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Article

Retrospective IP Address Geolocation for Geography-Aware Internet Services

Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Department of Telecommunications, Brno University of Technology, 61600 Brno, Czech Republic
Academic Editors: Alexios Mylonas and Nikolaos Pitropakis
Sensors 2021, 21(15), 4975; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21154975
Received: 26 May 2021 / Revised: 19 July 2021 / Accepted: 19 July 2021 / Published: 22 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyber Situational Awareness in Computer Networks)
The paper deals with the locations of IP addresses that were used in the past. This retrospective geolocation suffers from continuous changes in the Internet space and a limited availability of past IP location databases. I analyse the retrospective geolocation of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses over five years. An approach is also introduced to handle missing past IP geolocation databases. The results show that it is safe to retrospectively locate IP addresses by a couple of years, but there are differences between IPv4 and IPv6. The described parametric model of location lifetime allows us to estimate the time when the address location changed in the past. The retrospective geolocation of IP addresses has a broad range of applications, including social studies, system analyses, and security investigations. Two longitudinal use cases with the applied results are discussed. The first deals with geotargeted online content. The second deals with identity theft prevention in e-commerce. View Full-Text
Keywords: database; location; geotargeted content; cybercrime; RIPE Atlas; MaxMind database; location; geotargeted content; cybercrime; RIPE Atlas; MaxMind
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MDPI and ACS Style

Komosny, D. Retrospective IP Address Geolocation for Geography-Aware Internet Services. Sensors 2021, 21, 4975. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21154975

AMA Style

Komosny D. Retrospective IP Address Geolocation for Geography-Aware Internet Services. Sensors. 2021; 21(15):4975. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21154975

Chicago/Turabian Style

Komosny, Dan. 2021. "Retrospective IP Address Geolocation for Geography-Aware Internet Services" Sensors 21, no. 15: 4975. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21154975

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