Next Article in Journal
Optimal Rate Schedules with Data Sharing in Energy Harvesting Communication Systems
Next Article in Special Issue
Identification of Coffee Varieties Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Chemometrics
Previous Article in Journal
Enhancing Time Synchronization Support in Wireless Sensor Networks
Previous Article in Special Issue
Detection of Water Content in Rapeseed Leaves Using Terahertz Spectroscopy
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2960;

Remotely Exploring Deeper-Into-Matter by Non-Contact Detection of Audible Transients Excited by Laser Radiation

UMALaserlab, Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, Jiménez Fraud 4th, 29010 Málaga, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spectroscopy Based Sensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4388 KB, uploaded 20 December 2017]   |  


An acoustic spectroscopic approach to detect contents within different packaging, with substantially wider applicability than other currently available subsurface spectroscopies, is presented. A frequency-doubled Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet) pulsed laser (13 ns pulse length) operated at 1 Hz was used to generate the sound field of a two-component system at a distance of 50 cm. The acoustic emission was captured using a unidirectional microphone and analyzed in the frequency domain. The focused laser pulse hitting the system, with intensity above that necessary to ablate the irradiated surface, transferred an impulsive force which led the structure to vibrate. Acoustic airborne transients were directly radiated by the vibrating elastic structure of the outer component that excited the surrounding air in contact with. However, under boundary conditions, sound field is modulated by the inner component that modified the dynamical integrity of the system. Thus, the resulting frequency spectra are useful indicators of the concealed content that influences the contributions originating from the wall of the container. High-quality acoustic spectra could be recorded from a gas (air), liquid (water), and solid (sand) placed inside opaque chemical-resistant polypropylene and stainless steel sample containers. Discussion about effects of laser excitation energy and sampling position on the acoustic emission events is reported. Acoustic spectroscopy may complement the other subsurface alternative spectroscopies, severely limited by their inherent optical requirements for numerous detection scenarios. View Full-Text
Keywords: laser-based sensor; acoustic emission; subsurface spectroscopy; concealed materials laser-based sensor; acoustic emission; subsurface spectroscopy; concealed materials

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Moros, J.; Gaona, I.; Laserna, J.J. Remotely Exploring Deeper-Into-Matter by Non-Contact Detection of Audible Transients Excited by Laser Radiation. Sensors 2017, 17, 2960.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top