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Open AccessArticle

On the Energy Efficiency of On-Off Keying Transmitters with Two Distinct Types of Batteries

Shanghai Institute for Advanced Communication and Data Science, Key laboratory of Specialty Fiber Optics and Optical Access Networks, Joint International Research Laboratory of Specialty Fiber Optics and Advanced Communication, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1291;
Received: 3 February 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
As nodes in wireless sensor networks are usually powered by nonrenewable batteries, energy efficient design becomes critical. This paper considers a battery-powered transmitter using on-off keying (OOK) modulation and studies its energy efficiency in terms of the battery’s energy consumption for per bit transmission (BECPB). In particular, the transmitter may use one of two distinct types of batteries with battery utilization factor (BUF) depending on discharge current. The first has an instantaneous discharge current (IDC)-based BUF, while the second has a mean discharge current (MDC)-based BUF. For each type of battery, a closed-form BECPB expression is derived under a Rayleigh channel when a prescribed symbol error rate (SER) is guaranteed. Then theoretical analysis is made to study the impact of battery characteristic parameter γ , communication distance d and bandwidth B on the BECPB. Finally, the analysis is corroborated by numerical experimental results, which reveal that: the BECPB for each type of battery increases with γ and d; the BECPB for the two batteries first decreases and then increases with B, and there exists the optimal bandwidth corresponding to the minimum BECPB; the battery with IDC-based BUF corresponds to a larger BECPB. When γ and d are large, the BECPB for each type of battery is significantly higher than that for the ideal battery whose BUF is aways 1. For instance, when γ = 0.015 , d = 90 m and B = 10 kHz, the BECPB for IDC-based and MDC-based battery is nearly 60% amd 25% higher than that of the ideal battery, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: battery; energy efficiency; on-off keying; transmitters; sensors battery; energy efficiency; on-off keying; transmitters; sensors
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Shen, T.; Wang, T.; Sun, Y.; Wu, Y.; Jin, Y. On the Energy Efficiency of On-Off Keying Transmitters with Two Distinct Types of Batteries. Sensors 2018, 18, 1291.

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