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Sensors, Volume 13, Issue 5 (May 2013) , Pages 5406-6881

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Open AccessArticle Highly Specific and Cost-Efficient Detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A Combining Aptamers with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6865-6881; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506865
Received: 3 April 2013 / Revised: 22 April 2013 / Accepted: 17 May 2013 / Published: 22 May 2013
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 4025 | PDF Full-text (565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a panel of single-stranded DNA aptamers with high affinity and specificity against Salmonella Paratyphi A was selected from an enriched oligonucleotide pool by a whole-cell-Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) procedure, during which four other Salmonella serovars were [...] Read more.
In this paper, a panel of single-stranded DNA aptamers with high affinity and specificity against Salmonella Paratyphi A was selected from an enriched oligonucleotide pool by a whole-cell-Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) procedure, during which four other Salmonella serovars were used as counter-selection targets. It was determined through a fluorescence assay that the selected aptamers had high binding ability and specificity to this pathogen. The dissociation constant of these aptamers were up to nanomolar range, and aptamer Apt22 with the lowest Kd (47 ± 3 nM) was used in cell imaging experiments. To detect this bacteria with high specificity and cost-efficiently, a novel useful detection method was also constructed based on the noncovalent self-assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and DNAzyme-labeled aptamer detection probes. The amounts of target bacteria could be quantified by exploiting chemoluminescence intensity changes at 420 nm and the detection limit of the method was 103 cfu/mL. This study demonstrated the applicability of Salmonella specific aptamers and their potential for use in the detection of Salmonella in food, clinical and environmental samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotube and Nanowire Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Human ECG Identification System Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6832-6864; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506832
Received: 12 March 2013 / Revised: 12 April 2013 / Accepted: 14 May 2013 / Published: 22 May 2013
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 3400 | PDF Full-text (747 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a human electrocardiogram (ECG) identification system based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) is designed. A robust preprocessing method comprising noise elimination, heartbeat normalization and quality measurement is proposed to eliminate the effects of noise and heart rate variability. The [...] Read more.
In this paper, a human electrocardiogram (ECG) identification system based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) is designed. A robust preprocessing method comprising noise elimination, heartbeat normalization and quality measurement is proposed to eliminate the effects of noise and heart rate variability. The system is independent of the heart rate. The ECG signal is decomposed into a number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and Welch spectral analysis is used to extract the significant heartbeat signal features. Principal component analysis is used reduce the dimensionality of the feature space, and the K-nearest neighbors (K-NN) method is applied as the classifier tool. The proposed human ECG identification system was tested on standard MIT-BIH ECG databases: the ST change database, the long-term ST database, and the PTB database. The system achieved an identification accuracy of 95% for 90 subjects, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of accuracy and robustness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Sensor Platform Matching the Improved Version of IPMVP Option C for Measuring Energy Savings
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6811-6831; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506811
Received: 22 March 2013 / Revised: 6 May 2013 / Accepted: 13 May 2013 / Published: 22 May 2013
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3098 | PDF Full-text (1792 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is easy to measure energy consumption with a power meter. However, energy savings cannot be directly computed by the powers measured using existing power meter technologies, since the power consumption only reflects parts of the real energy flows. The International Performance Measurement [...] Read more.
It is easy to measure energy consumption with a power meter. However, energy savings cannot be directly computed by the powers measured using existing power meter technologies, since the power consumption only reflects parts of the real energy flows. The International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) was proposed by the Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO) to quantify energy savings using four different methodologies of A, B, C and D. Although energy savings can be estimated following the IPMVP, there are limitations on its practical implementation. Moreover, the data processing methods of the four IPMVP alternatives use multiple sensors (thermometer, hygrometer, Occupant information) and power meter readings to simulate all facilities, in order to determine an energy usage benchmark and the energy savings. This study proposes a simple sensor platform to measure energy savings. Using usually the Electronic Product Code (EPC) global standard, an architecture framework for an information system is constructed that integrates sensors data, power meter readings and occupancy conditions. The proposed sensor platform is used to monitor a building with a newly built vertical garden system (VGS). A VGS shields solar radiation and saves on energy that would be expended on air-conditioning. With this platform, the amount of energy saved in the whole facility is measured and reported in real-time. The data are compared with those obtained from detailed measurement and verification (M&V) processes. The discrepancy is less than 1.565%. Using measurements from the proposed sensor platform, the energy savings for the entire facility are quantified, with a resolution of ±1.2%. The VGS gives an 8.483% daily electricity saving for the building. Thus, the results show that the simple sensor platform proposed by this study is more widely applicable than the four complicated IPMVP alternatives and the VGS is an effective tool in reducing the carbon footprint of a building. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Design of a Single-Cell Positioning Controller Using Electroosmotic Flow and Image Processing
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6793-6810; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506793
Received: 6 February 2013 / Revised: 10 April 2013 / Accepted: 16 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2157 | PDF Full-text (882 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the current research was not only to provide a fast and automatic positioning platform for single cells, but also improved biomolecular manipulation techniques. In this study, an automatic platform for cell positioning using electroosmotic flow and image processing technology was [...] Read more.
The objective of the current research was not only to provide a fast and automatic positioning platform for single cells, but also improved biomolecular manipulation techniques. In this study, an automatic platform for cell positioning using electroosmotic flow and image processing technology was designed. The platform was developed using a PCI image acquisition interface card for capturing images from a microscope and then transferring them to a computer using human-machine interface software. This software was designed by the Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench, a graphical language for finding cell positions and viewing the driving trace, and the fuzzy logic method for controlling the voltage or time of an electric field. After experiments on real human leukemic cells (U-937), the success of the cell positioning rate achieved by controlling the voltage factor reaches 100% within 5 s. A greater precision is obtained when controlling the time factor, whereby the success rate reaches 100% within 28 s. Advantages in both high speed and high precision are attained if these two voltage and time control methods are combined. The control speed with the combined method is about 5.18 times greater than that achieved by the time method, and the control precision with the combined method is more than five times greater than that achieved by the voltage method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle A Fully Integrated Sensor SoC with Digital Calibration Hardware and Wireless Transceiver at 2.4 GHz
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6775-6792; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506775
Received: 12 April 2013 / Revised: 14 May 2013 / Accepted: 14 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3334 | PDF Full-text (6844 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A single-chip sensor system-on-a-chip (SoC) that implements radio for 2.4 GHz, complete digital baseband physical layer (PHY), 10-bit sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter and dedicated sensor calibration hardware for industrial sensing systems has been proposed and integrated in a 0.18-μm CMOS technology. The transceiver’s building [...] Read more.
A single-chip sensor system-on-a-chip (SoC) that implements radio for 2.4 GHz, complete digital baseband physical layer (PHY), 10-bit sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter and dedicated sensor calibration hardware for industrial sensing systems has been proposed and integrated in a 0.18-μm CMOS technology. The transceiver’s building block includes a low-noise amplifier, mixer, channel filter, receiver signal-strength indicator, frequency synthesizer, voltage-controlled oscillator, and power amplifier. In addition, the digital building block consists of offset quadrature phase-shift keying (OQPSK) modulation, demodulation, carrier frequency offset compensation, auto-gain control, digital MAC function, sensor calibration hardware and embedded 8-bit microcontroller. The digital MAC function supports cyclic redundancy check (CRC), inter-symbol timing check, MAC frame control, and automatic retransmission. The embedded sensor signal processing block consists of calibration coefficient calculator, sensing data calibration mapper and sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter with digital decimation filter. The sensitivity of the overall receiver and the error vector magnitude (EVM) of the overall transmitter are −99 dBm and 18.14%, respectively. The proposed calibration scheme has a reduction of errors by about 45.4% compared with the improved progressive polynomial calibration (PPC) method and the maximum current consumption of the SoC is 16 mA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Development of Amperometric Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Tyrosinase-Conducting Polymer Composite Electrodes
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6759-6774; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506759
Received: 18 March 2013 / Revised: 25 April 2013 / Accepted: 28 April 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3907 | PDF Full-text (903 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bio-composite coatings consisting of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and tyrosinase (Ty) were successfully electrodeposited on conventional size gold (Au) disk electrodes and microelectrode arrays using sinusoidal voltages. Electrochemical polymerization of the corresponding monomer was carried out in the presence of various Ty amounts in aqueous [...] Read more.
Bio-composite coatings consisting of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and tyrosinase (Ty) were successfully electrodeposited on conventional size gold (Au) disk electrodes and microelectrode arrays using sinusoidal voltages. Electrochemical polymerization of the corresponding monomer was carried out in the presence of various Ty amounts in aqueous buffered solutions. The bio-composite coatings prepared using sinusoidal voltages and potentiostatic electrodeposition methods were compared in terms of morphology, electrochemical properties, and biocatalytic activity towards various analytes. The amperometric biosensors were tested in dopamine (DA) and catechol (CT) electroanalysis in aqueous buffered solutions. The analytical performance of the developed biosensors was investigated in terms of linear response range, detection limit, sensitivity, and repeatability. A semi-quantitative multi-analyte procedure for simultaneous determination of DA and CT was developed. The amperometric biosensor prepared using sinusoidal voltages showed much better analytical performance. The Au disk biosensor obtained by 50 mV alternating voltage amplitude displayed a linear response for DA concentrations ranging from 10 to 300 μM, with a detection limit of 4.18 μM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultramicroelectrode Electrochemistry - Theory and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle A Deformed Shape Monitoring Model for Building Structures Based on a 2D Laser Scanner
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6746-6758; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506746
Received: 18 March 2013 / Revised: 24 April 2013 / Accepted: 14 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3073 | PDF Full-text (793 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High-rise buildings subjected to lateral loads such as wind and earthquake loads must be checked not to exceed the limits on the maximum lateral displacement or the maximum inter-story drift ratios. In this paper, a sensing model for deformed shapes of a building [...] Read more.
High-rise buildings subjected to lateral loads such as wind and earthquake loads must be checked not to exceed the limits on the maximum lateral displacement or the maximum inter-story drift ratios. In this paper, a sensing model for deformed shapes of a building structure in motion is presented. The deformed shape sensing model based on a 2D scanner consists of five modules: (1) module for acquiring coordinate information of a point in a building; (2) module for coordinate transformation and data arrangement for generation of time history of the point; (3) module for smoothing by adjacent averaging technique; (4) module for generation of the displacement history for each story and deformed shape of a building, and (5) module for evaluation of the serviceability of a building. The feasibility of the sensing model based on a 2D laser scanner is tested through free vibration tests of a three-story steel frame structure with a relatively high slenderness ratio of 5.0. Free vibration responses measured from both laser displacement sensors and a 2D laser scanner are compared. In the experimentation, the deformed shapes were obtained from three different methods: the model based on the 2D laser scanner, the direct measurement based on laser displacement sensors, and the numerical method using acceleration data and the displacements from GPS. As a result, it is confirmed that the deformed shape measurement model based on a 2D laser scanner can be a promising alternative for high-rise buildings where installation of laser displacement sensors is impossible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle On the Selection of Non-Invasive Methods Based on Speech Analysis Oriented to Automatic Alzheimer Disease Diagnosis
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6730-6745; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506730
Received: 15 April 2013 / Revised: 8 May 2013 / Accepted: 13 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 64 | Viewed by 5912 | PDF Full-text (637 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The work presented here is part of a larger study to identify novel technologies and biomarkers for early Alzheimer disease (AD) detection and it focuses on evaluating the suitability of a new approach for early AD diagnosis by non-invasive methods. The purpose is [...] Read more.
The work presented here is part of a larger study to identify novel technologies and biomarkers for early Alzheimer disease (AD) detection and it focuses on evaluating the suitability of a new approach for early AD diagnosis by non-invasive methods. The purpose is to examine in a pilot study the potential of applying intelligent algorithms to speech features obtained from suspected patients in order to contribute to the improvement of diagnosis of AD and its degree of severity. In this sense, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been used for the automatic classification of the two classes (AD and control subjects). Two human issues have been analyzed for feature selection: Spontaneous Speech and Emotional Response. Not only linear features but also non-linear ones, such as Fractal Dimension, have been explored. The approach is non invasive, low cost and without any side effects. Obtained experimental results were very satisfactory and promising for early diagnosis and classification of AD patients. Full article
Open AccessArticle Reset Tree-Based Optical Fault Detection
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6713-6729; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506713
Received: 9 April 2013 / Revised: 12 May 2013 / Accepted: 13 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2553 | PDF Full-text (358 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we present a new reset tree-based scheme to protect cryptographic hardware against optical fault injection attacks. As one of the most powerful invasive attacks on cryptographic hardware, optical fault attacks cause semiconductors to misbehave by injecting high-energy light into a [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a new reset tree-based scheme to protect cryptographic hardware against optical fault injection attacks. As one of the most powerful invasive attacks on cryptographic hardware, optical fault attacks cause semiconductors to misbehave by injecting high-energy light into a decapped integrated circuit. The contaminated result from the affected chip is then used to reveal secret information, such as a key, from the cryptographic hardware. Since the advent of such attacks, various countermeasures have been proposed. Although most of these countermeasures are strong, there is still the possibility of attack. In this paper, we present a novel optical fault detection scheme that utilizes the buffers on a circuit’s reset signal tree as a fault detection sensor. To evaluate our proposal, we model radiation-induced currents into circuit components and perform a SPICE simulation. The proposed scheme is expected to be used as a supplemental security tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle IPv6 Addressing Proxy: Mapping Native Addressing from Legacy Technologies and Devices to the Internet of Things (IPv6)
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6687-6712; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506687
Received: 19 March 2013 / Revised: 24 April 2013 / Accepted: 10 May 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 7615 | PDF Full-text (3565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to [...] Read more.
Sensors utilize a large number of heterogeneous technologies for a varied set of application environments. The sheer number of devices involved requires that this Internet be the Future Internet, with a core network based on IPv6 and a higher scalability in order to be able to address all the devices, sensors and things located around us. This capability to connect through IPv6 devices, sensors and things is what is defining the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). IPv6 provides addressing space to reach this ubiquitous set of sensors, but legacy technologies, such as X10, European Installation Bus (EIB), Controller Area Network (CAN) and radio frequency ID (RFID) from the industrial, home automation and logistic application areas, do not support the IPv6 protocol. For that reason, a technique must be devised to map the sensor and identification technologies to IPv6, thus allowing homogeneous access via IPv6 features in the context of the IoT. This paper proposes a mapping between the native addressing of each technology and an IPv6 address following a set of rules that are discussed and proposed in this work. Specifically, the paper presents a technology-dependent IPv6 addressing proxy, which maps each device to the different subnetworks built under the IPv6 prefix addresses provided by the internet service provider for each home, building or user. The IPv6 addressing proxy offers a common addressing environment based on IPv6 for all the devices, regardless of the device technology. Thereby, this offers a scalable and homogeneous solution to interact with devices that do not support IPv6 addressing. The IPv6 addressing proxy has been implemented in a multi-protocol Sensors 2013, 13 6688 card and evaluated successfully its performance, scalability and interoperability through a protocol built over IPv6. Full article
Open AccessArticle Fast Estimation of Strains for Cross-Beams Six-Axis Force/Torque Sensors by Mechanical Modeling
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6669-6686; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506669
Received: 27 February 2013 / Revised: 10 May 2013 / Accepted: 15 May 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 3403 | PDF Full-text (1565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Strain distributions are crucial criteria of cross-beams six-axis force/torque sensors. The conventional method for calculating the criteria is to utilize Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to get numerical solutions. This paper aims to obtain analytical solutions of strains under the effect of external force/torque [...] Read more.
Strain distributions are crucial criteria of cross-beams six-axis force/torque sensors. The conventional method for calculating the criteria is to utilize Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to get numerical solutions. This paper aims to obtain analytical solutions of strains under the effect of external force/torque in each dimension. Genetic mechanical models for cross-beams six-axis force/torque sensors are proposed, in which deformable cross elastic beams and compliant beams are modeled as quasi-static Timoshenko beam. A detailed description of model assumptions, model idealizations, application scope and model establishment is presented. The results are validated by both numerical FEA simulations and calibration experiments, and test results are found to be compatible with each other for a wide range of geometric properties. The proposed analytical solutions are demonstrated to be an accurate estimation algorithm with higher efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Identifying Time Measurement Tampering in the Traversal Time and Hop Count Analysis (TTHCA) Wormhole Detection Algorithm
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6651-6668; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506651
Received: 27 March 2013 / Revised: 9 May 2013 / Accepted: 13 May 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2838 | PDF Full-text (522 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Traversal time and hop count analysis (TTHCA) is a recent wormhole detection algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) which provides enhanced detection performance against all wormhole attack variants and network types. TTHCA involves each node measuring the processing time of routing packets [...] Read more.
Traversal time and hop count analysis (TTHCA) is a recent wormhole detection algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) which provides enhanced detection performance against all wormhole attack variants and network types. TTHCA involves each node measuring the processing time of routing packets during the route discovery process and then delivering the measurements to the source node. In a participation mode (PM) wormhole where malicious nodes appear in the routing tables as legitimate nodes, the time measurements can potentially be altered so preventing TTHCA from successfully detecting the wormhole. This paper analyses the prevailing conditions for time tampering attacks to succeed for PM wormholes, before introducing an extension to the TTHCA detection algorithm called ∆T Vector which is designed to identify time tampering, while preserving low false positive rates. Simulation results confirm that the ∆T Vector extension is able to effectively detect time tampering attacks, thereby providing an important security enhancement to the TTHCA algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Radar Tracking with an Interacting Multiple Model and Probabilistic Data Association Filter for Civil Aviation Applications
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6636-6650; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506636
Received: 22 March 2013 / Revised: 14 May 2013 / Accepted: 15 May 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2833 | PDF Full-text (365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The current trend of the civil aviation technology is to modernize the legacy air traffic control (ATC) system that is mainly supported by many ground based navigation aids to be the new air traffic management (ATM) system that is enabled by global positioning [...] Read more.
The current trend of the civil aviation technology is to modernize the legacy air traffic control (ATC) system that is mainly supported by many ground based navigation aids to be the new air traffic management (ATM) system that is enabled by global positioning system (GPS) technology. Due to the low receiving power of GPS signal, it is a major concern to aviation authorities that the operation of the ATM system might experience service interruption when the GPS signal is jammed by either intentional or unintentional radio-frequency interference. To maintain the normal operation of the ATM system during the period of GPS outage, the use of the current radar system is proposed in this paper. However, the tracking performance of the current radar system could not meet the required performance of the ATM system, and an enhanced tracking algorithm, the interacting multiple model and probabilistic data association filter (IMMPDAF), is therefore developed to support the navigation and surveillance services of the ATM system. The conventional radar tracking algorithm, the nearest neighbor Kalman filter (NNKF), is used as the baseline to evaluate the proposed radar tracking algorithm, and the real flight data is used to validate the IMMPDAF algorithm. As shown in the results, the proposed IMMPDAF algorithm could enhance the tracking performance of the current aviation radar system and meets the required performance of the new ATM system. Thus, the current radar system with the IMMPDAF algorithm could be used as an alternative system to continue aviation navigation and surveillance services of the ATM system during GPS outage periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessReview Evolution of Electroencephalogram Signal Analysis Techniques during Anesthesia
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6605-6635; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506605
Received: 26 March 2013 / Revised: 6 May 2013 / Accepted: 7 May 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3478 | PDF Full-text (1094 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biosignal analysis is one of the most important topics that researchers have tried to develop during the last century to understand numerous human diseases. Electroencephalograms (EEGs) are one of the techniques which provides an electrical representation of biosignals that reflect changes in the [...] Read more.
Biosignal analysis is one of the most important topics that researchers have tried to develop during the last century to understand numerous human diseases. Electroencephalograms (EEGs) are one of the techniques which provides an electrical representation of biosignals that reflect changes in the activity of the human brain. Monitoring the levels of anesthesia is a very important subject, which has been proposed to avoid both patient awareness caused by inadequate dosage of anesthetic drugs and excessive use of anesthesia during surgery. This article reviews the bases of these techniques and their development within the last decades and provides a synopsis of the relevant methodologies and algorithms that are used to analyze EEG signals. In addition, it aims to present some of the physiological background of the EEG signal, developments in EEG signal processing, and the effective methods used to remove various types of noise. This review will hopefully increase efforts to develop methods that use EEG signals for determining and classifying the depth of anesthesia with a high data rate to produce a flexible and reliable detection device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Soft, Transparent, Electronic Skin for Distributed and Multiple Pressure Sensing
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6578-6604; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506578
Received: 23 March 2013 / Revised: 19 April 2013 / Accepted: 3 May 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4799 | PDF Full-text (1149 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we present a new optical, flexible pressure sensor that can be applied as smart skin to a robot or to consumer electronic devices. We describe a mechano-optical transduction principle that can allow the encoding of information related to an externally [...] Read more.
In this paper we present a new optical, flexible pressure sensor that can be applied as smart skin to a robot or to consumer electronic devices. We describe a mechano-optical transduction principle that can allow the encoding of information related to an externally applied mechanical stimulus, e.g., contact, pressure and shape of contact. The physical embodiment that we present in this work is an electronic skin consisting of eight infrared emitters and eight photo-detectors coupled together and embedded in a planar PDMS waveguide of 5.5 cm diameter. When a contact occurs on the sensing area, the optical signals reaching the peripheral detectors experience a loss because of the Frustrated Total Internal Reflection and deformation of the material. The light signal is converted to electrical signal through an electronic system and a reconstruction algorithm running on a computer reconstructs the pressure map. Pilot experiments are performed to validate the tactile sensing principle by applying external pressures up to 160 kPa. Moreover, the capabilities of the electronic skin to detect contact pressure at multiple subsequent positions, as well as its function on curved surfaces, are validated. A weight sensitivity of 0.193 gr−1 was recorded, thus making the electronic skin suitable to detect pressures in the order of few grams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optomechatronics)
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Open AccessArticle Study on a Real-Time BEAM System for Diagnosis Assistance Based on a System on Chips Design
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6552-6577; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506552
Received: 1 April 2013 / Revised: 17 April 2013 / Accepted: 14 May 2013 / Published: 16 May 2013
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2663 | PDF Full-text (1574 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As an innovative as well as an interdisciplinary research project, this study performed an analysis of brain signals so as to establish BrainIC as an auxiliary tool for physician diagnosis. Cognition behavior sciences, embedded technology, system on chips (SOC) design and physiological signal [...] Read more.
As an innovative as well as an interdisciplinary research project, this study performed an analysis of brain signals so as to establish BrainIC as an auxiliary tool for physician diagnosis. Cognition behavior sciences, embedded technology, system on chips (SOC) design and physiological signal processing are integrated in this work. Moreover, a chip is built for real-time electroencephalography (EEG) processing purposes and a Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) system, and a knowledge database is constructed to diagnose psychosis and body challenges in learning various behaviors and signals antithesis by a fuzzy inference engine. This work is completed with a medical support system developed for the mentally disabled or the elderly abled. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Using a Fiber Loop and Fiber Bragg Grating as a Fiber Optic Sensor to Simultaneously Measure Temperature and Displacement
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6542-6551; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506542
Received: 8 April 2013 / Revised: 18 April 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 16 May 2013
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3302 | PDF Full-text (463 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study integrated a fiber loop manufactured by using commercial fiber (SMF-28, Corning) and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) to form a fiber optic sensor that could simultaneously measure displacement and temperature. The fiber loop was placed in a thermoelectric cooling module with [...] Read more.
This study integrated a fiber loop manufactured by using commercial fiber (SMF-28, Corning) and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) to form a fiber optic sensor that could simultaneously measure displacement and temperature. The fiber loop was placed in a thermoelectric cooling module with FBG affixed to the module, and, consequently, the center wavelength displacement of FBG was limited by only the effects of temperature change. Displacement and temperature were determined by measuring changes in the transmission of optical power and shifts in Bragg wavelength. This study provides a simple and economical method to measure displacement and temperature simultaneously. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optomechatronics)
Open AccessArticle Mobile Monitoring and Reasoning Methods to Prevent Cardiovascular Diseases
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6524-6541; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506524
Received: 25 March 2013 / Revised: 10 May 2013 / Accepted: 10 May 2013 / Published: 16 May 2013
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4359 | PDF Full-text (834 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the recent technological advances, it is possible to monitor vital signs using Bluetooth-enabled biometric mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets or electric wristbands. In this manuscript, we present a system to estimate the risk of cardiovascular diseases in Ambient Assisted Living environments. [...] Read more.
With the recent technological advances, it is possible to monitor vital signs using Bluetooth-enabled biometric mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets or electric wristbands. In this manuscript, we present a system to estimate the risk of cardiovascular diseases in Ambient Assisted Living environments. Cardiovascular disease risk is obtained from the monitoring of the blood pressure by means of mobile devices in combination with other clinical factors, and applying reasoning techniques based on the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation Project charts. We have developed an end-to-end software application for patients and physicians and a rule-based reasoning engine. We have also proposed a conceptual module to integrate recommendations to patients in their daily activities based on information proactively inferred through reasoning techniques and context-awareness. To evaluate the platform, we carried out usability experiments and performance benchmarks. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Easy to Deploy Street Light Control System Based on Wireless Communication and LED Technology
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6492-6523; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506492
Received: 21 March 2013 / Revised: 23 April 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 16 May 2013
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 5217 | PDF Full-text (1981 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an intelligent streetlight management system based on LED lamps, designed to facilitate its deployment in existing facilities. The proposed approach, which is based on wireless communication technologies, will minimize the cost of investment of traditional wired systems, which always need [...] Read more.
This paper presents an intelligent streetlight management system based on LED lamps, designed to facilitate its deployment in existing facilities. The proposed approach, which is based on wireless communication technologies, will minimize the cost of investment of traditional wired systems, which always need civil engineering for burying of cable underground and consequently are more expensive than if the connection of the different nodes is made over the air. The deployed solution will be aware of their surrounding’s environmental conditions, a fact that will be approached for the system intelligence in order to learn, and later, apply dynamic rules. The knowledge of real time illumination needs, in terms of instant use of the street in which it is installed, will also feed our system, with the objective of providing tangible solutions to reduce energy consumption according to the contextual needs, an exact calculation of energy consumption and reliable mechanisms for preventive maintenance of facilities. Full article
Open AccessArticle 3D Preoperative Planning in the ER with OsiriX®: When There is No Time for Neuronavigation
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6477-6491; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506477
Received: 1 April 2013 / Revised: 1 May 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 16 May 2013
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2979 | PDF Full-text (1787 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The evaluation of patients in the emergency room department (ER) through more accurate imaging methods such as computed tomography (CT) has revolutionized their assistance in the early 80s. However, despite technical improvements seen during the last decade, surgical planning in the ER has [...] Read more.
The evaluation of patients in the emergency room department (ER) through more accurate imaging methods such as computed tomography (CT) has revolutionized their assistance in the early 80s. However, despite technical improvements seen during the last decade, surgical planning in the ER has not followed the development of image acquisition methods. The authors present their experience with DICOM image processing as a navigation method in the ER. The authors present 18 patients treated in the Emergency Department of the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of Sao Paulo. All patients were submitted to volumetric CT. We present patients with epidural hematomas, acute/subacute subdural hematomas and contusional hematomas. Using a specific program to analyze images in DICOM format (OsiriX®), the authors performed the appropriate surgical planning. The use of 3D surgical planning made it possible to perform procedures more accurately and less invasively, enabling better postoperative outcomes. All sorts of neurosurgical emergency pathologies can be treated appropriately with no waste of time. The three-dimensional processing of images in the preoperative evaluation is easy and possible even within the emergency care. It should be used as a tool to reduce the surgical trauma and it may dispense methods of navigation in many cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical & Biological Imaging)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Power Efficient Location-Based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-Upper-Limit for Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6448-6476; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506448
Received: 22 March 2013 / Revised: 3 May 2013 / Accepted: 9 May 2013 / Published: 15 May 2013
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3080 | PDF Full-text (1235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The extensive usage of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has led to the development of many power- and energy-efficient routing protocols. Cooperative routing in WSNs can improve performance in these types of networks. In this paper we discuss the existing proposals and we propose [...] Read more.
The extensive usage of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has led to the development of many power- and energy-efficient routing protocols. Cooperative routing in WSNs can improve performance in these types of networks. In this paper we discuss the existing proposals and we propose a routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks called Power Efficient Location-based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-upper-limit (PELCR-TP). The algorithm is based on the principle of minimum link power and aims to take advantage of nodes cooperation to make the link work well in WSNs with a low transmission power. In the proposed scheme, with a determined transmission power upper limit, nodes find the most appropriate next nodes and single-relay nodes with the proposed algorithm. Moreover, this proposal subtly avoids non-working nodes, because we add a Bad nodes Avoidance Strategy (BAS). Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm with BAS can significantly improve the performance in reducing the overall link power, enhancing the transmission success rate and decreasing the retransmission rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessReview Biosensors in Clinical Practice: Focus on Oncohematology
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6423-6447; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506423
Received: 6 March 2013 / Revised: 15 April 2013 / Accepted: 18 April 2013 / Published: 14 May 2013
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3326 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biosensors are devices that are capable of detecting specific biological analytes and converting their presence or concentration into some electrical, thermal, optical or other signal that can be easily analysed. The first biosensor was designed by Clark and Lyons in 1962 as a [...] Read more.
Biosensors are devices that are capable of detecting specific biological analytes and converting their presence or concentration into some electrical, thermal, optical or other signal that can be easily analysed. The first biosensor was designed by Clark and Lyons in 1962 as a means of measuring glucose. Since then, much progress has been made and the applications of biosensors are today potentially boundless. This review is limited to their clinical applications, particularly in the field of oncohematology. Biosensors have recently been developed in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients affected by hematological malignancies, such as the biosensor for assessing the in vitro pre-treatment efficacy of cytarabine in acute myeloid leukemia, and the fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based biosensor for assessing the efficacy of imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia. The review also considers the challenges and future perspectives of biosensors in clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Live Cell-Based Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Hardware Accelerated Compression of LIDAR Data Using FPGA Devices
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6405-6422; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506405
Received: 30 March 2013 / Revised: 24 April 2013 / Accepted: 3 May 2013 / Published: 14 May 2013
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3123 | PDF Full-text (842 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) has become a mainstream technology for terrain data acquisition and mapping. High sampling density of LIDAR enables the acquisition of high details of the terrain, but on the other hand, it results in a vast amount of [...] Read more.
Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) has become a mainstream technology for terrain data acquisition and mapping. High sampling density of LIDAR enables the acquisition of high details of the terrain, but on the other hand, it results in a vast amount of gathered data, which requires huge storage space as well as substantial processing effort. The data are usually stored in the LAS format which has become the de facto standard for LIDAR data storage and exchange. In the paper, a hardware accelerated compression of LIDAR data is presented. The compression and decompression of LIDAR data is performed by a dedicated FPGA-based circuit and interfaced to the computer via a PCI-E general bus. The hardware compressor consists of three modules: LIDAR data predictor, variable length coder, and arithmetic coder. Hardware compression is considerably faster than software compression, while it also alleviates the processor load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Performance of a Cyanobacteria Whole Cell-Based Fluorescence Biosensor for Heavy Metal and Pesticide Detection
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6394-6404; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506394
Received: 6 March 2013 / Revised: 10 April 2013 / Accepted: 16 April 2013 / Published: 14 May 2013
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3133 | PDF Full-text (453 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Whole cell biosensors always face the challenge of low stability of biological components and short storage life. This paper reports the effects of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) immobilization on a whole cell fluorescence biosensor for the detection of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd), and [...] Read more.
Whole cell biosensors always face the challenge of low stability of biological components and short storage life. This paper reports the effects of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) immobilization on a whole cell fluorescence biosensor for the detection of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd), and pesticides (dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and chlorpyrifos). The biosensor was produced by entrapping the cyanobacterium Anabaena torulosa on a cellulose membrane, followed by applying a layer of pHEMA, and attaching it to a well. The well was then fixed to an optical probe which was connected to a fluorescence spectrophotometer and an electronic reader. The optimization of the biosensor using several factors such as amount of HEMA and drying temperature were undertaken. The detection limits of biosensor without pHEMA for Cu, Cd, Pb, 2,4-D and chlorpyrifos were 1.195, 0.027, 0.0100, 0.025 and 0.025 µg/L respectively. The presence of pHEMA increased the limits of detection to 1.410, 0.250, 0.500, 0.235 and 0.117 µg/L respectively. pHEMA is known to enhance the reproducibility of the biosensor with average relative standard deviation (RSD) of ±1.76% for all the pollutants tested, 48% better than the biosensor without pHEMA (RSD = ±3.73%). In storability test with Cu 5 µg/L, the biosensor with pHEMA performed 11.5% better than the test without pHEMA on day-10 and 5.2% better on day-25. pHEMA is therefore a good candidate to be used in whole cell biosensors as it increases reproducibility and enhances biosensor storability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Accuracy and Robustness of the Leap Motion Controller
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6380-6393; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506380
Received: 21 March 2013 / Revised: 22 April 2013 / Accepted: 6 May 2013 / Published: 14 May 2013
Cited by 379 | Viewed by 13743 | PDF Full-text (27297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Leap Motion Controller is a new device for hand gesture controlled user interfaces with declared sub-millimeter accuracy. However, up to this point its capabilities in real environments have not been analyzed. Therefore, this paper presents a first study of a Leap Motion [...] Read more.
The Leap Motion Controller is a new device for hand gesture controlled user interfaces with declared sub-millimeter accuracy. However, up to this point its capabilities in real environments have not been analyzed. Therefore, this paper presents a first study of a Leap Motion Controller. The main focus of attention is on the evaluation of the accuracy and repeatability. For an appropriate evaluation, a novel experimental setup was developed making use of an industrial robot with a reference pen allowing a position accuracy of 0.2 mm. Thereby, a deviation between a desired 3D position and the average measured positions below 0.2mmhas been obtained for static setups and of 1.2mmfor dynamic setups. Using the conclusion of this analysis can improve the development of applications for the Leap Motion controller in the field of Human-Computer Interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Acoustic Emission Detection of Macro-Cracks on Engraving Tool Steel Inserts during the Injection Molding Cycle Using PZT Sensors
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6365-6379; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506365
Received: 23 March 2013 / Revised: 16 April 2013 / Accepted: 19 April 2013 / Published: 14 May 2013
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3806 | PDF Full-text (855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an improved monitoring system for the failure detection of engraving tool steel inserts during the injection molding cycle. This system uses acoustic emission PZT sensors mounted through acoustic waveguides on the engraving insert. We were thus able to clearly distinguish [...] Read more.
This paper presents an improved monitoring system for the failure detection of engraving tool steel inserts during the injection molding cycle. This system uses acoustic emission PZT sensors mounted through acoustic waveguides on the engraving insert. We were thus able to clearly distinguish the defect through measured AE signals. Two engraving tool steel inserts were tested during the production of standard test specimens, each under the same processing conditions. By closely comparing the captured AE signals on both engraving inserts during the filling and packing stages, we were able to detect the presence of macro-cracks on one engraving insert. Gabor wavelet analysis was used for closer examination of the captured AE signals’ peak amplitudes during the filling and packing stages. The obtained results revealed that such a system could be used successfully as an improved tool for monitoring the integrity of an injection molding process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Sensors and Actuators)
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Open AccessArticle An All Fiber Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer Based on an Air-Microcavity
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6355-6364; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506355
Received: 6 March 2013 / Revised: 2 May 2013 / Accepted: 13 May 2013 / Published: 14 May 2013
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3691 | PDF Full-text (724 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work an Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) based on an air-microcavity is presented. Here the air microcavity, with silica walls, is formed at a segment of a hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF), which is fusion spliced with a single mode fiber [...] Read more.
In this work an Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) based on an air-microcavity is presented. Here the air microcavity, with silica walls, is formed at a segment of a hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF), which is fusion spliced with a single mode fiber (SMF). Moreover, the spectral response of the IFPI is experimentally characterized and some results are provided. Finally, the viability to use the IFPI to implement a simple, compact size, and low cost refractive index sensor is briefly analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Crystal Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Ubiquitous NFC Solution for the Development of Tailored Marketing Strategies Based on Discount Vouchers and Loyalty Cards
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6334-6354; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506334
Received: 4 March 2013 / Revised: 15 April 2013 / Accepted: 9 May 2013 / Published: 14 May 2013
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3488 | PDF Full-text (792 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Because of the global economic turmoil, nowadays a lot of companies are adopting a “deal of the day” business model, some of them with great success. Generally, they try to attract and retain customers through discount coupons and gift cards, using, generally, traditional [...] Read more.
Because of the global economic turmoil, nowadays a lot of companies are adopting a “deal of the day” business model, some of them with great success. Generally, they try to attract and retain customers through discount coupons and gift cards, using, generally, traditional distribution media. This paper describes a framework, which integrates intelligent environments by using NFC, oriented to the full management of this kind of businesses. The system is responsible for diffusion, distribution, sourcing, validation, redemption and managing of vouchers, loyalty cards and all kind of mobile coupons using NFC, as well as QR codes. WingBonus can be fully adapted to the requirements of marketing campaigns, voucher providers, shop or retailer infrastructures and mobile devices and purchasing habits. Security of the voucher is granted by the system by synchronizing procedures using secure encriptation algorithms. The WingBonus website and mobile applications can be adapted to any requirement of the system actors. Full article
Open AccessArticle Micro-Drilling of Polymer Tubular Ultramicroelectrode Arrays for Electrochemical Sensors
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6319-6333; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506319
Received: 12 March 2013 / Revised: 3 May 2013 / Accepted: 7 May 2013 / Published: 14 May 2013
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2924 | PDF Full-text (1712 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a reproducible fast prototyping procedure based on micro-drilling to produce homogeneous tubular ultramicroelectrode arrays made from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), a conductive polymer. Arrays of Ø 100 µm tubular electrodes each having a height of 0.37 ± 0.06 µm were reproducibly fabricated. The [...] Read more.
We present a reproducible fast prototyping procedure based on micro-drilling to produce homogeneous tubular ultramicroelectrode arrays made from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), a conductive polymer. Arrays of Ø 100 µm tubular electrodes each having a height of 0.37 ± 0.06 µm were reproducibly fabricated. The electrode dimensions were analyzed by SEM after deposition of silver dendrites to visualize the electroactive electrode area. The electrochemical applicability of the electrodes was demonstrated by voltammetric and amperometric detection of ferri-/ferrocyanide. Recorded signals were in agreement with results from finite element modelling of the system. The tubular PEDOT ultramicroelectrode arrays were modified by prussian blue to enable the detection of hydrogen peroxide. A linear sensor response was demonstrated for hydrogen peroxide concentrations from 0.1 mM to 1 mM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Tools in Electrochemical Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle WEAMR — A Weighted Energy Aware Multipath Reliable Routing Mechanism for Hotline-Based WSNs
Sensors 2013, 13(5), 6295-6318; https://doi.org/10.3390/s130506295
Received: 12 April 2013 / Revised: 8 May 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 13 May 2013
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2971 | PDF Full-text (321 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reliable source to sink communication is the most important factor for an efficient routing protocol especially in domains of military, healthcare and disaster recovery applications. We present weighted energy aware multipath reliable routing (WEAMR), a novel energy aware multipath routing protocol which utilizes [...] Read more.
Reliable source to sink communication is the most important factor for an efficient routing protocol especially in domains of military, healthcare and disaster recovery applications. We present weighted energy aware multipath reliable routing (WEAMR), a novel energy aware multipath routing protocol which utilizes hotline-assisted routing to meet such requirements for mission critical applications. The protocol reduces the number of average hops from source to destination and provides unmatched reliability as compared to well known reactive ad hoc protocols i.e., AODV and AOMDV. Our protocol makes efficient use of network paths based on weighted cost calculation and intelligently selects the best possible paths for data transmissions. The path cost calculation considers end to end number of hops, latency and minimum energy node value in the path. In case of path failure path recalculation is done efficiently with minimum latency and control packets overhead. Our evaluation shows that our proposal provides better end-to-end delivery with less routing overhead and higher packet delivery success ratio compared to AODV and AOMDV. The use of multipath also increases overall life time of WSN network using optimum energy available paths between sender and receiver in WDNs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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