This aim of this study was to find effective spectral bands for the early detection of oral cancer. The spectral images in different bands were acquired using a self-made portable light-emitting diode (LED)-induced autofluorescence multispectral imager equipped with 365 and 405 nm excitation LEDs, emission filters with center wavelengths of 470, 505, 525, 532, 550, 595, 632, 635, and 695 nm, and a color image sensor. The spectral images of 218 healthy points in 62 healthy participants and 218 tumor points in 62 patients were collected in the ex vivo trials at China Medical University Hospital. These ex vivo trials were similar to in vivo because the spectral images of anatomical specimens were immediately acquired after the on-site tumor resection. The spectral images associated with red, blue, and green filters correlated with and without nine emission filters were quantized by four computing method, including summated intensity, the highest number of the intensity level, entropy, and fractional dimension. The combination of four computing methods, two excitation light sources with two intensities, and 30 spectral bands in three experiments formed 264 classifiers. The quantized data in each classifier was divided into two groups: one was the training group optimizing the threshold of the quantized data, and the other was validating group tested under this optimized threshold. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each classifier were derived from these tests. To identify the influential spectral bands based on the area under the region and the testing results, a single-layer network learning process was used. This was compared to conventional rules-based approaches to show its superior and faster performance. Consequently, four emission filters with the center wavelengths of 470, 505, 532, and 550 nm were selected by an AI-based method and verified using a rule-based approach. The sensitivities of six classifiers using these emission filters were more significant than 90%. The average sensitivity of these was about 96.15%, the average specificity was approximately 69.55%, and the average accuracy was about 82.85%.