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Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1293; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041293

Path Diversity Improved Opportunistic Routing for Underwater Sensor Networks

1,2,* , 1,2,* , 1,2
and
1,2
1
Key Laboratory of Ocean Acoustics and Sensing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Xi’an 710072, China
2
School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University; Xi’an 710072, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Abstract

The packets carried along a pre-defined route in underwater sensor networks are very vulnerble. Node mobility or intermittent channel availability easily leads to unreachable routing. Opportunistic routing has been proven to be a promising paradigm to design routing protocols for underwater sensor networks. It takes advantage of the broadcast nature of the wireless medium to combat packet losses and selects potential paths on the fly. Finding an appropriate forwarding candidate set is a key issue in opportunistic routing. Many existing solutions ignore the impact of candidates location distribution on packet forwarding. In this paper, a path diversity improved candidate selection strategy is applied in opportunistic routing to improve packet forwarding efficiency. It not only maximizes the packet forwarding advancements but also takes the candidate’s location distribution into account. Based on this strategy, we propose two effective routing protocols: position improved candidates selection (PICS) and position random candidates selection (PRCS). PICS employs two-hop neighbor information to make routing decisions. PRCS only uses one-hop neighbor information. Simulation results show that both PICS and PRCS can significantly improve network performance when compared with the previous solutions, in terms of packet delivery ratio, average energy consumption and end-to-end delay. View Full-Text
Keywords: underwater sensor networks; opportunistic routing; candidates selection; candidate coordination underwater sensor networks; opportunistic routing; candidates selection; candidate coordination
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Bai, W.; Wang, H.; He, K.; Zhao, R. Path Diversity Improved Opportunistic Routing for Underwater Sensor Networks. Sensors 2018, 18, 1293.

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