Next Issue
Volume 21, May-1
Previous Issue
Volume 21, April-1
sensors-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Sensors, Volume 21, Issue 8 (April-2 2021) – 318 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Metal-modified montmorillonite (MMT) particles have been fabricated for the design of novel cost-effective hybrid materials that are suitable as fluorescence-based sensing platforms. The combined effect of MMT and the metallic moiety, ascribed to the aggregation-induced emission and metal-enhanced fluorescent phenomena, respectively, leads to a remarkable fluorescent enhancement. We showed that such signal amplification improves the sensitivity of fluorescent-based detection mechanisms, such as ELISA assays, and allows the direct detection of biomolecules exploiting their self-fluorescence. The versatility of the proposed hybrid materials was further demonstrated by exploring their plasmonic properties to develop liquid label-free detection systems.View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Intelligent LED Certification System in Mass Production
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2891; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082891 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 888
Abstract
It is impossible to effectively use light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in medicine and telecommunication systems without knowing their main characteristics, the most important of them being efficiency. Reliable measurement of LED efficiency holds particular significance for mass production automation. The method for measuring LED [...] Read more.
It is impossible to effectively use light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in medicine and telecommunication systems without knowing their main characteristics, the most important of them being efficiency. Reliable measurement of LED efficiency holds particular significance for mass production automation. The method for measuring LED efficiency consists in comparing two cooling curves of the LED crystal obtained after exposure to short current pulses of positive and negative polarities. The measurement results are adversely affected by noise in the electrical measuring circuit. The widely used instrumental noise suppression filters, as well as classical digital infinite impulse response (IIR), finite impulse response (FIR) filters, and adaptive filters fail to yield satisfactory results. Unlike adaptive filters, blind methods do not require a special reference signal, which makes them more promising for removing noise and reconstructing the waveform when measuring the efficiency of LEDs. The article suggests a method for sequential blind signal extraction based on a cascading neural network. Statistical analysis of signal and noise values has revealed that the signal and the noise have different forms of the probability density function (PDF). Therefore, it is preferable to use high-order statistical moments characterizing the shape of the PDF for signal extraction. Generalized statistical moments were used as an objective function for optimization of neural network parameters, namely, generalized skewness and generalized kurtosis. The order of the generalized moments was chosen according to the criterion of the maximum Mahalanobis distance. The proposed method has made it possible to implement a multi-temporal comparison of the crystal cooling curves for measuring LED efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Intelligent Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
Increasing the Reliability of Data Collection of Laser Line Triangulation Sensor by Proper Placement of the Sensor
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2890; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082890 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1039
Abstract
In this paper, we investigated the effect of the incidence angle of a laser ray on the reflected laser intensity. A dataset on this dependence is presented for materials usually used in the industry, such as transparent and non-transparent plastics and aluminum alloys [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigated the effect of the incidence angle of a laser ray on the reflected laser intensity. A dataset on this dependence is presented for materials usually used in the industry, such as transparent and non-transparent plastics and aluminum alloys with different surface roughness. The measurements have been performed with a laser line triangulation sensor and a UR10e robot. The presented results are proposing where to place the sensor relative to the scanned object, thus increasing the reliability of the sensor data collection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensors and Robotics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Can Markerless Pose Estimation Algorithms Estimate 3D Mass Centre Positions and Velocities during Linear Sprinting Activities?
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2889; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082889 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1213
Abstract
The ability to accurately and non-invasively measure 3D mass centre positions and their derivatives can provide rich insight into the physical demands of sports training and competition. This study examines a method for non-invasively measuring mass centre velocities using markerless human pose estimation [...] Read more.
The ability to accurately and non-invasively measure 3D mass centre positions and their derivatives can provide rich insight into the physical demands of sports training and competition. This study examines a method for non-invasively measuring mass centre velocities using markerless human pose estimation and Kalman smoothing. Marker (Qualysis) and markerless (OpenPose) motion capture data were captured synchronously for sprinting and skeleton push starts. Mass centre positions and velocities derived from raw markerless pose estimation data contained large errors for both sprinting and skeleton pushing (mean ± SD = 0.127 ± 0.943 and −0.197 ± 1.549 m·s−1, respectively). Signal processing methods such as Kalman smoothing substantially reduced the mean error (±SD) in horizontal mass centre velocities (0.041 ± 0.257 m·s−1) during sprinting but the precision remained poor. Applying pose estimation to activities which exhibit unusual body poses (e.g., skeleton pushing) appears to elicit more erroneous results due to poor performance of the pose estimation algorithm. Researchers and practitioners should apply these methods with caution to activities beyond sprinting as pose estimation algorithms may not generalise well to the activity of interest. Retraining the model using activity specific data to produce more specialised networks is therefore recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Sports Biomechanics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Short- and Long-Term Effects of a Scapular-Focused Exercise Protocol for Patients with Shoulder Dysfunctions—A Prospective Cohort
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2888; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082888 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1313
Abstract
Current clinical practice lacks consistent evidence in the management of scapular dyskinesis. This study aims to determine the short- and long-term effects of a scapular-focused exercise protocol facilitated by real-time electromyographic biofeedback (EMGBF) on pain and function, in individuals with rotator cuff related [...] Read more.
Current clinical practice lacks consistent evidence in the management of scapular dyskinesis. This study aims to determine the short- and long-term effects of a scapular-focused exercise protocol facilitated by real-time electromyographic biofeedback (EMGBF) on pain and function, in individuals with rotator cuff related pain syndrome (RCS) and anterior shoulder instability (ASI). One-hundred and eighty-three patients were divided into two groups (n = 117 RCS and n = 66 ASI) and guided through a structured exercise protocol, focusing on scapular dynamic control. Values of pain and function (shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI) questionnaire, complemented by the numeric pain rating scale (NPRS) and disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) questionnaire) were assessed at the initial, 4-week, and 2-year follow-up and compared within and between. There were significant differences in pain and function improvement between the initial and 4-week assessments. There were no differences in the values of DASH 1st part and SPADI between the 4-week and 2-year follow-up. There were no differences between groups at the baseline and long-term, except for DASH 1st part and SPADI (p < 0.05). Only 29 patients (15.8%) had a recurrence episode at follow-up. These results provide valuable information on the positive results of the protocol in the short- and long-term. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Analytical Evaluation of Signal-to-Noise Ratios for Avalanche- and Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2887; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082887 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1878
Abstract
Performance of systems for optical detection depends on the choice of the right detector for the right application. Designers of optical systems for ranging applications can choose from a variety of highly sensitive photodetectors, of which the two most prominent ones are linear [...] Read more.
Performance of systems for optical detection depends on the choice of the right detector for the right application. Designers of optical systems for ranging applications can choose from a variety of highly sensitive photodetectors, of which the two most prominent ones are linear mode avalanche photodiodes (LM-APDs or APDs) and Geiger-mode APDs or single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs). Both achieve high responsivity and fast optical response, while maintaining low noise characteristics, which is crucial in low-light applications such as fluorescence lifetime measurements or high intensity measurements, for example, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), in outdoor scenarios. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of detectors is used as an analytical, scenario-dependent tool to simplify detector choice for optical system designers depending on technologically achievable photodiode parameters. In this article, analytical methods are used to obtain a universal SNR comparison of APDs and SPADs for the first time. Different signal and ambient light power levels are evaluated. The low noise characteristic of a typical SPAD leads to high SNR in scenarios with overall low signal power, but high background illumination can saturate the detector. LM-APDs achieve higher SNR in systems with higher signal and noise power but compromise signals with low power because of the noise characteristic of the diode and its readout electronics. Besides pure differentiation of signal levels without time information, ranging performance in LiDAR with time-dependent signals is discussed for a reference distance of 100 m. This evaluation should support LiDAR system designers in choosing a matching photodiode and allows for further discussion regarding future technological development and multi pixel detector designs in a common framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Single Photon Counting Image Sensor)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Comparison of Spaceborne and UAV-Borne Remote Sensing Spectral Data for Estimating Monsoon Crop Vegetation Parameters
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2886; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082886 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 917
Abstract
Various remote sensing data have been successfully applied to monitor crop vegetation parameters for different crop types. Those successful applications mostly focused on one sensor system or a single crop type. This study compares how two different sensor data (spaceborne multispectral vs unmanned [...] Read more.
Various remote sensing data have been successfully applied to monitor crop vegetation parameters for different crop types. Those successful applications mostly focused on one sensor system or a single crop type. This study compares how two different sensor data (spaceborne multispectral vs unmanned aerial vehicle borne hyperspectral) can estimate crop vegetation parameters from three monsoon crops in tropical regions: finger millet, maize, and lablab. The study was conducted in two experimental field layouts (irrigated and rainfed) in Bengaluru, India, over the primary agricultural season in 2018. Each experiment contained n = 4 replicates of three crops with three different nitrogen fertiliser treatments. Two regression algorithms were employed to estimate three crop vegetation parameters: leaf area index, leaf chlorophyll concentration, and canopy water content. Overall, no clear pattern emerged of whether multispectral or hyperspectral data is superior for crop vegetation parameter estimation: hyperspectral data showed better estimation accuracy for finger millet vegetation parameters, while multispectral data indicated better results for maize and lablab vegetation parameter estimation. This study’s outcome revealed the potential of two remote sensing platforms and spectral data for monitoring monsoon crops also provide insight for future studies in selecting the optimal remote sensing spectral data for monsoon crop parameter estimation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
A Smart Sensing System of Water Quality and Intake Monitoring for Livestock and Wild Animals
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2885; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082885 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1229
Abstract
This paper presents a water intake monitoring system for animal agriculture that tracks individual animal watering behavior, water quality, and water consumption. The system is deployed in an outdoor environment to reach remote areas. The proposed system integrates motion detectors, cameras, water level [...] Read more.
This paper presents a water intake monitoring system for animal agriculture that tracks individual animal watering behavior, water quality, and water consumption. The system is deployed in an outdoor environment to reach remote areas. The proposed system integrates motion detectors, cameras, water level sensors, flow meters, Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) systems, and water temperature sensors. The data collection and control are performed using Arduino microcontrollers with custom-designed circuit boards. The data associated with each drinking event are water consumption, water temperature, drinking duration, animal identification, and pictures. The data and pictures are automatically stored on Secure Digital (SD) cards. The prototypes are deployed in a remote grazing site located in Tucumcari, New Mexico, USA. The system can be used to perform water consumption and watering behavior studies of both domestic animals and wild animals. The current system automatically records the drinking behavior of 29 cows in a two-week duration in the remote ranch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Intelligent Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
Miniaturised Low-Cost Gamma Scanning Platform for Contamination Identification, Localisation and Characterisation: A New Instrument in the Decommissioning Toolkit
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2884; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082884 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 855
Abstract
Formerly clandestine, abandoned and legacy nuclear facilities, whether associated with civil or military applications, represent a significant decommissioning challenge owing to the lack of knowledge surrounding the existence, location and types of radioactive material(s) that may be present. Consequently, mobile and highly deployable [...] Read more.
Formerly clandestine, abandoned and legacy nuclear facilities, whether associated with civil or military applications, represent a significant decommissioning challenge owing to the lack of knowledge surrounding the existence, location and types of radioactive material(s) that may be present. Consequently, mobile and highly deployable systems that are able to identify, spatially locate and compositionally assay contamination ahead of remedial actions are of vital importance. Deployment imposes constraints to dimensions resulting from small diameter access ports or pipes. Herein, we describe a prototype low-cost, miniaturised and rapidly deployable ‘cell characterisation’ gamma-ray scanning system to allow for the examination of enclosed (internal) or outdoor (external) spaces for radioactive ‘hot-spots’. The readout from the miniaturised and lead-collimated gamma-ray spectrometer, that is progressively rastered through a stepped snake motion, is combined with distance measurements derived from a single-point laser range-finder to obtain an array of measurements in order to yield a 3-dimensional point-cloud, based on a polar coordinate system—scaled for radiation intensity. Existing as a smaller and more cost-effective platform than presently available, we are able to produce a millimetre-accurate 3D volumetric rendering of a space—whether internal or external, onto which fully spectroscopic radiation intensity data can be overlain to pinpoint the exact positions at which (even low abundance) gamma-emitting materials exist. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Multi-Sensor Information Fusion)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Smart Home Energy Management System Using Two-Stage Non-Intrusive Appliance Load Monitoring over Fog-Cloud Analytics Based on Tridium’s Niagara Framework for Residential Demand-Side Management
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2883; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082883 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1567
Abstract
Electricity is a vital resource for various human activities, supporting customers’ lifestyles in today’s modern technologically driven society. Effective demand-side management (DSM) can alleviate ever-increasing electricity demands that arise from customers in downstream sectors of a smart grid. Compared with the traditional means [...] Read more.
Electricity is a vital resource for various human activities, supporting customers’ lifestyles in today’s modern technologically driven society. Effective demand-side management (DSM) can alleviate ever-increasing electricity demands that arise from customers in downstream sectors of a smart grid. Compared with the traditional means of energy management systems, non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) monitors relevant electrical appliances in a non-intrusive manner. Fog (edge) computing addresses the need to capture, process and analyze data generated and gathered by Internet of Things (IoT) end devices, and is an advanced IoT paradigm for applications in which resources, such as computing capability, of a central data center acted as cloud computing are placed at the edge of the network. The literature leaves NIALM developed over fog-cloud computing and conducted as part of a home energy management system (HEMS). In this study, a Smart HEMS prototype based on Tridium’s Niagara Framework® has been established over fog (edge)-cloud computing, where NIALM as an IoT application in energy management has also been investigated in the framework. The SHEMS prototype established over fog-cloud computing in this study utilizes an artificial neural network-based NIALM approach to non-intrusively monitor relevant electrical appliances without an intrusive deployment of plug-load power meters (smart plugs), where a two-stage NIALM approach is completed. The core entity of the SHEMS prototype is based on a compact, cognitive, embedded IoT controller that connects IoT end devices, such as sensors and meters, and serves as a gateway in a smart house/smart building for residential DSM. As demonstrated and reported in this study, the established SHEMS prototype using the investigated two-stage NIALM approach is feasible and usable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Sensing for Intelligent Transport Systems and Smart Society)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Online Adaptive Prediction of Human Motion Intention Based on sEMG
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2882; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082882 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1023
Abstract
Accurate and reliable motion intention perception and prediction are keys to the exoskeleton control system. In this paper, a motion intention prediction algorithm based on sEMG signal is proposed to predict joint angle and heel strike time in advance. To ensure the accuracy [...] Read more.
Accurate and reliable motion intention perception and prediction are keys to the exoskeleton control system. In this paper, a motion intention prediction algorithm based on sEMG signal is proposed to predict joint angle and heel strike time in advance. To ensure the accuracy and reliability of the prediction algorithm, the proposed method designs the sEMG feature extraction network and the online adaptation network. The feature extraction utilizes the convolution autoencoder network combined with muscle synergy characteristics to get the high-compression sEMG feature to aid motion prediction. The adaptation network ensures the proposed prediction method can still maintain a certain prediction accuracy even the sEMG signals distribution changes by adjusting some parameters of the feature extraction network and the prediction network online. Ten subjects were recruited to collect surface EMG data from nine muscles on the treadmill. The proposed prediction algorithm can predict the knee angle 101.25 ms in advance with 2.36 degrees accuracy. The proposed prediction algorithm also can predict the occurrence time of initial contact 236±9 ms in advance. Meanwhile, the proposed feature extraction method can achieve 90.71±3.42% accuracy of sEMG reconstruction and can guarantee 73.70±5.01% accuracy even when the distribution of sEMG is changed without any adjustment. The online adaptation network enhances the accuracy of sEMG reconstruction of CAE to 87.65±3.83% and decreases the angle prediction error from 4.03 to 2.36. The proposed method achieves effective motion prediction in advance and alleviates the influence caused by the non-stationary of sEMG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Sensors and Systems for Rehabilitation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Application of MEMS Sensors for Evaluation of the Dynamics for Cargo Securing on Road Vehicles
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2881; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082881 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1130
Abstract
Safety is one of the key aspects of the successful transport of cargo. In the case of road transport, the dynamics of a vehicle during normal events such as braking, steering, and evasive maneuver are variable in different places in the vehicle. Several [...] Read more.
Safety is one of the key aspects of the successful transport of cargo. In the case of road transport, the dynamics of a vehicle during normal events such as braking, steering, and evasive maneuver are variable in different places in the vehicle. Several manufacturers provide different dataloggers with acceleration sensors, but the results are not comparable due to different sensor parameters, measurement ranges, sampling frequencies, data filtration, and evaluation of different periods of acceleration. The position of the sensor in the loading area is also important. The accelerations are not the same at all points in the vehicle. The article deals with the measurement of these dynamic events with MEMS sensors on selected points of a vehicle loaded with cargo and with changes in dynamics after certain events that could occur during regular road transport of cargo to analyze the possibilities for monitoring accelerations and the related forces acting on the cargo during transport. The article uses evaluation times of 80, 300, and 1000 ms for accelerations. With the measured values, it is possible to determine the places with a higher risk of cargo damage and not only to adjust the packaging and securing of the cargo, but also to modify the transport routes. Concerning the purposes of securing the cargo in relation to EN 12195-1 and the minimum values of forces for securing the cargo, we focused primarily on the places where the acceleration of 0.5 g was exceeded when analyzing the monitored route. There were 32 of these points in total, all of which were measured by a sensor located at the rear of the semi-trailer. In 31 cases, the limit of 0.5 g was exceeded for an 80-ms evaluation time, and in one case, the value of 0.51 g was reached in the transverse direction for a 300-ms evaluation time. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Smartcard-Based User-Controlled Single Sign-On for Privacy Preservation in 5G-IoT Telemedicine Systems
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2880; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082880 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1109
Abstract
Healthcare is now an important part of daily life because of rising consciousness of health management. Medical professionals can know users’ health condition if they are able to access information immediately. Telemedicine systems, which provides long distance medical communication and services, is a [...] Read more.
Healthcare is now an important part of daily life because of rising consciousness of health management. Medical professionals can know users’ health condition if they are able to access information immediately. Telemedicine systems, which provides long distance medical communication and services, is a multi-functional remote medical service that can help patients in bed in long-distance communication environments. As telemedicine systems work in public networks, privacy preservation issue of sensitive and private transmitted information is important. One of the means of proving a user’s identity are user-controlled single sign-on (UCSSO) authentication scheme, which can establish a secure communication channel using authenticated session keys between the users and servers of telemedicine systems, without threats of eavesdropping, impersonation, etc., and allow patients access to multiple telemedicine services with a pair of identity and password. In this paper, we proposed a smartcard-based user-controlled single sign-on (SC-UCSSO) for telemedicine systems that not only remains above merits but achieves privacy preservation and enhances security and performance compared to previous schemes that were proved with BAN logic and automated validation of internet security protocols and applications (AVISPA). Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Security, Trust and Privacy in New Computing Environments)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Heating Homes with Servers: Workload Scheduling for Heat Reuse in Distributed Data Centers
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2879; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082879 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 934
Abstract
Data centers consume lots of energy to execute their computational workload and generate heat that is mostly wasted. In this paper, we address this problem by considering heat reuse in the case of a distributed data center that features IT equipment (i.e., servers) [...] Read more.
Data centers consume lots of energy to execute their computational workload and generate heat that is mostly wasted. In this paper, we address this problem by considering heat reuse in the case of a distributed data center that features IT equipment (i.e., servers) installed in residential homes to be used as a primary source of heat. We propose a workload scheduling solution for distributed data centers based on a constraint satisfaction model to optimally allocate workload on servers to reach and maintain the desired home temperature setpoint by reusing residual heat. We have defined two models to correlate the heat demand with the amount of workload to be executed by the servers: a mathematical model derived from thermodynamic laws calibrated with monitored data and a machine learning model able to predict the amount of workload to be executed by a server to reach a desired ambient temperature setpoint. The proposed solution was validated using the monitored data of an operational distributed data center. The server heat and power demand mathematical model achieve a correlation accuracy of 11.98% while in the case of machine learning models, the best correlation accuracy of 4.74% is obtained for a Gradient Boosting Regressor algorithm. Also, our solution manages to distribute the workload so that the temperature setpoint is met in a reasonable time, while the server power demand is accurately following the heat demand. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
Thermionic Electron Beam Current and Accelerating Voltage Controller for Gas Ion Sources
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2878; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082878 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 727
Abstract
Thermionic emission sources are key components of electron impact gas ion sources used in measuring instruments, such as mass spectrometers, ionization gauges, and apparatus for ionization cross-section measurements. The repeatability of the measurements taken with such instruments depends on the stability of the [...] Read more.
Thermionic emission sources are key components of electron impact gas ion sources used in measuring instruments, such as mass spectrometers, ionization gauges, and apparatus for ionization cross-section measurements. The repeatability of the measurements taken with such instruments depends on the stability of the ion current, which is a function, among other things, of the electron beam current and electron accelerating voltage. In this paper, a laboratory thermionic electron beam current and accelerating voltage controller is presented, based on digital algorithm implementation. The average value of the percentage standard deviation of the emission current is 0.021%, and the maximum electron accelerating voltage change versus the emission current is smaller than 0.011% in the full operating range of the emission current. Its application as a trap current or emission current-regulated ion source power supply could be useful in many measuring instruments, such as in microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mass spectrometers as universal gas sensors, where a stable emission current and electron energy are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensing and Imaging)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Chemical Gas Sensors: Recent Developments, Challenges, and the Potential of Machine Learning—A Review
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2877; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082877 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2901
Abstract
Nowadays, there is increasing interest in fast, accurate, and highly sensitive smart gas sensors with excellent selectivity boosted by the high demand for environmental safety and healthcare applications. Significant research has been conducted to develop sensors based on novel highly sensitive and selective [...] Read more.
Nowadays, there is increasing interest in fast, accurate, and highly sensitive smart gas sensors with excellent selectivity boosted by the high demand for environmental safety and healthcare applications. Significant research has been conducted to develop sensors based on novel highly sensitive and selective materials. Computational and experimental studies have been explored in order to identify the key factors in providing the maximum active location for gas molecule adsorption including bandgap tuning through nanostructures, metal/metal oxide catalytic reactions, and nano junction formations. However, there are still great challenges, specifically in terms of selectivity, which raises the need for combining interdisciplinary fields to build smarter and high-performance gas/chemical sensing devices. This review discusses current major gas sensing performance-enhancing methods, their advantages, and limitations, especially in terms of selectivity and long-term stability. The discussion then establishes a case for the use of smart machine learning techniques, which offer effective data processing approaches, for the development of highly selective smart gas sensors. We highlight the effectiveness of static, dynamic, and frequency domain feature extraction techniques. Additionally, cross-validation methods are also covered; in particular, the manipulation of the k-fold cross-validation is discussed to accurately train a model according to the available datasets. We summarize different chemresistive and FET gas sensors and highlight their shortcomings, and then propose the potential of machine learning as a possible and feasible option. The review concludes that machine learning can be very promising in terms of building the future generation of smart, sensitive, and selective sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Tongues, Electronic Noses, and Electronic Eyes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Development of Piezoelectric Energy Harvester System through Optimizing Multiple Structural Parameters
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2876; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082876 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 982
Abstract
Road power generation technology is of significance for constructing smart roads. With a high electromechanical conversion rate and high bearing capacity, the stack piezoelectric transducer is one of the most used structures in road energy harvesting to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. [...] Read more.
Road power generation technology is of significance for constructing smart roads. With a high electromechanical conversion rate and high bearing capacity, the stack piezoelectric transducer is one of the most used structures in road energy harvesting to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. To further improve the energy generation efficiency of this type of piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH), this study theoretically and experimentally investigated the influences of connection mode, number of stack layers, ratio of height to cross-sectional area and number of units on the power generation performance. Two types of PEHs were designed and verified using a laboratory accelerated pavement testing system. The findings of this study can guide the structural optimization of PEHs to meet different purposes of sensing or energy harvesting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Sensors and Their Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Chest-Worn Inertial Sensors: A Survey of Applications and Methods
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2875; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082875 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1790
Abstract
Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) are frequently implemented in wearable devices. Thanks to advances in signal processing and machine learning, applications of IMUs are not limited to those explicitly addressing body movements such as Activity Recognition (AR). On the other hand, wearing IMUs on [...] Read more.
Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) are frequently implemented in wearable devices. Thanks to advances in signal processing and machine learning, applications of IMUs are not limited to those explicitly addressing body movements such as Activity Recognition (AR). On the other hand, wearing IMUs on the chest offers a few advantages over other body positions. AR and posture analysis, cardiopulmonary parameters estimation, voice and swallowing activity detection and other measurements can be approached through chest-worn inertial sensors. This survey tries to introduce the applications that come with the chest-worn IMUs and summarizes the existing methods, current challenges and future directions associated with them. In this regard, this paper references a total number of 57 relevant studies from the last 10 years and categorizes them into seven application areas. We discuss the inertial sensors used as well as their placement on the body and their associated validation methods based on the application categories. Our investigations show meaningful correlations among the studies within the same application categories. Then, we investigate the data processing architectures of the studies from the hardware point of view, indicating a lack of effort on handling the main processing through on-body units. Finally, we propose combining the discussed applications in a single platform, finding robust ways for artifact cancellation, and planning optimized sensing/processing architectures for them, to be taken more seriously in future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications and Innovations on Sensor-Enabled Wearable Devices)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Energy Allocation for LoRaWAN Nodes with Multi-Source Energy Harvesting
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2874; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082874 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1041
Abstract
Many connected devices are expected to be deployed during the next few years. Energy harvesting appears to be a good solution to power these devices but is not a reliable power source due to the time-varying nature of most energy sources. It is [...] Read more.
Many connected devices are expected to be deployed during the next few years. Energy harvesting appears to be a good solution to power these devices but is not a reliable power source due to the time-varying nature of most energy sources. It is possible to harvest energy from multiple energy sources to tackle this problem, thus increasing the amount and the consistency of harvested energy. Additionally, a power management system can be implemented to compute how much energy can be consumed and to allocate this energy to multiple tasks, thus adapting the device quality of service to its energy capabilities. The goal is to maximize the amount of measured and transmitted data while avoiding power failures as much as possible. For this purpose, an industrial sensor node platform was extended with a multi-source energy-harvesting circuit and programmed with a novel energy-allocation system for multi-task devices. In this paper, a multi-source energy-harvesting LoRaWAN node is proposed and optimal energy allocation is proposed when the node runs different sensing tasks. The presented hardware platform was built with off-the-shelf components, and the proposed power management system was implemented on this platform. An experimental validation on a real LoRaWAN network shows that a gain of 51% transmitted messages and 62% executed sensing tasks can be achieved with the multi-source energy-harvesting and power-management system, compared to a single-source system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Harvesting Communication and Computing Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
HRV Features as Viable Physiological Markers for Stress Detection Using Wearable Devices
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2873; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082873 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1835
Abstract
Stress has been identified as one of the major causes of automobile crashes which then lead to high rates of fatalities and injuries each year. Stress can be measured via physiological measurements and in this study the focus will be based on the [...] Read more.
Stress has been identified as one of the major causes of automobile crashes which then lead to high rates of fatalities and injuries each year. Stress can be measured via physiological measurements and in this study the focus will be based on the features that can be extracted by common wearable devices. Hence, the study will be mainly focusing on heart rate variability (HRV). This study is aimed at investigating the role of HRV-derived features as stress markers. This is achieved by developing a good predictive model that can accurately classify stress levels from ECG-derived HRV features, obtained from automobile drivers, by testing different machine learning methodologies such as K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Support Vector Machines (SVM), Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), Random Forest (RF) and Gradient Boosting (GB). Moreover, the models obtained with highest predictive power will be used as reference for the development of a machine learning model that would be used to classify stress from HRV features derived from heart rate measurements obtained from wearable devices. We demonstrate that HRV features constitute good markers for stress detection as the best machine learning model developed achieved a Recall of 80%. Furthermore, this study indicates that HRV metrics such as the Average of normal-to-normal (NN) intervals (AVNN), Standard deviation of the average NN intervals (SDNN) and the Root mean square differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD) were important features for stress detection. The proposed method can be also used on all applications in which is important to monitor the stress levels in a non-invasive manner, e.g., in physical rehabilitation, anxiety relief or mental wellbeing. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Impact of Scene Content on High Resolution Video Quality
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2872; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082872 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 792
Abstract
This paper deals with the impact of content on the perceived video quality evaluated using the subjective Absolute Category Rating (ACR) method. The assessment was conducted on eight types of video sequences with diverse content obtained from the SJTU dataset. The sequences were [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the impact of content on the perceived video quality evaluated using the subjective Absolute Category Rating (ACR) method. The assessment was conducted on eight types of video sequences with diverse content obtained from the SJTU dataset. The sequences were encoded at 5 different constant bitrates in two widely video compression standards H.264/AVC and H.265/HEVC at Full HD and Ultra HD resolutions, which means 160 annotated video sequences were created. The length of Group of Pictures (GOP) was set to half the framerate value, as is typical for video intended for transmission over a noisy communication channel. The evaluation was performed in two laboratories: one situated at the University of Zilina, and the second at the VSB—Technical University in Ostrava. The results acquired in both laboratories reached/showed a high correlation. Notwithstanding the fact that the sequences with low Spatial Information (SI) and Temporal Information (TI) values reached better Mean Opinion Score (MOS) score than the sequences with higher SI and TI values, these two parameters are not sufficient for scene description, and this domain should be the subject of further research. The evaluation results led us to the conclusion that it is unnecessary to use the H.265/HEVC codec for compression of Full HD sequences and the compression efficiency of the H.265 codec by the Ultra HD resolution reaches the compression efficiency of both codecs by the Full HD resolution. This paper also includes the recommendations for minimum bitrate thresholds at which the video sequences at both resolutions retain good and fair subjectively perceived quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Sensor Technologies for IoT)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Novel Runtime Algorithm for the Real-Time Analysis and Detection of Unexpected Changes in a Real-Size SHM Network with Quasi-Distributed FBG Sensors
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2871; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082871 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1024
Abstract
The ability to track the structural condition of existing structures is one of the main concerns of bridge owners and operators. In the context of bridge maintenance programs, visual inspection predominates nowadays as the primary source of information. Yet, visual inspections alone are [...] Read more.
The ability to track the structural condition of existing structures is one of the main concerns of bridge owners and operators. In the context of bridge maintenance programs, visual inspection predominates nowadays as the primary source of information. Yet, visual inspections alone are insufficient to satisfy the current needs for safety assessment. From this perspective, extensive research on structural health monitoring has been developed in recent decades. However, the transfer rate from laboratory experiments to real-case applications is still unsatisfactory. This paper addresses the main limitations that slow the deployment and the acceptance of real-size structural health monitoring systems (SHM) and presents a novel real-time analysis algorithm based on random variable correlation for condition monitoring. The proposed algorithm was designed to respond automatically to detect unexpected events, such as local structural failure, within a multitude of random dynamic loads. The results are part of a project on SHM, where a high sensor-count monitoring system based on long-gauge fiber Bragg grating sensors (LGFBG) was installed on a prestressed concrete bridge in Neckarsulm, Germany. The authors also present the data management system developed to handle a large amount of data, and demonstrate the results from one of the implemented post-processing methods, the principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that the deployed SHM system successfully translates the massive raw data into meaningful information. The proposed real-time analysis algorithm delivers a reliable notification system that allows bridge managers to track unexpected events as a basis for decision-making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring for Smart Structures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Pump Laser Frequency Fluctuations on Signal-to-Noise Ratio of Brillouin Dynamic Grating Measurement with Coherent FMCW Reflectometry
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2870; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082870 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 673
Abstract
Signal-dependent speckle-like noise has constituted a serious factor in Brillouin-grating based frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) reflectometry and it has been indispensable for improving the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the Brillouin dynamic grating measurement to clarify the noise generation mechanism. In this paper we show [...] Read more.
Signal-dependent speckle-like noise has constituted a serious factor in Brillouin-grating based frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) reflectometry and it has been indispensable for improving the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the Brillouin dynamic grating measurement to clarify the noise generation mechanism. In this paper we show theoretically and experimentally that the noise is generated by the frequency fluctuations of the pump light from a laser diode (LD). We could increase the S/N from 36 to 190 merely by driving the LD using a current source with reduced technical noise. On the basis of our experimental result, we derived the theoretical formula for S/N as a function of distance, which contained the second and fourth-order moments of the frequency fluctuations, by assuming that the pump light frequency was modulated by the technical noise. We calculated S/N along the 1.35 m long optical fiber numerically using the measured power spectral density of the frequency fluctuations, and the resulting distributions agreed with the measured values in the 10 to 190 range. Since higher performance levels are required if the pump light source is to maintain the S/N as the fiber length increases, we can use the formula to calculate the light source specifications including the spectral width and rms value of the frequency fluctuations to achieve a high S/N while testing a fiber of a given length. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Optical Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
An Intelligent In-Shoe System for Gait Monitoring and Analysis with Optimized Sampling and Real-Time Visualization Capabilities
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2869; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082869 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1442
Abstract
The deterioration of gait can be used as a biomarker for ageing and neurological diseases. Continuous gait monitoring and analysis are essential for early deficit detection and personalized rehabilitation. The use of mobile and wearable inertial sensor systems for gait monitoring and analysis [...] Read more.
The deterioration of gait can be used as a biomarker for ageing and neurological diseases. Continuous gait monitoring and analysis are essential for early deficit detection and personalized rehabilitation. The use of mobile and wearable inertial sensor systems for gait monitoring and analysis have been well explored with promising results in the literature. However, most of these studies focus on technologies for the assessment of gait characteristics, few of them have considered the data acquisition bandwidth of the sensing system. Inadequate sampling frequency will sacrifice signal fidelity, thus leading to an inaccurate estimation especially for spatial gait parameters. In this work, we developed an inertial sensor based in-shoe gait analysis system for real-time gait monitoring and investigated the optimal sampling frequency to capture all the information on walking patterns. An exploratory validation study was performed using an optical motion capture system on four healthy adult subjects, where each person underwent five walking sessions, giving a total of 20 sessions. Percentage mean absolute errors (MAE%) obtained in stride time, stride length, stride velocity, and cadence while walking were 1.19%, 1.68%, 2.08%, and 1.23%, respectively. In addition, an eigenanalysis based graphical descriptor from raw gait cycle signals was proposed as a new gait metric that can be quantified by principal component analysis to differentiate gait patterns, which has great potential to be used as a powerful analytical tool for gait disorder diagnostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Body Worn Sensors and Wearables)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Virtual Angle Boundary-Aware Particle Swarm Optimization to Maximize the Coverage of Directional Sensor Networks
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2868; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082868 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 675
Abstract
With the transition of the mobile communication networks, the network goal of the Internet of everything further promotes the development of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Since the directional sensor has the performance advantage of long-term regional monitoring, [...] Read more.
With the transition of the mobile communication networks, the network goal of the Internet of everything further promotes the development of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Since the directional sensor has the performance advantage of long-term regional monitoring, how to realize coverage optimization of Directional Sensor Networks (DSNs) becomes more important. The coverage optimization of DSNs is usually solved for one of the variables such as sensor azimuth, sensing radius, and time schedule. To reduce the computational complexity, we propose an optimization coverage scheme with a boundary constraint of eliminating redundancy for DSNs. Combined with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, a Virtual Angle Boundary-aware Particle Swarm Optimization (VAB-PSO) is designed to reduce the computational burden of optimization problems effectively. The VAB-PSO algorithm generates the boundary constraint position between the sensors according to the relationship among the angles of different sensors, thus obtaining the boundary of particle search and restricting the search space of the algorithm. Meanwhile, different particles search in complementary space to improve the overall efficiency. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm with a boundary constraint can effectively improve the coverage and convergence speed of the algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A New Cache Update Scheme Using Reinforcement Learning for Coded Video Streaming Systems
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2867; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082867 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 749
Abstract
As the demand for video streaming has been rapidly increasing recently, new technologies for improving the efficiency of video streaming have attracted much attention. In this paper, we thus investigate how to improve the efficiency of video streaming by using clients’ cache storage [...] Read more.
As the demand for video streaming has been rapidly increasing recently, new technologies for improving the efficiency of video streaming have attracted much attention. In this paper, we thus investigate how to improve the efficiency of video streaming by using clients’ cache storage considering exclusive OR (XOR) coding-based video streaming where multiple different video contents can be simultaneously transmitted in one transmission as long as prerequisite conditions are satisfied, and the efficiency of video streaming can be thus significantly enhanced. We also propose a new cache update scheme using reinforcement learning. The proposed scheme uses a K-actor-critic (K-AC) network that can mitigate the disadvantage of actor-critic networks by yielding K candidate outputs and by selecting the final output with the highest value out of the K candidates. The K-AC exists in each client, and each client can train it by using only locally available information without any feedback or signaling so that the proposed cache update scheme is a completely decentralized scheme. The performance of the proposed cache update scheme was analyzed in terms of the average number of transmissions for XOR coding-based video streaming and was compared to that of conventional cache update schemes. Our numerical results show that the proposed cache update scheme can reduce the number of transmissions up to 24% when the number of videos is 100, the number of clients is 50, and the cache size is 5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Machine Learning for Multimedia Communications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
A Lightweight Attention-Based CNN Model for Efficient Gait Recognition with Wearable IMU Sensors
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2866; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082866 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1573
Abstract
Wearable sensors-based gait recognition is an effective method to recognize people’s identity by recognizing the unique way they walk. Recently, the adoption of deep learning networks for gait recognition has achieved significant performance improvement and become a new promising trend. However, most of [...] Read more.
Wearable sensors-based gait recognition is an effective method to recognize people’s identity by recognizing the unique way they walk. Recently, the adoption of deep learning networks for gait recognition has achieved significant performance improvement and become a new promising trend. However, most of the existing studies mainly focused on improving the gait recognition accuracy while ignored model complexity, which make them unsuitable for wearable devices. In this study, we proposed a lightweight attention-based Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) model for wearable gait recognition. Specifically, a four-layer lightweight CNN was first employed to extract gait features. Then, a novel attention module based on contextual encoding information and depthwise separable convolution was designed and integrated into the lightweight CNN to enhance the extracted gait features and simplify the complexity of the model. Finally, the Softmax classifier was used for classification to realize gait recognition. We conducted comprehensive experiments to evaluate the performance of the proposed model on whuGait and OU-ISIR datasets. The effect of the proposed attention mechanisms, different data segmentation methods, and different attention mechanisms on gait recognition performance were studied and analyzed. The comparison results with the existing similar researches in terms of recognition accuracy and number of model parameters shown that our proposed model not only achieved a higher recognition performance but also reduced the model complexity by 86.5% on average. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue AI and IoT Enabled Solutions for Healthcare)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Communication
BSF-EHR: Blockchain Security Framework for Electronic Health Records of Patients
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2865; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082865 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1737
Abstract
In the current epoch of smart homes and cities, personal data such as patients’ names, diseases and addresses are often violated. This is frequently associated with the safety of the electronic health records (EHRs) of patients. EHRs have numerous benefits worldwide, but at [...] Read more.
In the current epoch of smart homes and cities, personal data such as patients’ names, diseases and addresses are often violated. This is frequently associated with the safety of the electronic health records (EHRs) of patients. EHRs have numerous benefits worldwide, but at present, EHR information is subject to considerable security and privacy issues. This paper proposes a way to provide a secure solution to these issues. Previous sophisticated techniques dealing with the protection of EHRs usually make data inaccessible to patients. These techniques struggle to balance data confidentiality, patient demand and constant interaction with provider data. Blockchain technology solves the above problems since it distributes information in a transactional and decentralized manner. The usage of blockchain technology could help the health sector to balance the accessibility and privacy of EHRs. This paper proposes a blockchain security framework (BSF) to effectively and securely store and keep EHRs. It presents a safe and proficient means of acquiring medical information for doctors, patients and insurance agents while protecting the patient’s data. This work aims to examine how our proposed framework meets the security needs of doctors, patients and third parties and how the structure addresses safety and confidentiality concerns in the healthcare sector. Simulation outcomes show that this framework efficiently protects EHR data. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Hybrid Visual Tracking Algorithm Based on SOM Network and Correlation Filter
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2864; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082864 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 735
Abstract
To meet the challenge of video target tracking, based on a self-organization mapping network (SOM) and correlation filter, a long-term visual tracking algorithm is proposed. Objects in different videos or images often have completely different appearance, therefore, the self-organization mapping neural network with [...] Read more.
To meet the challenge of video target tracking, based on a self-organization mapping network (SOM) and correlation filter, a long-term visual tracking algorithm is proposed. Objects in different videos or images often have completely different appearance, therefore, the self-organization mapping neural network with the characteristics of signal processing mechanism of human brain neurons is used to perform adaptive and unsupervised features learning. A reliable method of robust target tracking is proposed, based on multiple adaptive correlation filters with a memory function of target appearance at the same time. Filters in our method have different updating strategies and can carry out long-term tracking cooperatively. The first is the displacement filter, a kernelized correlation filter that combines contextual characteristics to precisely locate and track targets. Secondly, the scale filters are used to predict the changing scale of a target. Finally, the memory filter is used to maintain the appearance of the target in long-term memory and judge whether the target has failed to track. If the tracking fails, the incremental learning detector is used to recover the target tracking in the way of sliding window. Several experiments show that our method can effectively solve the tracking problems such as severe occlusion, target loss and scale change, and is superior to the state-of-the-art methods in the aspects of efficiency, accuracy and robustness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Fusion for Object Detection, Classification and Tracking)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
EFAR-MMLA: An Evaluation Framework to Assess and Report Generalizability of Machine Learning Models in MMLA
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2863; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082863 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 958
Abstract
Multimodal Learning Analytics (MMLA) researchers are progressively employing machine learning (ML) techniques to develop predictive models to improve learning and teaching practices. These predictive models are often evaluated for their generalizability using methods from the ML domain, which do not take into account [...] Read more.
Multimodal Learning Analytics (MMLA) researchers are progressively employing machine learning (ML) techniques to develop predictive models to improve learning and teaching practices. These predictive models are often evaluated for their generalizability using methods from the ML domain, which do not take into account MMLA’s educational nature. Furthermore, there is a lack of systematization in model evaluation in MMLA, which is also reflected in the heterogeneous reporting of the evaluation results. To overcome these issues, this paper proposes an evaluation framework to assess and report the generalizability of ML models in MMLA (EFAR-MMLA). To illustrate the usefulness of EFAR-MMLA, we present a case study with two datasets, each with audio and log data collected from a classroom during a collaborative learning session. In this case study, regression models are developed for collaboration quality and its sub-dimensions, and their generalizability is evaluated and reported. The framework helped us to systematically detect and report that the models achieved better performance when evaluated using hold-out or cross-validation but quickly degraded when evaluated across different student groups and learning contexts. The framework helps to open up a “wicked problem” in MMLA research that remains fuzzy (i.e., the generalizability of ML models), which is critical to both accumulating knowledge in the research community and demonstrating the practical relevance of these techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Sensor Data to Educational Insights)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Dimensional Comparison between Evolutionary Algorithm and Deep Reinforcement Learning Methodologies for Autonomous Surface Vehicles with Water Quality Sensors
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2862; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082862 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1086
Abstract
The monitoring of water resources using Autonomous Surface Vehicles with water-quality sensors has been a recent approach due to the advances in unmanned transportation technology. The Ypacaraí Lake, the biggest water resource in Paraguay, suffers from a major contamination problem because of cyanobacteria [...] Read more.
The monitoring of water resources using Autonomous Surface Vehicles with water-quality sensors has been a recent approach due to the advances in unmanned transportation technology. The Ypacaraí Lake, the biggest water resource in Paraguay, suffers from a major contamination problem because of cyanobacteria blooms. In order to supervise the blooms using these on-board sensor modules, a Non-Homogeneous Patrolling Problem (a NP-hard problem) must be solved in a feasible amount of time. A dimensionality study is addressed to compare the most common methodologies, Evolutionary Algorithm and Deep Reinforcement Learning, in different map scales and fleet sizes with changes in the environmental conditions. The results determined that Deep Q-Learning overcomes the evolutionary method in terms of sample-efficiency by 50–70% in higher resolutions. Furthermore, it reacts better than the Evolutionary Algorithm in high space-state actions. In contrast, the evolutionary approach shows a better efficiency in lower resolutions and needs fewer parameters to synthesize robust solutions. This study reveals that Deep Q-learning approaches exceed in efficiency for the Non-Homogeneous Patrolling Problem but with many hyper-parameters involved in the stability and convergence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Robotics, Sensors and Industry 4.0)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop