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Curvature and Temperature Measurement Based on a Few-Mode PCF Formed M-Z-I and an Embedded FBG

Physics Department, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, China
National Key Laboratory of Thermostructure Composite Materials, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072, China
Photonics Research Centre, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1725;
Received: 17 June 2017 / Revised: 15 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 27 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Fiber Sensors 2017)
PDF [9073 KB, uploaded 27 July 2017]


We have experimentally demonstrated an optical fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) structure formed by a few-mode photonic crystal fiber (PCF) for curvature measurement and inscribed a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in the PCF for the purpose of simultaneously measuring temperature. The structure consists of a PCF sandwiched between two multi-mode fibers (MMFs). Bending experimental results show that the proposed sensor has a sensitivity of −1.03 nm/m−1 at a curvature range from 10 m−1 to 22.4 m−1, and the curvature sensitivity of the embedded FBG was −0.003 nm/m−1. Temperature response experimental results showed that the MZI’s wavelength, λa, has a sensitivity of 60.3 pm/°C, and the FBG’s Bragg wavelength, λb, has sensitivity of 9.2 pm/°C in the temperature range of 8 to 100 °C. As such, it can be used for simultaneous measurement of curvature and temperature over ranges of 10 m−1 to 22.4 m−1 and 8 °C to 100 °C, respectively. The results show that the embedded FBG can be a good indicator to compensate the varying ambient temperature during a curvature measurement. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZI); few-mode photonic crystal fiber FBG Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZI); few-mode photonic crystal fiber FBG

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Liu, H.; Yang, H.; Qiao, X.; Wang, Y.; Liu, X.; Lee, Y.-S.; Lim, K.-S.; Ahmad, H. Curvature and Temperature Measurement Based on a Few-Mode PCF Formed M-Z-I and an Embedded FBG. Sensors 2017, 17, 1725.

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