity. ADHD may be the result of complex interactions between genetic, biological and environmental factors possibly including fluoride exposure. Materials and methods: A literature search was performed on 31 March 2023 in the following databases: PubMed, Embase and Web of Science. We defined the following inclusion criteria according to the PECOS statement: a healthy child and adolescent population (P), fluoride exposure of any type (E), comparison with low or null exposure (C), ADHD spectrum disorder (O), and ecological, cross-sectional, case–control and cohort studies (S). Results: We found eight eligible records corresponding to seven different studies investigating the effect of fluoride exposure on children and adolescents. One study had a cohort design and one a case–control one, while five were cross-sectional. Only three studies applied validated questionnaires for the purpose of ADHD diagnosis. As regards exposure assessment, levels of fluoride in urine and tap water were, respectively used in three and two studies, while two used both. Three studies reported a positive association with ADHD risk, all assessing exposure through fluoride levels. By using urinary fluoride, conversely, a positive correlation with inattention, internalizing symptoms, cognitive and psychosomatic problems was found in three studies, but no relation was found in the other one. Conclusions: The present review suggests that early exposure to fluoride may have neurotoxic effects on neurodevelopment affecting behavioral, cognitive and psychosomatic symptoms related to ADHD diagnosis. However, due to the heterogeneity of the studies included, current evidence does not allow to conclusively confirm that fluoride exposure is specifically linked to ADHD development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adulthood and Adolescence)
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29 pages, 1354 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Labor Practices in Healthcare Using an Innovatory Framework for Sustainability
by Flaviu Moldovan, Liviu Moldovan and Tiberiu Bataga
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040796 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2121
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The concept of sustainability in healthcare is poorly researched. There is a perceived need for new theoretical and empirical studies, as well as for new instruments to assess the implementation of new labor practices in the field. Such practices [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The concept of sustainability in healthcare is poorly researched. There is a perceived need for new theoretical and empirical studies, as well as for new instruments to assess the implementation of new labor practices in the field. Such practices address unmet social needs and consolidate the sustainable development systems which promote health equity. The objective of the research is to design an innovative reference framework for sustainable development and health equity of healthcare facilities, and to provide a practical validation of this framework. Materials and Methods: The research methods consist of designing the elements of the new frame of reference, designing an indicator matrix, elaborating indicator content, and assessing the reference framework. For the assessment stage, we used sustainable medical practices reported in the scientific literature as well as a pilot reference framework that was implemented in healthcare practice. Results: The new reference framework suggested by the present study is composed of 57 indicators organized in five areas: environmental responsibility, economic performance, social responsibility, institutional capacity, and provision of sustainable healthcare services. These indicators were adapted and integrated into the seven basic topics of the social responsibility standard. The study presents the content of the indicators in the field of labor practices, as well as their evaluation grids. The innovative format of the evaluation grids aims to describe achievement degrees, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The theoretical model was validated in practice through its implementation at the Emergency Hospital in Targu Mures. Conclusions: The conclusions of the study reflect the usefulness of the new reference framework, which is compatible with the requirements in the healthcare field, but differs from other existing frameworks, considering its objective regarding the promotion of sustainable development. This objective facilitates the continuous quantification of the sustainability level, the promotion of sustainable development strategies, and sustainability-oriented approaches on the part of interested parties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work Culture in Medicine: Ethical, Legal and Social Challenges)
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9 pages, 662 KiB  
Article
Efficacy and Safety of Electrohydraulic Lithotripsy Using Peroral Cholangioscopy under Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Guidance in Older Adults: A Single-Center Retrospective Study
by Koji Takahashi, Hiroshi Ohyama, Yuichi Takiguchi, Yu Sekine, Shodai Toyama, Nana Yamada, Chihei Sugihara, Motoyasu Kan, Mayu Ouchi, Hiroki Nagashima, Yotaro Iino, Yuko Kusakabe, Kohichiroh Okitsu, Izumi Ohno and Naoya Kato
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040795 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2295
Abstract
Background and objectives: The safety of electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) in older adults remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of EHL using peroral cholangioscopy (POCS) under endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) guidance in older adults aged ≥80 years. Materials and Methods: [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The safety of electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) in older adults remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of EHL using peroral cholangioscopy (POCS) under endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) guidance in older adults aged ≥80 years. Materials and Methods: This retrospective clinical study was conducted at a single center. Fifty patients with common bile duct stones who underwent EHL using POCS under ERCP guidance at our institution, between April 2017 and September 2022, were enrolled in this study. The eligible patients were divided into an elderly group (n = 21, age ≥80 years) and a non-elderly group (n = 29, age ≤79 years), and were analyzed. Results: A total of 33 and 40 EHL procedures were performed in the elderly and non-elderly groups, respectively. After excluding cases in which stone removal was performed at other institutions, complete removal of common bile duct stones was confirmed in 93.8% and 100% of the elderly and non-elderly groups, respectively (p = 0.20). The mean number of ERCPs required for complete removal of bile duct stones was 2.9 and 4.3 in the elderly and non-elderly groups, respectively (p = 0.17). In the EHL session, the overall occurrence of adverse events was eight and seven in the elderly (24.2%) and non-elderly (17.5%) groups, respectively; however, the difference was insignificant (p = 0.48). Conclusions: EHL using POCS under ERCP guidance is effective in patients aged ≥80 years and there was no significant increase in adverse event rates compared to those aged ≤79 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digestive Endoscopy: Inside the Evidence and Outside)
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16 pages, 2275 KiB  
Article
Clinical Characterization and Predictive Factors for Progression in a Cohort of Patients with Interstitial Lung Disease and Features of Autoimmunity: The Need for a Revision of IPAF Classification Criteria
by Francesco Bozzao, Paola Tomietto, Elisa Baratella, Metka Kodric, Rossella Cifaldi, Rossana Della Porta, Ilaria Prearo, Silvia Maria Grazia Pirronello, Paola Confalonieri, Barbara Ruaro, Fabio Fischetti and Bruno Fabris
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040794 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2202
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The “interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features” (IPAF) criteria have been criticized because of the exclusion of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) patients with a single clinical or serological feature. To classify these patients, the term UIPAF was proposed. This study [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The “interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features” (IPAF) criteria have been criticized because of the exclusion of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) patients with a single clinical or serological feature. To classify these patients, the term UIPAF was proposed. This study aims to describe clinical characteristics and predictive factors for progression of a cohort of interstitial lung disease (ILD) patients with at least one feature of autoimmunity, applying criteria for IPAF, specific connective tissue diseases (CTD), and a definition of UIPAF when possible. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated data on 133 consecutive patients with ILD at onset associated with at least one feature of autoimmunity, referred by pulmonologists to rheumatologists from March 2009 to March 2020. Patients received 33 (16.5–69.5) months of follow-up. Results: Among the 101 ILD patients included, 37 were diagnosed with IPAF, 53 with ILD-onset CTD, and 11 with UIPAF. IPAF patients had a lower prevalence of UIP pattern compared to CTD-ILD and UIPAF patients (10.8% vs. 32.1% vs. 100%, p < 0.01). During the follow-up, 4 IPAF (10.8%) and 2 UIPAF (18.2%) patients evolved into CTD-ILD. IPAF patients presented features not included in IPAF criteria, such as sicca syndrome (8.1%), and were more frequently affected by systemic hypertension (p < 0.01). Over one year, ILD progression (greater extent of fibrosis on HRCT and/or decline in PFTs) was less frequent in the IPAF group compared to CTD-ILD and UIPAF (32.3% vs. 58.8% vs. 72.7, p = 0.02). A UIP pattern and an IPAF predicted a faster (OR: 3.80, p = 0.01) and a slower (OR: 0.28, p = 0.02) ILD progression, respectively. Conclusions: IPAF criteria help identify patients who might develop a CTD-ILD, even though a single clinical or serological feature is respected. Future revisions of IPAF criteria should include sicca syndrome and separate UIP-pattern into a different definition (UIPAF), given its association with a different prognosis, independently from ILD classification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pulmonary Involvement Correlated with Rheumatic Diseases)
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5 pages, 1203 KiB  
Case Report
A Rare Case Report of Successful Laparoscopy-Guided Reduction of Non-Puerperal Uterine Inversion
by Seongmin Kim, Sanghoon Lee and Jae-Yun Song
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040793 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2848
Abstract
Non-puerperal uterine inversion is an extremely rare and potentially dangerous condition. Cases are poorly described in the literature, and their actual incidence is unknown. A 34-year-old nulliparous female patient visited the emergency department following a loss of consciousness. She had experienced continuous vaginal [...] Read more.
Non-puerperal uterine inversion is an extremely rare and potentially dangerous condition. Cases are poorly described in the literature, and their actual incidence is unknown. A 34-year-old nulliparous female patient visited the emergency department following a loss of consciousness. She had experienced continuous vaginal bleeding over the preceding two months, with a two-day history of worsening symptoms. The patient showed signs of hypovolemic shock secondary to unceasing vaginal bleeding. Ultrasound and computed tomography revealed an inverted uterus and a large hematoma inside the patient’s vaginal cavity. An emergency explorative laparoscopy was performed, which confirmed uterine inversion. Initially, Johnson’s maneuver was attempted under laparoscopic visualization, but this failed to achieve uterine reduction. Following the unsuccessful performance of Huntington’s maneuver, a re-trial of the manual reduction allowed the uterus to recover to its normal anatomy. The patient’s vaginal bleeding was dramatically reduced after successful uterine reduction. The pathologic report conducted confirmed endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Laparoscopic visualization is a feasible and safe procedure for achieving uterine reduction in cases of non-puerperal uterine inversion with an unconfirmed pathology. Uterine malignancies should be considered in patients with non-puerperal uterine inversion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of Gynecological Diseases)
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8 pages, 2025 KiB  
Case Report
The Dilemma of Balance between Benefits and Losses for Chondromyxoid Fibroma-like Osteosarcoma in Thoracic Spine with Azygos Tumor Thrombosis: A Case Report
by Chuanchao Du, Xiaoguang Liu, Zhongjun Liu and Feng Wei
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040792 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2218
Abstract
Background: Chondromyxoid fibroma-like osteosarcoma (CMF-OS) is an extremely rare subtype of osteosarcoma, its clinical data are scarce, and our understanding of it is far from sufficient. As it has few typical imaging manifestations, it is not uncommonly misdiagnosed clinically. Azygos vein thrombosis [...] Read more.
Background: Chondromyxoid fibroma-like osteosarcoma (CMF-OS) is an extremely rare subtype of osteosarcoma, its clinical data are scarce, and our understanding of it is far from sufficient. As it has few typical imaging manifestations, it is not uncommonly misdiagnosed clinically. Azygos vein thrombosis is also a rare entity, and there is a big controversy over treatments for it. Case presentation: Herein, we report a case of CMF-OS that occurred in the spine, coincidently, azygos vein thrombosis was found. A young male patient came to our clinic because of continuous back pain, and a neoplastic lesion was suspected in the thoracolumbar vertebrae. The pathological results of the biopsy showed a low grade of osteosarcoma, and chondromyxoid fibroma-like osteosarcoma was the primary diagnosis. Since the tumor cannot be en-bloc resected, he received palliative decompression surgery, followed by radio and chemotherapy. Azygos vein tumor thrombosis was not treated and, unfortunately, he died of heart failure caused by the thrombus migrating from the azygos vein to the right atrium. Before the palliative decompression surgery, both the patient and the clinical team were trapped in the dilemma of how big a surgery should be carried out to maximize the benefits of this patient. Results and complications: CMF-OS is indeed more aggressive than its pathological sections suggest. Guidelines for osteosarcoma should be followed. Furthermore, it is important to recognize the danger of tumor thrombosis in the azygos vein. Preventive measures have to be performed in a timely manner to avoid catastrophic results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology)
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8 pages, 2230 KiB  
Case Report
Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumour of the Urinary Bladder in a Middle-Aged Man—A Case Report of an Unusual Localization of a Rare Tumour
by Nebojsa Prijovic, Veljko Santric, Uros Babic, Branko Stankovic, Miodrag Acimovic, Milica Cekerevac, Gorana Nikolic and Bojan Cegar
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 791; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040791 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1393
Abstract
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) is a rare tumour with an intermediate biological behaviour. It usually occurs in children and adolescents, primarily in the abdomen or lungs. Histopathologically, IMT consists of spindle cells, i.e., myofibroblasts, and a variable inflammatory component. Localization in the urinary [...] Read more.
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) is a rare tumour with an intermediate biological behaviour. It usually occurs in children and adolescents, primarily in the abdomen or lungs. Histopathologically, IMT consists of spindle cells, i.e., myofibroblasts, and a variable inflammatory component. Localization in the urinary bladder is rare. We are presenting a rare case of IMT in the bladder in a middle-aged man treated by partial cystectomy. A 62-year-old man consulted a urologist because of haematuria and dysuric disturbances. A tumorous mass was detected by an ultrasound in the urinary bladder. CT urography described the tumorous mass at the dome of the urinary bladder measuring 2 × 5 cm. A smooth tumorous mass was cystoscopically observed at the dome of the urinary bladder. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumour was performed. Histopathological analysis of the specimen identified spindle cells with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate; immunohistochemical findings showed positivity for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), smooth muscle actin (SMA) and vimentin. A histopathological diagnosis of IMT was established. It was decided that the patient would undergo a partial cystectomy. A complete excision of the tumour from the dome of the urinary bladder with surrounding healthy tissue was performed. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings of the sample confirmed the diagnosis of IMT, without the presence of the tumour at the surgical margins. The postoperative course went smoothly. IMT is a rare tumour in adults, especially localised in the urinary bladder. IMT of the urinary bladder is difficult to distinguish from urinary bladder malignancy both clinically and radiologically, as well as histopathologically. If the location and size of the tumour allow it, bladder-preserving surgeries such as partial cystectomy represent a reasonable modality of operative treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology)
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13 pages, 941 KiB  
Review
The Promise of Artificial Intelligence in Digestive Healthcare and the Bioethics Challenges It Presents
by Miguel Mascarenhas, João Afonso, Tiago Ribeiro, Patrícia Andrade, Hélder Cardoso and Guilherme Macedo
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040790 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3501
Abstract
With modern society well entrenched in the digital area, the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to extract useful information from big data has become more commonplace in our daily lives than we perhaps realize. Medical specialties that rely heavily on imaging techniques have [...] Read more.
With modern society well entrenched in the digital area, the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to extract useful information from big data has become more commonplace in our daily lives than we perhaps realize. Medical specialties that rely heavily on imaging techniques have become a strong focus for the incorporation of AI tools to aid disease diagnosis and monitoring, yet AI-based tools that can be employed in the clinic are only now beginning to become a reality. However, the potential introduction of these applications raises a number of ethical issues that must be addressed before they can be implemented, among the most important of which are issues related to privacy, data protection, data bias, explainability and responsibility. In this short review, we aim to highlight some of the most important bioethical issues that will have to be addressed if AI solutions are to be successfully incorporated into healthcare protocols, and ideally, before they are put in place. In particular, we contemplate the use of these aids in the field of gastroenterology, focusing particularly on capsule endoscopy and highlighting efforts aimed at resolving the issues associated with their use when available. Full article
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13 pages, 2638 KiB  
Article
Effects of Diabetes and Voluntary Exercise on IgA Concentration and Polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor Expression in the Submandibular Gland of Rats
by Jaebum Park, Yuko Yamamoto, Kouki Hidaka, Satoko Wada-Takahashi, Shun-suke Takahashi, Toshiya Morozumi, Nobuhisa Kubota, Makiko Saita, Juri Saruta, Wakako Sakaguchi, Masahiro To, Tomoko Shimizu, Yuko Mikuni-Takagaki and Keiichi Tsukinoki
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 789; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040789 - 18 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1604
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Patients with diabetes are more susceptible to upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) because they are easily infected. Salivary IgA (sali-IgA) levels play a major role in transmitting URTIs. Sali-IgA levels are determined by salivary gland IgA production and polymeric [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Patients with diabetes are more susceptible to upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) because they are easily infected. Salivary IgA (sali-IgA) levels play a major role in transmitting URTIs. Sali-IgA levels are determined by salivary gland IgA production and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (poly-IgR) expression. However, it is unknown whether salivary gland IgA production and poly-IgR expression are decreased in patients with diabetes. While exercise is reported to increase or decrease the sali-IgA levels, it is unclear how exercise affects the salivary glands of patients with diabetes. This study aimed to determine the effects of diabetes and voluntary exercise on IgA production and poly-IgR expression in the salivary glands of diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Ten spontaneously diabetic Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats (eight-week-old) were divided into two groups of five rats each: a non-exercise group (OLETF-C) and a voluntary wheel-running group (OLETF-E). Five Long–Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats without diabetes were bred under the same conditions as the OLETF-C. Sixteen weeks after the study began, the submandibular glands (SGs) were collected and analyzed for IgA and poly-IgR expression levels. Results: IgA concentrations and poly-IgR expression levels in SGs were lower in OLETF-C and OLETF-E than in LETO (p < 0.05). These values did not differ between the OLETF-C and OLETF-E. Conclusions: Diabetes decreases IgA production and poly-IgR expression in the salivary glands of rats. Moreover, voluntary exercise increases sali-IgA levels but does not increase IgA production and poly-IgR expression in the salivary glands of diabetic rats. Increasing IgA production and poly-IgR expression in the salivary glands, which is reduced in diabetes, might require slightly higher-intensity exercise than voluntary exercise under the supervision of a doctor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental and Clinical Researches in Oral Medicine)
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15 pages, 3430 KiB  
Article
Epidemiological Investigation of Pediatric Fractures—A Retrospective Cohort Study of 1129 Patients
by Xiaoliang Xiao, Yuhong Ding, Yiqiu Zheng, Yun Gao, Huaqing Li, Ruikang Liu, Ruijing Xu and Pan Hong
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040788 - 18 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1805
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Fractures are common in pediatric trauma, and they are caused by a broad spectrum of factors. Only a few studies have discussed the mechanisms of injury and their relationships to different types of fractures. The most frequent type of [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Fractures are common in pediatric trauma, and they are caused by a broad spectrum of factors. Only a few studies have discussed the mechanisms of injury and their relationships to different types of fractures. The most frequent type of fractures in different age groups remains unclear. Therefore, we aim to summarize the epidemiological characteristics of pediatric fractures in a medical center in Zhuhai, China from 2006 to 2021 and analyze the causes of fractures with the highest frequency in different age groups. Materials and Methods: We extracted the information from the Zhuhai Center for Maternal and Child Health Care of those under 14 years old who had fractures from 2006 to 2021. Results: We reviewed the information of 1145 children. The number of patients increased during the 15 years (p < 0.0001). The number of patients was significantly different between genders after Y2 (p = 0.014). In addition, more than two-thirds of patients (71.3%) had upper limb fractures, and all types of falls were the most common cause of fractures (83.6%). The incidence demonstrated an insignificant difference in age groups except for the fractures of humerus and radius. Moreover, we discovered that the prevalence of fall-related injuries decreased with age, while that of sports-related injuries increased with age. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that the prevalence of fall-related injuries decreases with age, and that of sports-related injuries increases with age. Most patients have upper limb fractures, and all types of falls are the most common cause of fractures. Fracture types with the highest frequency differ in each age group. These findings might supplement current epidemiological knowledge of childhood fracture and provide references for decision-making in children’s health policies. Full article
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11 pages, 1245 KiB  
Article
Positron Emission-Computed Tomography, Cryobiopsy versus Bronchoalveolar Lavage and Computed Tomography Findings for Interstitial Lung Disease: A Long-Term Follow-Up
by Paul Zarogoulidis, Dimitris Matthaios, Haidong Huang, Chong Bai, Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt, Konstantinos Porpodis, Dimitris Petridis, Konstantinos Pigakis, Nikolaos Kougkas, Panagoula Oikonomou, Christina Nikolaou, Dimitris Hatzibougias and Chrysanthi Sardeli
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040787 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1593
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Interstitial lung diseases have always been an issue for pulmonary and rheumatology physicians. Computed tomography scans with a high-resolution protocol and bronchoalveolar lavage have been used along with biochemical blood tests to reach a diagnosis. Materials and Methods: We included [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Interstitial lung diseases have always been an issue for pulmonary and rheumatology physicians. Computed tomography scans with a high-resolution protocol and bronchoalveolar lavage have been used along with biochemical blood tests to reach a diagnosis. Materials and Methods: We included 80 patients in total. First, all patients had their diagnosis with computed tomography of the thorax, serological/ immunological blood tests and bronchoalveolar lavage. However; after 3 months, all were divided into 2 groups: those who had bronchoalveolar lavage again and those who had cryobiopsy instead of bronchoalveolar lavage (40/40). Positron emission-computed tomography was also performed upon the first and second diagnosis. The patients’ follow-up was 4 years from diagnosis. Results: Patients suffered most from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (56, 70%), while lung cancer was rarely encountered in the sample (7, 9.75%). Age distribution ranged between 53 and 68 years with a mean value of 60 years. The computed tomography findings revealed 25 patients with typical diagnosis (35.2%), 17 with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (23.9%) and 11 with probable diagnosis (11%). The cryobiopsy technique led to a new diagnosis in 28 patients (35% of the total sample). Patients who had a new diagnosis with cryobiopsy had a mean survival time of 710 days (<1460). Positron emission-computed tomography SUV uptake was positively associated with the cryobiopsy technique/new disease diagnosis and improved all respiratory functions. Discussion: Positron emission-computed tomography is a tool that can be used along with respiratory functions for disease evaluation. Conclusions: Cryobiopsy is a safe tool for patients with interstitial lung disease and can assist in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases. The survival of patients was increased in the cryobiopsy group versus only bronchoalveolar lavage for disease diagnosis. Full article
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Review
Addressing the Challenges in the Diagnosis and Management of Pediatric Wilson’s Disease—Case Report and Literature Review
by Irene Maria Ungureanu, Mara Ioana Iesanu, Catalin Boboc, Vlad Cosoreanu, Lorena Vatra, Anna Kadar, Evelina Nicoleta Ignat and Felicia Galos
Medicina 2023, 59(4), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59040786 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1974
Abstract
Wilson’s disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder, in which the metabolism of copper is affected by metal accumulation in several organs that causes gradual organ degeneration. Since Wilson’s initial description of WD over a century ago, there have been significant improvements in [...] Read more.
Wilson’s disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder, in which the metabolism of copper is affected by metal accumulation in several organs that causes gradual organ degeneration. Since Wilson’s initial description of WD over a century ago, there have been significant improvements in understanding and managing the condition. Nevertheless, the ongoing gap between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis highlights the difficulties in identifying this copper overload disorder early. Despite being a treatable condition, detecting WD early remains a challenge for healthcare professionals at all levels of care, likely due to its rarity. The key challenge is, therefore, to educate physicians on how to identify atypical or infrequent symptoms of WD, prompting them to consider the diagnosis more carefully. The purpose of our review is to draw attention to the difficulties associated with diagnosing pediatric WD, starting from our personal experience of a complex case and then examining relevant literature. In summary, the diagnosis of WD in children is intricate and requires a heightened level of suspicion to identify this infrequent condition. A thorough evaluation by a multidisciplinary team of physicians, along with genetic testing, histopathologic examination, and specialized imaging studies, may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis and guide treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Liver Diseases in Liver Surgery and Anesthesia)
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