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Diversity, Volume 10, Issue 3 (September 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The nudibranch, Phyllodesmium magnum Rudman, 1991, is one of several sea slug species that have [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Sonar Surveys for Bat Species Richness and Activity in the Southern Kalahari Desert, Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, South Africa
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030103
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park is located in northwestern South Africa and extends northeastward into Botswana. The park lies largely within the southern Kalahari Desert ecosystem where the Auob and Nassob rivers reach their confluence. Although these rivers run only about once every 100 years,
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Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park is located in northwestern South Africa and extends northeastward into Botswana. The park lies largely within the southern Kalahari Desert ecosystem where the Auob and Nassob rivers reach their confluence. Although these rivers run only about once every 100 years, or shortly after large thunderstorms, underground flows and seeps provide consistent surface water for the parks sparse vegetation and diverse wildlife. No formal studies on bats have previously occurred at Kgalagadi. We used SM2 + BAT ultrasonic detectors to survey 10 sites along the Auob and Nassob rivers from 5–16 April 2016. The units recorded 3960 call sequences that were analyzed using Kaleidoscope software for South African bats as well as visual determinations based on call structure attributes (low frequency, characteristic frequency, call duration, and bandwidth). We identified 12 species from four families: Rhinolophidae: Rhinolophus fumigatus. Molossidae: Chaerephon pumilus, and Sauromys petrophilus, Tadarida aegyptiaca; Miniopteridae: Miniopteris schreibersi (natalensis), Vespertilionidae: Laephotis botswanae, Myotis tricolor, Neoromicia capensis, N. nana, Pipistrellus hesperidus, Scotophilus dinganii, and S. viridus. The most abundant species during the survey period was N. capensis. We also used paired-site design to test for greater bat activity at water sources compared to dry sites, with dry sites being significantly more active. We conclude that species richness is much higher than previously known from this region and that more species may be present during the warmer months of the year. In addition, activity of bats during the dry season in Kgalagadi would likely be more concentrated around drinking opportunities, thus allowing for better detection of species richness in the area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Conservation of Bats)
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Open AccessCommunication Roost of Gray Flying Foxes (Pteropus griseus) in Indonesia and Records of a New Hunting Threat
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030102
Received: 1 April 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
Pteropus griseus (gray flying fox) is a species of Old World fruit bat that is listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as Data Deficient. The species is found on small islands in the Lesser Sundas and Sulawesi, and is
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Pteropus griseus (gray flying fox) is a species of Old World fruit bat that is listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as Data Deficient. The species is found on small islands in the Lesser Sundas and Sulawesi, and is endemic to Indonesia, but no contemporary roosts are known, and the last study of the species was in Timor in the Lesser Sundas. In this study, we describe the first known day roost in Sulawesi for Pteropus griseus and collected anecdotal evidence regarding conservation threats to the colony. We compared data from flying foxes collected from this roost to other P. griseus specimens and those of closely related co-occurring species to confirm its identity. We confirmed that this roost is likely of Pteropus griseus, though the subspecies identity remains to be determined. However, it is newly threatened by middlemen traders of bat meat from North Sulawesi arriving to encourage local villagers near the roost to hunt the bats. Elevated levels of hunting may deplete the entire colony in a single season should no conservation action be taken to safeguard the roost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Conservation of Bats)
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Open AccessArticle A Tribute to Guillermo (Willy) Kuschel (1918–2017)
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030101
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
This tribute commemorates the life and work of Guillermo (Willy) Kuschel, who made substantial contributions to the understanding of weevil systematics, evolution and biology. Willy was born in Chile in 1918 and studied philosophy, theology and biology. He became fascinated by weevils early
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This tribute commemorates the life and work of Guillermo (Willy) Kuschel, who made substantial contributions to the understanding of weevil systematics, evolution and biology. Willy was born in Chile in 1918 and studied philosophy, theology and biology. He became fascinated by weevils early on and completed his Ph.D. degree on South American Erirhinini. Subsequent employment by the University of Chile provided him with many opportunities to further his weevil research and undertake numerous collecting expeditions, including to remote and rugged locations such as the Juan Fernandez Islands and southern Chile. In 1963 he accepted a position at the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research in New Zealand, where he became Head of the Systematics Group in the Entomology Division. His emphasis on field work and collections led to the establishment of the New Zealand Arthropod Collection, which he guided through its greatest period of expansion. His retirement in 1983 offered him increased opportunities to pursue his weevil research. In 1988 he presented a new scheme of the higher classification of weevils, which ignited and inspired much subsequent research into weevil systematics. The breadth and quality of his research and his huge collecting efforts have left a legacy that will benefit future entomologists, especially weevil workers, for decades to come. This tribute presents a biography of Willy and accounts of his contributions to, and impact on, the systematics of weevils both regionally and globally. All of his publications and the genera and species named after him are listed in two appendices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils)
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Open AccessArticle Divergence, Convergence and Phenotypic Diversity of Neotropical Frugivorous Bats
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030100
Received: 23 May 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract
Knowing how adaptation shapes morphological evolution is fundamental to understanding the processes that promote biological diversity. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence on the effects of adaptive radiations on phenotypic diversity, which is related to processes that promote phenotypic divergence and
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Knowing how adaptation shapes morphological evolution is fundamental to understanding the processes that promote biological diversity. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence on the effects of adaptive radiations on phenotypic diversity, which is related to processes that promote phenotypic divergence and convergence. We applied comparative methods to identify shifts in adaptive peaks and to detect divergence and convergence in skull morphology of frugivorous bats (Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae and Carollinae), an ecologically diverse group with strong association between skull morphology, feeding performance and diet that suggests adaptive diversification through morphological innovation. We found divergence and convergence for skull morphology. Fifteen peak shifts were found for jaws, which result in four convergent and four divergent regimes. For skull, nine peak shifts were detected that result in three convergent and three divergent regimes. Furthermore, convergence was significant and strong for skull morphology since distantly related organisms converged to the same adaptive optima. Results suggest that convergence indicates the effect of restriction on phenotypes to keep the advantages provided by the skull phenotype that played a central role in the evolution of strict frugivory in phyllostomids. We conclude that convergence has limited phenotypic diversity of functional traits related to feeding in phyllostomid frugivores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Conservation of Bats)
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Open AccessArticle Beyond Capricornia: Tropical Sea Slugs (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia) Extend Their Distributions into the Tasman Sea
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030099
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
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Abstract
There is increasing evidence of poleward migration of a broad range of taxa under the influence of a warming ocean. However, patchy research effort, the lack of pre-existing baseline data, and taxonomic uncertainty for some taxa means that unambiguous interpretation of observations is
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There is increasing evidence of poleward migration of a broad range of taxa under the influence of a warming ocean. However, patchy research effort, the lack of pre-existing baseline data, and taxonomic uncertainty for some taxa means that unambiguous interpretation of observations is often difficult. Here, we propose that heterobranch sea slugs provide a useful target group for monitoring shifts in distribution. As many sea slugs are highly colourful, popular with underwater photographers and rock-pool ramblers, and found in accessible habitats, they provide an ideal target for citizen scientist programs, such as the Sea Slug Census. This maximises our ability to rapidly gain usable diversity and distributional data. Here, we review records of recent range extensions by tropical species into the subtropical and temperate waters of eastern Australia and document, for the first time in Australian waters, observations of three tropical species of sea slug as well as range extensions for a further six to various locations in the Tasman Sea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Human Activities on Coral Reefs)
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Open AccessArticle cpDNA Barcoding by Combined End-Point and Real-Time PCR Analyses to Identify and Quantify the Main Contaminants of Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) in Commercial Batches
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030098
Received: 22 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
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Abstract
Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) is a flowering plant that belongs to the mint family (Lamiaceae). It is used as a culinary herb and is often commercialized as a fine powder or a mixture of small fragments of dried leaves, which makes morphological
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Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) is a flowering plant that belongs to the mint family (Lamiaceae). It is used as a culinary herb and is often commercialized as a fine powder or a mixture of small fragments of dried leaves, which makes morphological recognition difficult. Like other commercial preparations of drugs and spices, the contamination of oregano mixtures with vegetable matter of lower quality, or the use of generic misleading names, are frequent and stress the need to develop a molecular traceability system to easily, quickly, and cheaply unveil these scams. The DNA-based analytical approach known as cpDNA barcoding is particularly suited for fraud identification in crop plant species (fresh products and food derivatives), and it represents a promising traceability tool as an alternative or complement to traditional detection methods. In the present study, we used a combined approach based on both qualitative and quantitative cpDNA barcoding with end-point and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses to assess the type and degree of contamination in commercial batches of common oregano. In a preliminary qualitative screening, we amplified, cloned, and sequenced a number of universal trnH-psbA- and trnL-barcoded regions, to identify the main contaminants in the samples under investigation. On the basis of these findings, we then developed and validated a species-specific and sequence-targeted method of testing for the quantitative assessment of contaminants, using trnL gene intron assays. Surprisingly, the results obtained in our case study indicated an almost total absence of O. vulgare in the commercial batches analyzed, but a high presence of group I contaminants (Satureja pilosa Velen.), and a moderate presence of group II contaminants (Cistus lanidifer L./Cistus albidus). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Barcoding for Biodiversity)
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Species Composition of Birds and Declining Number of Breeding Territories over 40 Years in a Nature Conservation Area in Southwest Germany
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030097
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
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Abstract
Global loss of biodiversity is occurring at an alarming rate and is a major issue in current times. Long-term studies offer the possibility to analyse changes in biodiversity and allow assessments of anthropogenic interventions in ecosystems. At present, various studies in most countries
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Global loss of biodiversity is occurring at an alarming rate and is a major issue in current times. Long-term studies offer the possibility to analyse changes in biodiversity and allow assessments of anthropogenic interventions in ecosystems. At present, various studies in most countries show partially strong declines of insect populations. Due to their role as a food source for many organisms it is assumed that declines of insect abundance might have effects on higher trophic levels like insectivorous birds. For reliable statements on relationships between food availability and population trends, systematic and extensive records of breeding birds are necessary. In this study, we analysed the changes in the range of species, biodiversity, and abundance of a breeding bird community over 43 years in a large nature conservation area in southwest Germany (“Lampertheimer Altrhein” near Mannheim). Since 1974, considerable changes in the spectrum of breeding birds have been found, but the overall biodiversity index did not change. Furthermore, 70% of the investigated species showed decreasing numbers of breeding bird territories, and the overall number of territories across species declined by more than 65%. A classification based on the main diet during the breeding period and habitat use revealed strong declines for insectivorous birds in the study area, especially in wetland and open cultivated landscapes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Structural and Functional Diversity of Mollusc Assemblages within Vermetid Bioconstructions
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030096
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 25 August 2018 / Published: 28 August 2018
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Abstract
Dendropoma lebeche is a prosobranch gastropod belonging to the family Vermetidae, which calcifies its shell on hard substrates in dense aggregates, forming biogenic constructions along the western Mediterranean intertidal habitat. It is an important ecosystem engineer and, due to its ecological value, is
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Dendropoma lebeche is a prosobranch gastropod belonging to the family Vermetidae, which calcifies its shell on hard substrates in dense aggregates, forming biogenic constructions along the western Mediterranean intertidal habitat. It is an important ecosystem engineer and, due to its ecological value, is protected by international convention. The aim of this study is to investigate the mollusc composition and diversity occurring within Spanish vermetid bioconstructions. During the late summer 2013, three distant sites along the Mediterranean coast of Spain were sampled by scraping off the vermetid shells to study their associated assemblages. A total of 600 molluscs were identified within the classes of Polyplacophora (four species), Gastropoda (35 spp.) and Bivalvia (18 spp.). Multivariate analyses revealed significant differences in composition and trophic diversity of mollusc assemblages among the three sites, highlighting a clear geographical gradient. Overall, both herbivores (grazers and deposit feeders) and omnivores were the quantitatively dominant trophic groups, while carnivores (predators and ectoparasites) were very scarce. Our results point out that mollusc assemblages associated with vermetid bioconstructions are rich and diversified, both in populations structure and trophic diversity, confirming the important role of vermetid gastropods as ecosystem engineers and biodiversity enhancers in shallow coastal waters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Combined Molecular and Morphological Approach to Explore the Higher Phylogeny of Entimine Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), with Special Reference to South American Taxa
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030095
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
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Abstract
The Entiminae are broad-nosed weevils constituting the most diverse subfamily of Curculionidae, with over 50 tribes. We performed Bayesian and Maximum Parsimony combined phylogenetic analyses with the main objective of testing higher-level relationships and the naturalness of the major Neotropical and Southern South
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The Entiminae are broad-nosed weevils constituting the most diverse subfamily of Curculionidae, with over 50 tribes. We performed Bayesian and Maximum Parsimony combined phylogenetic analyses with the main objective of testing higher-level relationships and the naturalness of the major Neotropical and Southern South American (Patagonia and Andes) tribes, including some members from other regions. We compiled a data matrix of 67 terminal units with 63 Entiminae species, as well as four outgroup taxa from Cyclominae, by 3522 molecular (from nuclear 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA, and mitochondrial 16S rDNA and COI gene sequences) and 70 morphological characters. The resulting trees recover a clade Entiminae with a monophyletic Cylydrorhinini and Premnotrypes branching off early. The tree resulting from parsimony analysis shows a clade of Leptopiini from the Australian region and another clade including taxa mainly distributed in the Palaearctic and Neotropical regions, but in the Bayesian tree the South American and Australian Leptopiini are grouped together. The mainly Palaearctic Entiminae (e.g., Brachyderini, Laparocerini, Otiorhynchini, Peritelini, Polydrusini, Phyllobiini and Sciaphylini) form a subclade separated from Southern Hemisphere taxa. Among the latter, the well-supported Naupactini are the sister group of the South American Tanymecini, excluding Platyaspistes, herein transferred to Leptopiini (new placement). Another well-justified clade is Eustylini–Geonemini, which also includes the enigmatic Galapagonotus, and the genus Artipus, thus corroborating its recent exclusion from Naupactini. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils)
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Open AccessArticle Water Availability Coincides with Population Declines for an Endangered Butterfly
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030094
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 7 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
As global climate change causes population declines across numerous taxa, it becomes critical to understand the specific pathway by which climatic and anthropogenic factors influence population size. Water availability is a key environmental condition that links climate and humans to species response, especially
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As global climate change causes population declines across numerous taxa, it becomes critical to understand the specific pathway by which climatic and anthropogenic factors influence population size. Water availability is a key environmental condition that links climate and humans to species response, especially for rare or threatened butterflies that are highly sensitive to changes in climate and the surrounding landscape. We use the wetland-dependent endangered St. Francis’ satyr butterfly (Neonympha mitchellii francisci) to test how changes in water availability affect population size via changes in host plant growth. We show that long-term declines in water availability are directly linked to a decline in host plant growth and contributed to a population decrease of 95% for St. Francis’ satyrs in the past decade, threatening the persistence of the species. Recent restoration work, which includes efforts to increase water availability via hardwood removal, has been successful in increasing population numbers. Many butterflies are broadly dependent on water availability and flow, and only by understanding the specific pathway that directly links water availability to species response can we make effective conservation plans to prepare for the altered water conditions of the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Butterfly Conservation)
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Open AccessCommunication Validation of the Names of Three Weevil Species Described by Borovec et al., The Enigmatic Weevil Genus Philetaerobius from Southern Africa: Definition, Affinities and Description of Three New Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae); Diversity, 2018, 10, 30
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030093
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
Three new species of the small entimine genus Philetaerobius Marshall, 1923 from southern Africa are described, P. endroedyi sp. n., P. garibebi sp. n. and P. louwi sp. n., with bibliographic reference to fuller descriptions and illustrations in the recent paper by Borovec
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Three new species of the small entimine genus Philetaerobius Marshall, 1923 from southern Africa are described, P. endroedyi sp. n., P. garibebi sp. n. and P. louwi sp. n., with bibliographic reference to fuller descriptions and illustrations in the recent paper by Borovec et al. (2018) published in the journal Diversity 10 (2), 30, in which the names were not made available under the rules of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature dealing with electronic publication. A lectotype is also here designated for P. nidicola Marshall, 1923. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils)
Open AccessArticle The Genus Urodontidius Louw (Anthribidae: Urodontinae) Rediscovered and Its Biological Secrets Revealed: A Tribute to Schalk Louw (1952–2018)
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030092
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
The paper records the rediscovery of the rare Urodontidius enigmaticus Louw, 1993 in South Africa, based on specimens reared from galls in the succulent leaves of Ruschia versicolor. The original account of some of the morphological characters of the species is corrected,
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The paper records the rediscovery of the rare Urodontidius enigmaticus Louw, 1993 in South Africa, based on specimens reared from galls in the succulent leaves of Ruschia versicolor. The original account of some of the morphological characters of the species is corrected, and its habitus, antennae, pygidium and genitalia are illustrated. Its life history and galling habit on its host plant are described and illustrated, and its larva is compared with those of the genera Urodontellus Louw and Urodontus Louw, which represent different larval types with different life histories. The silk-spinning habits of the Urodontellus larva are briefly described. A tribute to the late Schalk Louw is presented, together with a list of his publications on weevils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils)
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Open AccessArticle Reproductive Ecology of Wrinkle-Lipped Free-Tailed Bats Chaerephon plicatus (Buchannan, 1800) in Relation to Guano Production in Cambodia
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030091
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 5 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
Wildlife populations in Southeast Asia are subject to increasing pressure from climate change, habitat loss and human disturbance. Cave-roosting bats are particularly vulnerable to all three factors. Because of the ecological services they provide, it is important to assess specific vulnerabilities to inform
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Wildlife populations in Southeast Asia are subject to increasing pressure from climate change, habitat loss and human disturbance. Cave-roosting bats are particularly vulnerable to all three factors. Because of the ecological services they provide, it is important to assess specific vulnerabilities to inform their conservation management. We evaluated the reproductive phenology and body condition of Chaerephon plicatus for 14 months in 2015–2016 and quantified guano harvesting at the largest colony in Cambodia in 2011–2016. As in Thailand and Myanmar, two annual breeding cycles were recorded, characterized as continuous bimodal polyoestry, with parturition primarily occurring in April and October. Significant declines occurred in body condition between the late wet season and the late dry season, suggesting that bats experience increasing energetic stress as the dry season progresses. Annual guano harvests increased over the study period but could not be used as a proxy for monitoring population size due to the loss of unknown amounts during the wet season and unquantified movements of bats between C. plicatus colonies in the region. We recommend studies to determine the scale and drivers of such movements and creation of sustainable guano harvesting and population monitoring initiatives to ensure the conservation of C. plicatus colonies in Cambodia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Conservation of Bats)
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Open AccessArticle Bird Functional Traits Respond to Forest Structure in Riparian Areas Undergoing Active Restoration
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030090
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
Monitoring wildlife responses is essential to assess restoration projects. Birds are widely used as bioindicators of ecosystem restoration, but most studies use only taxonomic descriptors to compare categories of reference and restoring sites. Here, we used forest structure as a continuous predictor variable
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Monitoring wildlife responses is essential to assess restoration projects. Birds are widely used as bioindicators of ecosystem restoration, but most studies use only taxonomic descriptors to compare categories of reference and restoring sites. Here, we used forest structure as a continuous predictor variable to evaluate avifaunal taxonomic and functional indicators in riparian forest reference and restoration sites on southeastern Brazil. Reference sites were riparian forest remnants, and restoration sites were pasture before seedling reintroduction. Forest structure variables (mean tree height, canopy depth, mean diameter at breast height, basal area, tree layering, tree density, and grass cover) were reduced into two axes using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Forest Axis 1 (tree biomass vs. grass cover) and Forest Axis 2 (canopy depth vs. tree density). Bird species were classified in relation to five functional categories (i.e., diet, foraging stratum, nest height, cavity dependence for nesting, and forest dependence). Forest Axis 1 influenced the functional diversity of bird assemblages and the relative abundance within levels of each functional category (except for nest height). The relative abundance of all functional categories combined was also affected by Forest Axis 2. Therefore, forest structure affected the predominant functional traits of bird species in riparian sites under restoration. Sites with higher tree biomass were the richest, with canopy birds that were insectivores and frugivores of high forest dependence, whereas more open sites were associated with birds of low forest dependence and ground-foraging insectivores. Forest structures of similar-aged sites were strongly variable, due to natural and anthropic disturbances, so restoration age was a poor indicator of forest development. These unpredictable disturbances can change the development of sites under restoration, so that forest structure can be a better descriptor of the trajectory of these ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Celebrating the tenth Founding Year of Diversity)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Chloroplast and Mitochondria Genomes from the Antarctic Polytrichaceae Species Polytrichum juniperinum and Polytrichum strictum
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030089
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
In this study, the organelle genomes of Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw. and Polytrichum strictum Menzies ex Brid. (Polytrichaceae, Bryophyta) from Antarctica were sequenced and compared with the plastomes of the model moss species Physcomitrella patens Brid. The sizes of the cpDNA in P. juniperinum
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In this study, the organelle genomes of Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw. and Polytrichum strictum Menzies ex Brid. (Polytrichaceae, Bryophyta) from Antarctica were sequenced and compared with the plastomes of the model moss species Physcomitrella patens Brid. The sizes of the cpDNA in P. juniperinum and P. strictum were estimated to be 55,168 and 20,183 bp, respectively; the sizes of the mtDNA were 88,021 and 58,896 bp, respectively. The genomes are very similar to each other, with the possible loss of petN in the cpDNA, which also showed some gene inversions when compared with the cpDNAs of P. patens Brid. In the mtDNA, it is possible that rps10 was lost. In contrast, Antarctic Polytrichaceae species have nad7 and orf187, without the occurrence of rearrangement events. Phylogenomic analyses of the plastid and mitochondria revealed that the majority-rule tree suggests some differences in the plastids ancestry, however, P. juniperinum and P. strictum were grouped in the same clade in chloroplast, but in mitochondria P. strictum was grouped with Atrichum angustatum (Brid.) Bruch & Schimp. This study helped us understand the evolution of plastomes and chondriosomes in the family Polytrichaceae, and suggest a hybridization event with relation to the mitochondrial data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Impacts on Alpine and Polar Plants)
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Open AccessArticle The Molecular Phylogeny of the New Zealand Endemic Genus Hadramphus and the Revival of the Genus Karocolens
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030088
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
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Abstract
The delineation of species is important to the fields of evolution, ecology and conservation. The use of only a single line of evidence, e.g., morphology or a single gene sequence, may underestimate or overestimate the level of diversity within a taxon. This problem
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The delineation of species is important to the fields of evolution, ecology and conservation. The use of only a single line of evidence, e.g., morphology or a single gene sequence, may underestimate or overestimate the level of diversity within a taxon. This problem often occurs when organisms are morphologically similar but genetically different, i.e., for cryptic species. The Hadramphus genus contains four endangered, morphologically similar species of weevils, each endemic to a specific New Zealand region (Hadramphus spinipennis Chatham Islands, H. stilbocarpae Fiordland, H. tuberculatus McKenzie Country, H. pittospori Poor Knights Islands). The systematic relationships among these species are unclear. We used samples from these species and a closely related genus, Lyperobius huttoni, to obtain data from the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and the nuclear gene internal transcribe spacer 2. In addition to the multi-locus coalescent approach, we modelled morphological characteristics combined with the genetic data. We found that H. spinipennis, H. tuberculatus and H. stilbocarpae were a closely related clade. Despite a strong morphological similarity, Hadramphus pittospori was found to be genetically distinct from the other Hadramphus species, which supports the resurrection of the monotypic genus Karocolens for this species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils)
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Open AccessCommunication Validation of the Names of Two Weevil Species Described by Skuhrovec et al., Review of Cape Verde Aphanommata Wollaston, 1873 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cossoninae) with Description of New Species, Larva and Notes on Biology and Distributional Patterns; Diversity 2018, 10, 28
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030087
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
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Abstract
Two new species of the cossonine genus Aphanommata Wollaston, 1873 from Cape Verde are described, Aphanommata kuscheli sp. n. and Aphanommata strakai sp. n, with bibliographic reference to fuller descriptions and illustrations in the recent paper by Skuhrovec et al. (2018) published in
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Two new species of the cossonine genus Aphanommata Wollaston, 1873 from Cape Verde are described, Aphanommata kuscheli sp. n. and Aphanommata strakai sp. n, with bibliographic reference to fuller descriptions and illustrations in the recent paper by Skuhrovec et al. (2018) published in the journal Diversity 10 (2), 28, in which the names were not made available under the rules of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature dealing with electronic publication. A lectotype is also here designated for Rhyncolus euphorbiarum Wollaston, 1867, currently assigned to the genus Aphanommata. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils)
Open AccessCommunication Validation of the Names of Four Weevil Species Described by Caldara & Košťál, Description of Four New Species of the Afrotropical Weevil Genus Afroryzophilus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae); Diversity 2018, 10, 37
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030086
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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Four new species of the erirhinine genus Afroryzophilus Lyal, 1990 from Africa are described, A. centrafricanus sp. n., A. congoanus sp. n., A. kuscheli sp. n. and A. somalicus sp. n., with bibliographic reference to fuller descriptions and illustrations in
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Four new species of the erirhinine genus Afroryzophilus Lyal, 1990 from Africa are described, A. centrafricanus sp. n., A. congoanus sp. n., A. kuscheli sp. n. and A. somalicus sp. n., with bibliographic reference to fuller descriptions and illustrations in the recent paper by Caldara & Košťál (2018) published in the journal Diversity 10 (2), 37, in which the names were not made available under the rules of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature dealing with electronic publication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils)
Open AccessArticle High Duty Cycle Echolocation May Constrain the Evolution of Diversity within Horseshoe Bats (Family: Rhinolophidae)
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030085
Received: 4 June 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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The phenotype of organisms is the net result of various evolutionary forces acting upon their lineages over time. When an innovative trait arises that confers a substantial advantage in terms of survival and reproduction, the evolution of adaptive complexes between such an innovation
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The phenotype of organisms is the net result of various evolutionary forces acting upon their lineages over time. When an innovative trait arises that confers a substantial advantage in terms of survival and reproduction, the evolution of adaptive complexes between such an innovation and other traits may constrain diversification of that lineage. The specialized echolocation system of the Rhinolophidae may represent such an innovation which affects other parts of the phenotype. We investigated a potential constraint on the diversity of phenotypes of several species of horseshoe bats within a phylogenetic framework. If phenotypic convergence stems from stasis as a result of the specialized echolocation system, phenotypes should converge not only among members of the same species and between sexes but also among species. We analyzed the phenotypic diversity of >800 individuals of 13–16 species. The phenotypes in the horseshoe bats did indeed converge. There was no sexual size dimorphism in mass, forearm length and wingspan within species and there was marked interspecific similarity in both wing and echolocation variables but marked variability in body mass. Furthermore, correlations of wing and echolocation variables with mass suggest that variability within horseshoe bats was largely the result of selection on body size with allometric responses in wing and echolocation parameters, a potential consequence of constraints imposed by their specialized echolocation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Conservation of Bats)
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Open AccessArticle A Review of Philenis Champion, 1906 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Conoderinae), with Descriptions of New Species from Central and South America
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030084
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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A brief review of the history of the taxonomic treatment of the genus Philenis Champion is presented and characters are discussed. Philenis flavipes Champion and P. fuscofemorata Champion, and 11 new species are described, including the first records from South America: P. anzaldoi
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A brief review of the history of the taxonomic treatment of the genus Philenis Champion is presented and characters are discussed. Philenis flavipes Champion and P. fuscofemorata Champion, and 11 new species are described, including the first records from South America: P. anzaldoi new species (Costa Rica, Panamá), P. costaricensis new species (Costa Rica), P. laselvaensis new species (Costa Rica), P. auritibiae new species (Costa Rica), P. brunnea new species (Costa Rica, Panamá), P. muscamimetica new species (Panamá), P. chiriquiensis new species (Panamá), P. guyanensis new species (French Guiana), P. ferruginea new species (Ecuador), P. howdeni new species (Ecuador), and P. kuscheli new species (Colombia, Ecuador). A key is provided to separate the species, and an unusual type of “multifurcate” scale is reported for some species. Two species have been associated with plants of the family Araceae. Most collections of this genus by the Arthropods of La Selva (ALAS) biodiversity project in Costa Rica were made by passive trapping methods during the dry season and at lower to middle elevations along an altitudinal transect on the slopes of Volcan Barva. The coloration of some species in the genus is hypothesized to mimic social Hymenoptera or flies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils)
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Open AccessCommunication Validation of the Names of Five Weevil Taxa Described by Anderson et al., A Review of the Araucaria-Associated Weevils of the Tribe Orthorhinini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae), with Description of New Species of Ilacuris Pascoe, 1865 and Notopissodes Zimmerman & Oberprieler, 2014 and a New Genus, Kuschelorhinus Anderson & Setliff; Diversity, 2018, 10, 54
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030083
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
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One new genus and four new species of the Orthorhinini from Australia and Papua New Guinea are described, with bibliographic reference to complete descriptions and illustrations in the recent paper by Anderson et al. (2018) published in the journal Diversity 10 (3), 54,
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One new genus and four new species of the Orthorhinini from Australia and Papua New Guinea are described, with bibliographic reference to complete descriptions and illustrations in the recent paper by Anderson et al. (2018) published in the journal Diversity 10 (3), 54, in which the names were not made available under the rules of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature dealing with electronic publication, as follows: Ilacuris papuana Anderson & Setliff, sp. n., Ilacuris suttoni Anderson & Setliff, sp. n., Notopissodes variegatus Oberprieler, sp. n., Kuschelorhinus Anderson & Setliff, gen. n. and Kuschelorhinus hirsutus Anderson & Setliff, sp. n. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils)
Open AccessArticle Anchonini in Africa: New Species and Genus Confirming a Transatlantic Distribution (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae)
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030082
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
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The Anchonini known from Africa are reviewed. The monotypic genus Aethiopacorep is redescribed. The new West African genus Titilayo gen. nov. is described, with seven new species: four from São Tomé, T. perrinae sp. nov., T. saotomense sp. nov., T. barclayi sp. nov.,
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The Anchonini known from Africa are reviewed. The monotypic genus Aethiopacorep is redescribed. The new West African genus Titilayo gen. nov. is described, with seven new species: four from São Tomé, T. perrinae sp. nov., T. saotomense sp. nov., T. barclayi sp. nov., and T. turneri sp. nov.; two from Ivory Coast, T. geiseri sp. nov. and T. garnerae sp. nov.; and one from Sierra Leone, T. takanoi sp. nov. Neither of these genera is known outside West Africa. A neotype is designated for Anchonus africanus Hustache 1932. A key to the two African genera, Aethiopacorep and Titilayo, as well as their corresponding species, is provided. This work provides the first records of Anchonini for mainland Africa; this group is still understudied in the region but shows signs of being very diverse on both the mainland and in the western African islands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils)
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Open AccessReview Effects of Emerging Infectious Diseases on Amphibians: A Review of Experimental Studies
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030081
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 4 August 2018
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Numerous factors are contributing to the loss of biodiversity. These include complex effects of multiple abiotic and biotic stressors that may drive population losses. These losses are especially illustrated by amphibians, whose populations are declining worldwide. The causes of amphibian population declines are
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Numerous factors are contributing to the loss of biodiversity. These include complex effects of multiple abiotic and biotic stressors that may drive population losses. These losses are especially illustrated by amphibians, whose populations are declining worldwide. The causes of amphibian population declines are multifaceted and context-dependent. One major factor affecting amphibian populations is emerging infectious disease. Several pathogens and their associated diseases are especially significant contributors to amphibian population declines. These include the fungi Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and B. salamandrivorans, and ranaviruses. In this review, we assess the effects of these three pathogens on amphibian hosts as found through experimental studies. Such studies offer valuable insights to the causal factors underpinning broad patterns reported through observational studies. We summarize key findings from experimental studies in the laboratory, in mesocosms, and from the field. We also summarize experiments that explore the interactive effects of these pathogens with other contributors of amphibian population declines. Though well-designed experimental studies are critical for understanding the impacts of disease, inconsistencies in experimental methodologies limit our ability to form comparisons and conclusions. Studies of the three pathogens we focus on show that host susceptibility varies with such factors as species, host age, life history stage, population and biotic (e.g., presence of competitors, predators) and abiotic conditions (e.g., temperature, presence of contaminants), as well as the strain and dose of the pathogen, to which hosts are exposed. Our findings suggest the importance of implementing standard protocols and reporting for experimental studies of amphibian disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conservation and Ecology of Amphibians)
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Open AccessReview Bacteria Associated with Marine Benthic Invertebrates from Polar Environments: Unexplored Frontiers for Biodiscovery?
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030080
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 29 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
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The ecological function of bacteria-invertebrate interactions in Polar areas remains poorly understood, despite increasing evidence that microbial metabolites may play pivotal roles in host-associated chemical defense and in shaping the symbiotic community structure. The metabolic and physiological changes that these organisms undergo in
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The ecological function of bacteria-invertebrate interactions in Polar areas remains poorly understood, despite increasing evidence that microbial metabolites may play pivotal roles in host-associated chemical defense and in shaping the symbiotic community structure. The metabolic and physiological changes that these organisms undergo in response to adapting to extreme conditions result in the production of structurally and functionally novel biologically active molecules. Deepening our knowledge on the interactions between bacteria and their invertebrate host would be highly helpful in providing the rationale for why (e.g., competition or cooperative purpose) and which (whether secondary metabolites, enzymes, or proteins) bioactive compounds are produced. To date, cold-adapted bacteria associated with marine invertebrates from the Arctic and Antarctica have not been given the attention they deserve and the versatility of their natural products remains virtually unexplored, even if they could represent a new attractive frontier in the search for novel natural compounds. This review is aimed at showcasing the diversity of cold-adapted bacteria associated with benthic invertebrates from Polar marine areas, highlighting the yet unexplored treasure they represent for biodiscovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Marine Invertebrate and Seaweed Symbiotic Bacteria)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Climatic Conditions and Land Cover on Genetic Structure and Diversity of Eunica tatila (Lepidoptera) in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030079
Received: 18 June 2018 / Revised: 28 July 2018 / Accepted: 29 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
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Fragmentation is the third cause of the biodiversity declination. Population genetic studies using Lepidoptera as the model species in the context of loss of habitat are scarce, particularly for tropical areas. We chose a widespread butterfly from Mexico as the model species to
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Fragmentation is the third cause of the biodiversity declination. Population genetic studies using Lepidoptera as the model species in the context of loss of habitat are scarce, particularly for tropical areas. We chose a widespread butterfly from Mexico as the model species to explore how changes of habitat characteristics (undisturbed forest, anthropogenic disturbances, and coastal areas), and climatic conditions affect genetic diversity and population structure. The Nymphalidae Eunica tatila is a common species in the Yucatan Peninsula considered to be a bio-indicator of undisturbed tropical forest, with migratory potential and a possible sex-biased dispersal. We genotyped 323 individuals collected in eight undisturbed areas, using four Inter Simple Sequence Repeats primers. Results show a high genetic diversity and no population structure. Temperature and shrub density present a positive and significant relationship with polymorphism values. Furthermore, our results show the positive effect of surrounding forest habitat on genetic diversity, confirming that E. tatila is a bio-indicator of undisturbed tropical forest. We found evidence of sex-biased dispersal. This paper represents one of the few studies on population genetics of tropical butterfly in a fragmented landscape and is, therefore, an important step in understanding the impact of habitat fragmentation on the risk of a butterflies’ decline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Butterfly Conservation)
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Open AccessArticle Lack of Behavioral and Chemical Interference Competition for Refuges among Native Treefrogs and Invasive Cuban Treefrogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis)
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030078
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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The introduction of a novel competitor can dramatically alter community dynamics, and competition-mediated impacts often result from biological invasions. Interference competition can be especially problematic as a source of methodological bias for studies seeking to evaluate population and community-level impacts of invasive species.
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The introduction of a novel competitor can dramatically alter community dynamics, and competition-mediated impacts often result from biological invasions. Interference competition can be especially problematic as a source of methodological bias for studies seeking to evaluate population and community-level impacts of invasive species. We used polyvinyl chloride (PVC) refugia to conduct laboratory trials to determine whether behavioral or chemical cues of invasive Cuban treefrogs (Osteopilusseptentrionalis) interfere with artificial refuge use by conspecifics or treefrogs native to Florida (USA). We found no evidence of behavioral or chemical competition for refuges by Cuban treefrogs or native treefrogs. The inability of native treefrogs to avoid chemical cues from Cuban treefrogs, despite living sympatrically with the invasive treefrogs for 10–20 years, has important implications for predation risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conservation and Ecology of Amphibians)
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Open AccessArticle Review of the Hygrophilous Weevils in Israel (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea)
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030077
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
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Forty-one species in 20 genera of hygrophilous weevils belonging to Brentidae and Curculionidae, associated with inland aquatic habitats, have been recorded recently from Israel, eight of them for the first time. Thirty-four species are extant, while five species have probably become extinct recently,
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Forty-one species in 20 genera of hygrophilous weevils belonging to Brentidae and Curculionidae, associated with inland aquatic habitats, have been recorded recently from Israel, eight of them for the first time. Thirty-four species are extant, while five species have probably become extinct recently, and two are fossil species, known from Late Cretaceous deposits. Sixteen species are either aquatic or semi-aquatic, while the rest occur only or predominantly on riparian vegetation. Distributional and biological data for most of the species are provided. A key to all hygrophilous weevil taxa and illustrations for most of the species are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils)
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Open AccessArticle Morphological and Genetic Diversity of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) in the Karakoram Mountains of Northern Pakistan
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030076
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
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Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is a dioecious, wind-pollinated shrub growing in Eurasia including the Karakoram Mountains of Pakistan (Gilgit-Baltistan territory). Contrary to the situation in other countries, in Pakistan this species is heavily underutilized. Moreover, a striking diversity of berry colors
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Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is a dioecious, wind-pollinated shrub growing in Eurasia including the Karakoram Mountains of Pakistan (Gilgit-Baltistan territory). Contrary to the situation in other countries, in Pakistan this species is heavily underutilized. Moreover, a striking diversity of berry colors and shapes in Pakistan raises the question: which varieties might be more suitable for different national and international markets? Therefore, both morphological and genetic diversity of sea buckthorn were studied to characterize and evaluate the present variability, including hypothetically ongoing domestication processes. Overall, 300 sea buckthorn individuals were sampled from eight different populations and classified as wild and supposedly domesticated stands. Dendrometric, fruit and leaf morphometric traits were recorded. Twelve EST-SSRs (expressed sequence tags-simple sequence repeats) markers were used for genotyping. Significant differences in morphological traits were found across populations and between wild and village stands. A significant correlation was found between leaf area and altitude. Twenty-two color shades of berries and 20 dorsal and 15 ventral color shades of leaves were distinguished. Mean genetic diversity was comparatively high (He = 0.699). In total, three distinct genetic clusters were observed that corresponded to the populations’ geographic locations. Considering high allelic richness and genetic diversity, the Gilgit-Baltistan territory seems to be a promising source for selection of improved germplasm in sea buckthorn. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Kuschelysius, a New Alpine Genus of Eugnomine Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Curculioninae) from New Zealand
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030075
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 22 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
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Kuschelysius new genus is described for four species, K. hollowayae new species, K. durus new species, K. verbalis new species and K. nitens new species, which are found in alpine regions along the length of the South Island of New
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Kuschelysius new genus is described for four species, K. hollowayae new species, K. durus new species, K. verbalis new species and K. nitens new species, which are found in alpine regions along the length of the South Island of New Zealand. The genus most closely resembles members of the genus Eugnomus but is distinguished from them by the presence of a small pair of post-ocular tubercles and by having appressed scales on the dorsal surfaces. Some members of Kuschelysius appear to be flight-capable with well-developed hindwings, while others have reduced hindwings and are presumably flightless. Many specimens have been collected from the flowers of Dracophyllum traversii, Celmisia and other alpine plants, and the guts of examined specimens contained pollen. We hypothesise that the species of Kuschelysius are pollinators of the New Zealand alpine flora. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils)
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Open AccessArticle The Problematic Genus Sclerocardius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae: Ithyporini)
Diversity 2018, 10(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10030074
Received: 7 July 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
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The genus Sclerocardius is revised, using morphological characters. Four species are recognized, including S. africanus (Boheman), S. bohemani Schoenherr stat.rev., S. indicus Hartmann and S. kuscheli sp.nov. The species Sclerocardius madecassus Ferragu is synonymized with S. bohemani syn.nov., and Charactocnemus hintzi Hartmann is
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The genus Sclerocardius is revised, using morphological characters. Four species are recognized, including S. africanus (Boheman), S. bohemani Schoenherr stat.rev., S. indicus Hartmann and S. kuscheli sp.nov. The species Sclerocardius madecassus Ferragu is synonymized with S. bohemani syn.nov., and Charactocnemus hintzi Hartmann is treated as a junior synonym of S. bohemani, not S. africanus. A key to species is given. Lectotypes are designated for Heteramphus africanus Boheman and Sclerocardius africanus Schoenherr. A female elytro-tergal stridulatory system involving the modification of the wing-binding patch of the seventh tergite is reported for the Sclerocardiina for the first time and supports the inclusion of the subtribe within the Ithyporini. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils)
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