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Sensors, Volume 17, Issue 12 (December 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Berveglieri and co-workers report a low-cost technique that uses vertical optical scanning with a [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Out-of-Focus Projector Calibration Method with Distortion Correction on the Projection Plane in the Structured Light Three-Dimensional Measurement System
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2963; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122963
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
The three-dimensional measurement system with a binary defocusing technique is widely applied in diverse fields. The measurement accuracy is mainly determined by out-of-focus projector calibration accuracy. In this paper, a high-precision out-of-focus projector calibration method that is based on distortion correction on the
[...] Read more.
The three-dimensional measurement system with a binary defocusing technique is widely applied in diverse fields. The measurement accuracy is mainly determined by out-of-focus projector calibration accuracy. In this paper, a high-precision out-of-focus projector calibration method that is based on distortion correction on the projection plane and nonlinear optimization algorithm is proposed. To this end, the paper experimentally presents the principle that the projector has noticeable distortions outside its focus plane. In terms of this principle, the proposed method uses a high-order radial and tangential lens distortion representation on the projection plane to correct the calibration residuals caused by projection distortion. The final accuracy parameters of out-of-focus projector were obtained using a nonlinear optimization algorithm with good initial values, which were provided by coarsely calibrating the parameters of the out-of-focus projector on the focal and projection planes. Finally, the experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method can accuracy calibrate an out-of-focus projector, regardless of the amount of defocusing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Quantitative and Sensitive Detection of Chloramphenicol by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2962; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122962
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 3 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1568 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We used surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the quantitative and sensitive detection of chloramphenicol (CAP). Using 30 nm colloidal Au nanoparticles (NPs), a low detection limit for CAP of 10−8 M was obtained. The characteristic Raman peak of CAP centered at 1344
[...] Read more.
We used surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the quantitative and sensitive detection of chloramphenicol (CAP). Using 30 nm colloidal Au nanoparticles (NPs), a low detection limit for CAP of 10−8 M was obtained. The characteristic Raman peak of CAP centered at 1344 cm−1 was used for the rapid quantitative detection of CAP in three different types of CAP eye drops, and the accuracy of the measurement result was verified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The experimental results reveal that the SERS technique based on colloidal Au NPs is accurate and sensitive, and can be used for the rapid detection of various antibiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Location Accuracy of INS/Gravity-Integrated Navigation System on the Basis of Ocean Experiment and Simulation
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2961; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122961
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
An experiment comparing the location accuracy of gravity matching-aided navigation in the ocean and simulation is very important to evaluate the feasibility and the performance of an INS/gravity-integrated navigation system (IGNS) in underwater navigation. Based on a 1′ × 1′ marine gravity anomaly
[...] Read more.
An experiment comparing the location accuracy of gravity matching-aided navigation in the ocean and simulation is very important to evaluate the feasibility and the performance of an INS/gravity-integrated navigation system (IGNS) in underwater navigation. Based on a 1′ × 1′ marine gravity anomaly reference map and multi-model adaptive Kalman filtering algorithm, a matching location experiment of IGNS was conducted using data obtained using marine gravimeter. The location accuracy under actual ocean conditions was 2.83 nautical miles (n miles). Several groups of simulated data of marine gravity anomalies were obtained by establishing normally distributed random error N ( u , σ 2 ) with varying mean u and noise variance σ 2 . Thereafter, the matching location of IGNS was simulated. The results show that the changes in u had little effect on the location accuracy. However, an increase in σ 2 resulted in a significant decrease in the location accuracy. A comparison between the actual ocean experiment and the simulation along the same route demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed simulation method and quantitative analysis results. In addition, given the gravimeter (1–2 mGal accuracy) and the reference map (resolution 1′ × 1′; accuracy 3–8 mGal), location accuracy of IGNS was up to reach ~1.0–3.0 n miles in the South China Sea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inertial Sensors for Positioning and Navigation)
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Open AccessArticle Remotely Exploring Deeper-Into-Matter by Non-Contact Detection of Audible Transients Excited by Laser Radiation
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2960; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122960
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
An acoustic spectroscopic approach to detect contents within different packaging, with substantially wider applicability than other currently available subsurface spectroscopies, is presented. A frequency-doubled Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet) pulsed laser (13 ns pulse length) operated at 1 Hz was used to generate
[...] Read more.
An acoustic spectroscopic approach to detect contents within different packaging, with substantially wider applicability than other currently available subsurface spectroscopies, is presented. A frequency-doubled Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet) pulsed laser (13 ns pulse length) operated at 1 Hz was used to generate the sound field of a two-component system at a distance of 50 cm. The acoustic emission was captured using a unidirectional microphone and analyzed in the frequency domain. The focused laser pulse hitting the system, with intensity above that necessary to ablate the irradiated surface, transferred an impulsive force which led the structure to vibrate. Acoustic airborne transients were directly radiated by the vibrating elastic structure of the outer component that excited the surrounding air in contact with. However, under boundary conditions, sound field is modulated by the inner component that modified the dynamical integrity of the system. Thus, the resulting frequency spectra are useful indicators of the concealed content that influences the contributions originating from the wall of the container. High-quality acoustic spectra could be recorded from a gas (air), liquid (water), and solid (sand) placed inside opaque chemical-resistant polypropylene and stainless steel sample containers. Discussion about effects of laser excitation energy and sampling position on the acoustic emission events is reported. Acoustic spectroscopy may complement the other subsurface alternative spectroscopies, severely limited by their inherent optical requirements for numerous detection scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spectroscopy Based Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle A Large-Scale Multi-Hop Localization Algorithm Based on Regularized Extreme Learning for Wireless Networks
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2959; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122959
Received: 20 November 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5217 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel large-scale multi-hop localization algorithm based on regularized extreme learning is proposed in this paper. The large-scale multi-hop localization problem is formulated as a learning problem. Unlike other similar localization algorithms, the proposed algorithm overcomes the shortcoming of the traditional algorithms which
[...] Read more.
A novel large-scale multi-hop localization algorithm based on regularized extreme learning is proposed in this paper. The large-scale multi-hop localization problem is formulated as a learning problem. Unlike other similar localization algorithms, the proposed algorithm overcomes the shortcoming of the traditional algorithms which are only applicable to an isotropic network, therefore has a strong adaptability to the complex deployment environment. The proposed algorithm is composed of three stages: data acquisition, modeling and location estimation. In data acquisition stage, the training information between nodes of the given network is collected. In modeling stage, the model among the hop-counts and the physical distances between nodes is constructed using regularized extreme learning. In location estimation stage, each node finds its specific location in a distributed manner. Theoretical analysis and several experiments show that the proposed algorithm can adapt to the different topological environments with low computational cost. Furthermore, high accuracy can be achieved by this method without setting complex parameters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Rate Schedules with Data Sharing in Energy Harvesting Communication Systems
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2958; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122958
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 17 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
Despite the abundant research on energy-efficient rate scheduling polices in energy harvesting communication systems, few works have exploited data sharing among multiple applications to further enhance the energy utilization efficiency, considering that the harvested energy from environments is limited and unstable. In this
[...] Read more.
Despite the abundant research on energy-efficient rate scheduling polices in energy harvesting communication systems, few works have exploited data sharing among multiple applications to further enhance the energy utilization efficiency, considering that the harvested energy from environments is limited and unstable. In this paper, to overcome the energy shortage of wireless devices at transmitting data to a platform running multiple applications/requesters, we design rate scheduling policies to respond to data requests as soon as possible by encouraging data sharing among data requests and reducing the redundancy. We formulate the problem as a transmission completion time minimization problem under constraints of dynamical data requests and energy arrivals. We develop offline and online algorithms to solve this problem. For the offline setting, we discover the relationship between two problems: the completion time minimization problem and the energy consumption minimization problem with a given completion time. We first derive the optimal algorithm for the min-energy problem and then adopt it as a building block to compute the optimal solution for the min-completion-time problem. For the online setting without future information, we develop an event-driven online algorithm to complete the transmission as soon as possible. Simulation results validate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle An Architecture Providing Depolarization Ratio Capability for a Multi-Wavelength Raman Lidar: Implementation and First Measurements
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2957; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122957
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 10 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3695 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new architecture for the measurement of depolarization produced by atmospheric aerosols with a Raman lidar is presented. The system uses two different telescopes: one for depolarization measurements and another for total-power measurements. The system architecture and principle of operation are described. The
[...] Read more.
A new architecture for the measurement of depolarization produced by atmospheric aerosols with a Raman lidar is presented. The system uses two different telescopes: one for depolarization measurements and another for total-power measurements. The system architecture and principle of operation are described. The first experimental results are also presented, corresponding to a collection of atmospheric conditions over the city of Barcelona. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Enhancing Time Synchronization Support in Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2956; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122956
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (7375 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the emerging Internet of Things (IoT) technology becoming reality, a number of applications are being proposed. Several of these applications are highly dependent on wireless sensor networks (WSN) to acquire data from the surrounding environment. In order to be really useful for
[...] Read more.
With the emerging Internet of Things (IoT) technology becoming reality, a number of applications are being proposed. Several of these applications are highly dependent on wireless sensor networks (WSN) to acquire data from the surrounding environment. In order to be really useful for most of applications, the acquired data must be coherent in terms of the time in which they are acquired, which implies that the entire sensor network presents a certain level of time synchronization. Moreover, to efficiently exchange and forward data, many communication protocols used in WSN rely also on time synchronization among the sensor nodes. Observing the importance in complying with this need for time synchronization, this work focuses on the second synchronization problem, proposing, implementing and testing a time synchronization service for low-power WSN using low frequency real-time clocks in each node. To implement this service, three algorithms based on different strategies are proposed: one based on an auto-correction approach, the second based on a prediction mechanism, while the third uses an analytical correction mechanism. Their goal is the same, i.e., to make the clocks of the sensor nodes converge as quickly as possible and then to keep them most similar as possible. This goal comes along with the requirement to keep low energy consumption. Differently from other works in the literature, the proposal here is independent of any specific protocol, i.e., it may be adapted to be used in different protocols. Moreover, it explores the minimum number of synchronization messages by means of a smart clock update strategy, allowing the trade-off between the desired level of synchronization and the associated energy consumption. Experimental results, which includes data acquired from simulations and testbed deployments, provide evidence of the success in meeting this goal, as well as providing means to compare these three approaches considering the best synchronization results and their costs in terms of energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things and Ubiquitous Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Runaway Prevention System with Wireless Sensors for Intelligent Track Skates at Railway Stations
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2955; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122955
Received: 24 November 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Anti-runaway prevention of rolling stocks at a railway station is essential in railway safety management. The traditional track skates for anti-runaway prevention of rolling stocks have some disadvantages since they are operated and monitored completely manually. This paper describes an anti-runaway prevention system
[...] Read more.
Anti-runaway prevention of rolling stocks at a railway station is essential in railway safety management. The traditional track skates for anti-runaway prevention of rolling stocks have some disadvantages since they are operated and monitored completely manually. This paper describes an anti-runaway prevention system (ARPS) based on intelligent track skates equipped with sensors and real-time monitoring and management system. This system, which has been updated from the traditional track skates, comprises four parts: intelligent track skates, a signal reader, a database station, and a monitoring system. This system can monitor the real-time situation of track skates without changing their workflow for anti-runaway prevention, and thus realize the integration of anti-runaway prevention information management. This system was successfully tested and practiced at Sunjia station in Harbin Railway Bureau in 2014, and the results confirmed that the system showed 100% accuracy in reflecting the usage status of the track skates. The system could meet practical demands, as it is highly reliable and supports long-distance communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Transportation)
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Open AccessArticle Sulfophenyl-Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide Networks on Electrospun 3D Scaffold for Ultrasensitive NO2 Gas Sensor
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2954; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122954
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1824 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ultrasensitive room temperature real-time NO2 sensors are highly desirable due to potential threats on environmental security and personal respiratory. Traditional NO2 gas sensors with highly operated temperatures (200–600 °C) and limited reversibility are mainly constructed from semiconducting oxide-deposited ceramic tubes or
[...] Read more.
Ultrasensitive room temperature real-time NO2 sensors are highly desirable due to potential threats on environmental security and personal respiratory. Traditional NO2 gas sensors with highly operated temperatures (200–600 °C) and limited reversibility are mainly constructed from semiconducting oxide-deposited ceramic tubes or inter-finger probes. Herein, we report the functionalized graphene network film sensors assembled on an electrospun three-dimensional (3D) nanonetwork skeleton for ultrasensitive NO2 sensing. The functional 3D scaffold was prepared by electrospinning interconnected polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers onto a nylon window screen to provide a 3D nanonetwork skeleton. Then, the sulfophenyl-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (SFRGO) was assembled on the electrospun 3D nanonetwork skeleton to form SFRGO network films. The assembled functionalized graphene network film sensors exhibit excellent NO2 sensing performance (10 ppb to 20 ppm) at room temperature, reliable reversibility, good selectivity, and better sensing cycle stability. These improvements can be ascribed to the functionalization of graphene with electron-withdrawing sulfophenyl groups, the high surface-to-volume ratio, and the effective sensing channels from SFRGO wrapping onto the interconnected 3D scaffold. The SFRGO network-sensing film has the advantages of simple preparation, low cost, good processability, and ultrasensitive NO2 sensing, all advantages that can be utilized for potential integration into smart windows and wearable electronic devices for real-time household gas sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Materials Based Sensors and the Application)
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Open AccessArticle 3D-Printed Detector Band for Magnetic Off-Plane Flux Measurements in Laminated Machine Cores
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2953; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122953
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
Laminated soft magnetic cores of transformers, rotating machines etc. may exhibit complex 3D flux distributions with pronounced normal fluxes (off-plane fluxes), perpendicular to the plane of magnetization. As recent research activities have shown, detections of off-plane fluxes tend to be essential for the
[...] Read more.
Laminated soft magnetic cores of transformers, rotating machines etc. may exhibit complex 3D flux distributions with pronounced normal fluxes (off-plane fluxes), perpendicular to the plane of magnetization. As recent research activities have shown, detections of off-plane fluxes tend to be essential for the optimization of core performances aiming at a reduction of core losses and of audible noise. Conventional sensors for off-plane flux measurements tend to be either of high thickness, influencing the measured fluxes significantly, or require laborious preparations. In the current work, thin novel detector bands for effective and simple off-plane flux detections in laminated machine cores were manufactured. They are printed in an automatic way by an in-house developed 3D/2D assembler. The latter enables a unique combination of conductive and non-conductive materials. The detector bands were effectively tested in the interior of a two-package, three-phase model transformer core. They proved to be mechanically resilient, even for strong clamping of the core. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Sensors and Their Applications)
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Open AccessReview Sensors and Biosensors for C-Reactive Protein, Temperature and pH, and Their Applications for Monitoring Wound Healing: A Review
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2952; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122952
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2456 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wound assessment is usually performed in hospitals or specialized labs. However, since patients spend most of their time at home, a remote real time wound monitoring would help providing a better care and improving the healing rate. This review describes the advances in
[...] Read more.
Wound assessment is usually performed in hospitals or specialized labs. However, since patients spend most of their time at home, a remote real time wound monitoring would help providing a better care and improving the healing rate. This review describes the advances in sensors and biosensors for monitoring the concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP), temperature and pH in wounds. These three parameters can be used as qualitative biomarkers to assess the wound status and the effectiveness of therapy. CRP biosensors can be classified in: (a) field effect transistors, (b) optical immunosensors based on surface plasmon resonance, total internal reflection, fluorescence and chemiluminescence, (c) electrochemical sensors based on potentiometry, amperometry, and electrochemical impedance, and (d) piezoresistive sensors, such as quartz crystal microbalances and microcantilevers. The last section reports the most recent developments for wearable non-invasive temperature and pH sensors suitable for wound monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Sensors and Systems 2017)
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Open AccessReview Achievements and Prospects in Electrochemical-Based Biosensing Platforms for Aflatoxin M1 Detection in Milk and Dairy Products
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2951; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122951
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 3 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1536 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aflatoxins, which are mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus growing on plants and products stored under inappropriate conditions, represent the most studied group of mycotoxins. Contamination of human and animal milk with aflatoxin M1, the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B
[...] Read more.
Aflatoxins, which are mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus growing on plants and products stored under inappropriate conditions, represent the most studied group of mycotoxins. Contamination of human and animal milk with aflatoxin M1, the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1, is an important health risk factor due to its carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Due to the low concentration of this aflatoxin in milk and milk products, the analytical methods used for its quantification have to be highly sensitive, specific and simple. This paper presents an overview of the analytical methods, especially of the electrochemical immunosensors and aptasensors, used for determination of aflatoxin M1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein-Based Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of Wavenumber Domain Imaging Algorithm for Ground-Based Arc Array SAR
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2950; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122950
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 10 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
PDF Full-text (3650 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR) has become an important technique for remote sensing deformation monitoring. However, most of the existing GB-SAR systems realize synthetic aperture by exploiting two closely spaced horn antennas to move along a linear rail. In order to obtain higher
[...] Read more.
Ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR) has become an important technique for remote sensing deformation monitoring. However, most of the existing GB-SAR systems realize synthetic aperture by exploiting two closely spaced horn antennas to move along a linear rail. In order to obtain higher data acquisition efficiency and a wider view angle, we introduce arc antenna array technology into the GB-SAR system, which realizes a novel kind of system: ground-based arc array SAR (GB-AA-SAR). In this paper, we analyze arc observation geometry and derive analytic expressions of sampling criteria. Then, we propose a novel wavenumber domain imaging algorithm for GB-AA-SAR, which can achieve high image reconstruction precision through numerical solutions in the wavenumber domain. The proposed algorithm can be applied in wide azimuth view angle scenarios, and the problem of azimuth mismatch caused by distance approximation in arc geometric efficient omega-k imaging can be solved successfully. Finally, we analyze the two-dimensional (2D) spatial resolution of GB-AA-SAR, and verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm through numerical simulation experiments. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Integrity Testing of Pile Cover Using Distributed Fibre Optic Sensing
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2949; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122949
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 9 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (6832 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The integrity of cast-in-place foundation piles is a major concern in geotechnical engineering. In this study, distributed fibre optic sensing (DFOS) cables, embedded in a pile during concreting, are used to measure the changes in concrete curing temperature profile to infer concrete cover
[...] Read more.
The integrity of cast-in-place foundation piles is a major concern in geotechnical engineering. In this study, distributed fibre optic sensing (DFOS) cables, embedded in a pile during concreting, are used to measure the changes in concrete curing temperature profile to infer concrete cover thickness through modelling of heat transfer processes within the concrete and adjacent ground. A field trial was conducted at a high-rise building construction site in London during the construction of a 51 m long test pile. DFOS cables were attached to the reinforcement cage of the pile at four different axial directions to obtain distributed temperature change data along the pile. The monitoring data shows a clear development of concrete hydration temperature with time and the pattern of the change varies due to small changes in concrete cover. A one-dimensional axisymmetric heat transfer finite element (FE) model is used to estimate the pile geometry with depth by back analysing the DFOS data. The results show that the estimated pile diameter varies with depth in the range between 1.40 and 1.56 m for this instrumented pile. This average pile diameter profile compares well to that obtained with the standard Thermal Integrity Profiling (TIP) method. A parametric study is conducted to examine the sensitivity of concrete and soil thermal properties on estimating the pile geometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Sensor Networks for Structural Health Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle Blind Compensation of I/Q Impairments in Wireless Transceivers
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2948; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122948
Received: 10 November 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
PDF Full-text (4401 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The majority of techniques that deal with the mitigation of in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance at the transmitter (pre-compensation) require long training sequences, reducing the throughput of the system. These techniques also require a feedback path, which adds more
[...] Read more.
The majority of techniques that deal with the mitigation of in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance at the transmitter (pre-compensation) require long training sequences, reducing the throughput of the system. These techniques also require a feedback path, which adds more complexity and cost to the transmitter architecture. Blind estimation techniques are attractive for avoiding the use of long training sequences. In this paper, we propose a blind frequency-independent I/Q imbalance compensation method based on the maximum likelihood (ML) estimation of the imbalance parameters of a transceiver. A closed-form joint probability density function (PDF) for the imbalanced I and Q signals is derived and validated. ML estimation is then used to estimate the imbalance parameters using the derived joint PDF of the output I and Q signals. Various figures of merit have been used to evaluate the efficacy of the proposed approach using extensive computer simulations and measurements. Additionally, the bit error rate curves show the effectiveness of the proposed method in the presence of the wireless channel and Additive White Gaussian Noise. Real-world experimental results show an image rejection of greater than 30 dB as compared to the uncompensated system. This method has also been found to be robust in the presence of practical system impairments, such as time and phase delay mismatches. Full article
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Open AccessReview Porous TiO2-Based Gas Sensors for Cyber Chemical Systems to Provide Security and Medical Diagnosis
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2947; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122947
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 17 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (5647 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gas sensors play an important role in our life, providing control and security of technical processes, environment, transportation and healthcare. Consequently, the development of high performance gas sensor devices is the subject of intense research. TiO2, with its excellent physical and
[...] Read more.
Gas sensors play an important role in our life, providing control and security of technical processes, environment, transportation and healthcare. Consequently, the development of high performance gas sensor devices is the subject of intense research. TiO2, with its excellent physical and chemical properties, is a very attractive material for the fabrication of chemical sensors. Meanwhile, the emerging technologies are focused on the fabrication of more flexible and smart systems for precise monitoring and diagnosis in real-time. The proposed cyber chemical systems in this paper are based on the integration of cyber elements with the chemical sensor devices. These systems may have a crucial effect on the environmental and industrial safety, control of carriage of dangerous goods and medicine. This review highlights the recent developments on fabrication of porous TiO2-based chemical gas sensors for their application in cyber chemical system showing the convenience and feasibility of such a model to provide the security and to perform the diagnostics. The most of reports have demonstrated that the fabrication of doped, mixed and composite structures based on porous TiO2 may drastically improve its sensing performance. In addition, each component has its unique effect on the sensing properties of material. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Gas Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle An Enhanced Three-Factor User Authentication Scheme Using Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem for Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2946; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122946
Received: 11 November 2017 / Revised: 1 December 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (980 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As an essential part of Internet of Things (IoT), wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have touched every aspect of our lives, such as health monitoring, environmental monitoring and traffic monitoring. However, due to its openness, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various security threats.
[...] Read more.
As an essential part of Internet of Things (IoT), wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have touched every aspect of our lives, such as health monitoring, environmental monitoring and traffic monitoring. However, due to its openness, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various security threats. User authentication, as the first fundamental step to protect systems from various attacks, has attracted much attention. Numerous user authentication protocols armed with formal proof are springing up. Recently, two biometric-based schemes were proposed with confidence to be resistant to the known attacks including offline dictionary attack, impersonation attack and so on. However, after a scrutinization of these two schemes, we found them not secure enough as claimed, and then demonstrated that these schemes suffer from various attacks, such as offline dictionary attack, impersonation attack, no user anonymity, no forward secrecy, etc. Furthermore, we proposed an enhanced scheme to overcome the identified weaknesses, and proved its security via Burrows–Abadi–Needham (BAN) logic and the heuristic analysis. Finally, we compared our scheme with other related schemes, and the results showed the superiority of our scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security, Trust and Privacy for Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Pre-Scheduled and Self Organized Sleep-Scheduling Algorithms for Efficient K-Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2945; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122945
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2275 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The K-coverage configuration that guarantees coverage of each location by at least K sensors is highly popular and is extensively used to monitor diversified applications in wireless sensor networks. Long network lifetime and high detection quality are the essentials of such K
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The K-coverage configuration that guarantees coverage of each location by at least K sensors is highly popular and is extensively used to monitor diversified applications in wireless sensor networks. Long network lifetime and high detection quality are the essentials of such K-covered sleep-scheduling algorithms. However, the existing sleep-scheduling algorithms either cause high cost or cannot preserve the detection quality effectively. In this paper, the Pre-Scheduling-based K-coverage Group Scheduling (PSKGS) and Self-Organized K-coverage Scheduling (SKS) algorithms are proposed to settle the problems in the existing sleep-scheduling algorithms. Simulation results show that our pre-scheduled-based KGS approach enhances the detection quality and network lifetime, whereas the self-organized-based SKS algorithm minimizes the computation and communication cost of the nodes and thereby is energy efficient. Besides, SKS outperforms PSKGS in terms of network lifetime and detection quality as it is self-organized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Sensitivity Analysis of Different Shapes of a Plastic Optical Fiber-Based Immunosensor for Escherichia coli: Simulation and Experimental Results
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2944; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122944
Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
Conventional pathogen detection methods require trained personnel, specialized laboratories and can take days to provide a result. Thus, portable biosensors with rapid detection response are vital for the current needs for in-loco quality assays. In this work the authors analyze the characteristics of
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Conventional pathogen detection methods require trained personnel, specialized laboratories and can take days to provide a result. Thus, portable biosensors with rapid detection response are vital for the current needs for in-loco quality assays. In this work the authors analyze the characteristics of an immunosensor based on the evanescent field in plastic optical fibers with macro curvature by comparing experimental with simulated results. The work studies different shapes of evanescent-wave based fiber optic sensors, adopting a computational modeling to evaluate the probes with the best sensitivity. The simulation showed that for a U-Shaped sensor, the best results can be achieved with a sensor of 980 µm diameter by 5.0 mm in curvature for refractive index sensing, whereas the meander-shaped sensor with 250 μm in diameter with radius of curvature of 1.5 mm, showed better sensitivity for either bacteria and refractive index (RI) sensing. Then, an immunosensor was developed, firstly to measure refractive index and after that, functionalized to detect Escherichia coli. Based on the results with the simulation, we conducted studies with a real sensor for RI measurements and for Escherichia coli detection aiming to establish the best diameter and curvature radius in order to obtain an optimized sensor. On comparing the experimental results with predictions made from the modelling, good agreements were obtained. The simulations performed allowed the evaluation of new geometric configurations of biosensors that can be easily constructed and that promise improved sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Hybrid Materials Based Opto-Electronics Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Tequila with an Array of ZnO Thin Films: A Simple and Cost-Effective Method
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2943; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122943
Received: 24 November 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
An array of ZnO thin film sensors was obtained by thermal oxidation of physical vapor deposited thin Zn films. Different conditions of the thermal treatment (duration and temperature) were applied in view of obtaining ZnO sensors with different gas sensing properties. Films having
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An array of ZnO thin film sensors was obtained by thermal oxidation of physical vapor deposited thin Zn films. Different conditions of the thermal treatment (duration and temperature) were applied in view of obtaining ZnO sensors with different gas sensing properties. Films having undergone a long thermal treatment exhibited high responses to low ethanol concentrations, while short thermal treatments generally led to sensors with high ethanol sensitivity. The sensor array was used to distinguish among Tequilas and Agave liquor. Linear discriminant analysis and the multilayer perceptron neural network reached 100% and 86.3% success rates in the discrimination between real Tequila and Agave liquor and in the identification of Tequila brands, respectively. These results are promising for the development of an inexpensive tool offering low complexity and cost of analysis for detecting fraud in spirits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Dual-Color Fluorescence Imaging of EpCAM and EGFR in Breast Cancer Cells with a Bull’s Eye-Type Plasmonic Chip
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2942; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122942
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
Surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence microscopic observation of a live breast cancer cell was performed with a plasmonic chip. Two cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7), were selected as breast cancer cells, with two kinds of membrane protein, epithelial cell adhesion molecule
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Surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence microscopic observation of a live breast cancer cell was performed with a plasmonic chip. Two cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7), were selected as breast cancer cells, with two kinds of membrane protein, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), observed in both cells. The membrane proteins are surface markers used to differentiate and classify breast cancer cells. EGFR and EpCAM were detected with Alexa Fluor® 488-labeled anti-EGFR antibody (488-EGFR) and allophycocyanin (APC)-labeled anti-EpCAM antibody (APC-EpCAM), respectively. In MDA-MB231 cells, three-fold plus or minus one and seven-fold plus or minus two brighter fluorescence of 488-EGFR were observed on the 480-nm pitch and the 400-nm pitch compared with that on a glass slide. Results show the 400-nm pitch is useful. Dual-color fluorescence of 488-EGFR and APC-EpCAM in MDA-MB231 was clearly observed with seven-fold plus or minus two and nine-fold plus or minus three, respectively, on the 400-nm pitch pattern of a plasmonic chip. Therefore, the 400-nm pitch contributed to the dual-color fluorescence enhancement for these wavelengths. An optimal grating pitch of a plasmonic chip improved a fluorescence image of membrane proteins with the help of the surface plasmon-enhanced field. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Quantum Hybrid PSO Combined with Fuzzy k-NN Approach to Feature Selection and Cell Classification in Cervical Cancer Detection
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2935; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122935
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
A quantum hybrid (QH) intelligent approach that blends the adaptive search capability of the quantum-behaved particle swarm optimisation (QPSO) method with the intuitionistic rationality of traditional fuzzy k-nearest neighbours (Fuzzy k-NN) algorithm (known simply as the Q-Fuzzy approach) is proposed for
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A quantum hybrid (QH) intelligent approach that blends the adaptive search capability of the quantum-behaved particle swarm optimisation (QPSO) method with the intuitionistic rationality of traditional fuzzy k-nearest neighbours (Fuzzy k-NN) algorithm (known simply as the Q-Fuzzy approach) is proposed for efficient feature selection and classification of cells in cervical smeared (CS) images. From an initial multitude of 17 features describing the geometry, colour, and texture of the CS images, the QPSO stage of our proposed technique is used to select the best subset features (i.e., global best particles) that represent a pruned down collection of seven features. Using a dataset of almost 1000 images, performance evaluation of our proposed Q-Fuzzy approach assesses the impact of our feature selection on classification accuracy by way of three experimental scenarios that are compared alongside two other approaches: the All-features (i.e., classification without prior feature selection) and another hybrid technique combining the standard PSO algorithm with the Fuzzy k-NN technique (P-Fuzzy approach). In the first and second scenarios, we further divided the assessment criteria in terms of classification accuracy based on the choice of best features and those in terms of the different categories of the cervical cells. In the third scenario, we introduced new QH hybrid techniques, i.e., QPSO combined with other supervised learning methods, and compared the classification accuracy alongside our proposed Q-Fuzzy approach. Furthermore, we employed statistical approaches to establish qualitative agreement with regards to the feature selection in the experimental scenarios 1 and 3. The synergy between the QPSO and Fuzzy k-NN in the proposed Q-Fuzzy approach improves classification accuracy as manifest in the reduction in number cell features, which is crucial for effective cervical cancer detection and diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Signal and Information Processing)
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Open AccessArticle An Indoor Location-Based Control System Using Bluetooth Beacons for IoT Systems
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2917; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122917
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
The indoor location-based control system estimates the indoor position of a user to provide the service he/she requires. The major elements involved in the system are the localization server, service-provision client, user application positioning technology. The localization server controls access of terminal devices
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The indoor location-based control system estimates the indoor position of a user to provide the service he/she requires. The major elements involved in the system are the localization server, service-provision client, user application positioning technology. The localization server controls access of terminal devices (e.g., Smart Phones and other wireless devices) to determine their locations within a specified space first and then the service-provision client initiates required services such as indoor navigation and monitoring/surveillance. The user application provides necessary data to let the server to localize the devices or allow the user to receive various services from the client. The major technological elements involved in this system are indoor space partition method, Bluetooth 4.0, RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) and trilateration. The system also employs the BLE communication technology when determining the position of the user in an indoor space. The position information obtained is then used to control a specific device(s). These technologies are fundamental in achieving a “Smart Living”. An indoor location-based control system that provides services by estimating user’s indoor locations has been implemented in this study (First scenario). The algorithm introduced in this study (Second scenario) is effective in extracting valid samples from the RSSI dataset but has it has some drawbacks as well. Although we used a range-average algorithm that measures the shortest distance, there are some limitations because the measurement results depend on the sample size and the sample efficiency depends on sampling speeds and environmental changes. However, the Bluetooth system can be implemented at a relatively low cost so that once the problem of precision is solved, it can be applied to various fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Resources Management for Multi-Platform Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle Microstrip Patch Sensor for Salinity Determination
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2941; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122941
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, a compact microstrip feed inset patch sensor is proposed for measuring the salinities in seawater. The working principle of the proposed sensor depends on the fact that different salinities in liquid have different relative permittivities and cause different resonance frequencies.
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In this paper, a compact microstrip feed inset patch sensor is proposed for measuring the salinities in seawater. The working principle of the proposed sensor depends on the fact that different salinities in liquid have different relative permittivities and cause different resonance frequencies. The proposed sensor can obtain better sensitivity to salinity changes than common sensors using conductivity change, since the relative permittivity change to salinity is 2.5 times more sensitive than the conductivity change. The patch and ground plane of the proposed sensor are fabricated by conductive copper spray coating on the masks made by 3D printer. The fabricated patch and the ground plane are bonded to a commercial silicon substrate and then attached to 5 mm-high chamber made by 3D printer so that it contains only 1 mL seawater. For easy fabrication and testing, the maximum resonance frequency was selected under 3 GHz and to cover salinities in real seawater, it was assumed that the salinity changes from 20 to 35 ppt. The sensor was designed by the finite element method-based ANSYS high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS), and it can detect the salinity with 0.01 ppt resolution. The designed sensor has a resonance frequency separation of 37.9 kHz and reflection coefficients under −20 dB at the resonant frequencies. The fabricated sensor showed better performance with average frequency separation of 48 kHz and maximum reflection coefficient of −35 dB. By comparing with the existing sensors, the proposed compact and low-cost sensor showed a better detection capability. Therefore, the proposed patch sensor can be utilized in radio frequency (RF) tunable sensors for salinity determination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Design and Performance Evaluation of an Electro-Hydraulic Camless Engine Valve Actuator for Future Vehicle Applications
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2940; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122940
Received: 8 October 2017 / Revised: 2 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
This paper details the new design and dynamic simulation of an electro-hydraulic camless engine valve actuator (EH-CEVA) and experimental verification with lift position sensors. In general, camless engine technologies have been known for improving fuel efficiency, enhancing power output, and reducing emissions of
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This paper details the new design and dynamic simulation of an electro-hydraulic camless engine valve actuator (EH-CEVA) and experimental verification with lift position sensors. In general, camless engine technologies have been known for improving fuel efficiency, enhancing power output, and reducing emissions of internal combustion engines. Electro-hydraulic valve actuators are used to eliminate the camshaft of an existing internal combustion engines and used to control the valve timing and valve duration independently. This paper presents novel electro-hydraulic actuator design, dynamic simulations, and analysis based on design specifications required to satisfy the operation performances. An EH-CEVA has initially been designed and modeled by means of a powerful hydraulic simulation software, AMESim, which is useful for the dynamic simulations and analysis of hydraulic systems. Fundamental functions and performances of the EH-CEVA have been validated through comparisons with experimental results obtained in a prototype test bench. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechatronic Systems for Automatic Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle Using the Kalman Algorithm to Correct Data Errors of a 24-Bit Visible Spectrometer
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2939; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122939
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
To reduce cost, increase resolution, and reduce errors due to changing light intensity of the VIS SPEC, a new technique is proposed which applies the Kalman algorithm along with a simple hardware setup and implementation. In real time, the SPEC automatically corrects spectral
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To reduce cost, increase resolution, and reduce errors due to changing light intensity of the VIS SPEC, a new technique is proposed which applies the Kalman algorithm along with a simple hardware setup and implementation. In real time, the SPEC automatically corrects spectral data errors resulting from an unstable light source by adding a photodiode sensor to monitor the changes in light source intensity. The Kalman algorithm is applied on the data to correct the errors. The light intensity instability is one of the sources of error considered in this work. The change in light intensity is due to the remaining lifetime, working time and physical mechanism of the halogen lamp, and/or battery and regulator stability. Coefficients and parameters for the processing are determined from MATLAB simulations based on two real types of datasets, which are mono-changing and multi-changing datasets, collected from the prototype SPEC. From the saved datasets, and based on the Kalman algorithm and other computer algorithms such as divide-and-conquer algorithm and greedy technique, the simulation program implements the search for process noise covariance, the correction function and its correction coefficients. These components, which will be implemented in the processor of the SPEC, Kalman algorithm and the light-source-monitoring sensor are essential to build the Kalman corrector. Through experimental results, the corrector can reduce the total error in the spectra on the order of 10 times; for certain typical local spectral data, it can reduce the error by up to 60 times. The experimental results prove that accuracy of the SPEC increases considerably by using the proposed Kalman corrector in the case of changes in light source intensity. The proposed Kalman technique can be applied to other applications to correct the errors due to slow changes in certain system components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Intelligent Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Condition Assessment of Foundation Piles and Utility Poles Based on Guided Wave Propagation Using a Network of Tactile Transducers and Support Vector Machines
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2938; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122938
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents a novel non-destructive testing and health monitoring system using a network of tactile transducers and accelerometers for the condition assessment and damage classification of foundation piles and utility poles. While in traditional pile integrity testing an impact hammer with broadband
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This paper presents a novel non-destructive testing and health monitoring system using a network of tactile transducers and accelerometers for the condition assessment and damage classification of foundation piles and utility poles. While in traditional pile integrity testing an impact hammer with broadband frequency excitation is typically used, the proposed testing system utilizes an innovative excitation system based on a network of tactile transducers to induce controlled narrow-band frequency stress waves. Thereby, the simultaneous excitation of multiple stress wave types and modes is avoided (or at least reduced), and targeted wave forms can be generated. The new testing system enables the testing and monitoring of foundation piles and utility poles where the top is inaccessible, making the new testing system suitable, for example, for the condition assessment of pile structures with obstructed heads and of poles with live wires. For system validation, the new system was experimentally tested on nine timber and concrete poles that were inflicted with several types of damage. The tactile transducers were excited with continuous sine wave signals of 1 kHz frequency. Support vector machines were employed together with advanced signal processing algorithms to distinguish recorded stress wave signals from pole structures with different types of damage. The results show that using fast Fourier transform signals, combined with principal component analysis as the input feature vector for support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with different kernel functions, can achieve damage classification with accuracies of 92.5% ± 7.5%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Sensor Networks for Structural Health Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle Strain Gauges Based on CVD Graphene Layers and Exfoliated Graphene Nanoplatelets with Enhanced Reproducibility and Scalability for Large Quantities
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2937; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122937
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
The two-dimensional material graphene promises a broad variety of sensing activities. Based on its low weight and high versatility, the sensor density can significantly be increased on a structure, which can improve reliability and reduce fluctuation in damage detection strategies such as structural
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The two-dimensional material graphene promises a broad variety of sensing activities. Based on its low weight and high versatility, the sensor density can significantly be increased on a structure, which can improve reliability and reduce fluctuation in damage detection strategies such as structural health monitoring (SHM). Moreover; it initializes the basis of structure–sensor fusion towards self-sensing structures. Strain gauges are extensively used sensors in scientific and industrial applications. In this work, sensing in small strain fields (from −0.1% up to 0.1%) with regard to structural dynamics of a mechanical structure is presented with sensitivities comparable to bulk materials by measuring the inherent piezoresistive effect of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with a very high aspect ratio of approximately 4.86 × 108. It is demonstrated that the increasing number of graphene layers with CVD graphene plays a key role in reproducible strain gauge application since defects of individual layers may become less important in the current path. This may lead to a more stable response and, thus, resulting in a lower scattering.. Further results demonstrate the piezoresistive effect in a network consisting of liquid exfoliated graphene nanoplatelets (GNP), which result in even higher strain sensitivity and reproducibility. A model-assisted approach provides the main parameters to find an optimum of sensitivity and reproducibility of GNP films. The fabricated GNP strain gauges show a minimal deviation in PRE effect with a GF of approximately 5.6 and predict a linear electromechanical behaviour up to 1% strain. Spray deposition is used to develop a low-cost and scalable manufacturing process for GNP strain gauges. In this context, the challenge of reproducible and reliable manufacturing and operating must be overcome. The developed sensors exhibit strain gauges by considering the significant importance of reproducible sensor performances and open the path for graphene strain gauges for potential usages in science and industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Technologies for Health Monitoring of Composite Structures)
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Open AccessArticle Hazardous Object Detection by Using Kinect Sensor in a Handle-Type Electric Wheelchair
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2936; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122936
Received: 8 October 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
To ensure the safety of a handle-type electric wheelchair (hereinafter, electric wheelchair), this paper describes the applicability of using a Kinect sensor. Ensuring the mobility of elderly people is a particularly important issue to be resolved. An electric wheelchair is useful as a
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To ensure the safety of a handle-type electric wheelchair (hereinafter, electric wheelchair), this paper describes the applicability of using a Kinect sensor. Ensuring the mobility of elderly people is a particularly important issue to be resolved. An electric wheelchair is useful as a means of transportation for elderly people. Considering that the users of electric wheelchairs are elderly people, it is important to ensure the safety of electric wheelchairs at night. To ensure the safety of an electric wheelchair at night, we constructed a hazardous object detection system using commercially available and inexpensive Kinect sensors and examined the applicability of the system. We examined warning timing with consideration to the cognition, judgment, and operation time of elderly people. Based on this, a hazardous object detection area was determined. Furthermore, the detection of static and dynamic hazardous objects was carried out at night and the results showed that the system was able to detect with high accuracy. We also conducted experiments related to dynamic hazardous object detection during daytime. From the above, it showed that the system could be applicable to ensuring the safety of the handle-type electric wheelchair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Japan 2017)
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